Currently, the largest optical telescope mirrors have a diameter of A) 1 m. B) 2 m. C) 5 m. D) 10 m. E) 100 m.

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1 If a material is highly opaque, then it reflects most light. absorbs most light. transmits most light. scatters most light. emits most light. When light reflects off an object, what is the relation between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection? angle of incidence = angle of reflection angle of incidence + angle of reflection = 90í angle of incidence + angle of reflection = 180í angle of incidence - angle of reflection = 90í It depends on the material that the light reflects off. Grass (that is healthy) looks green because it emits green light and absorbs other colors. it absorbs green light and emits other colors. it transmits green light and emits other colors. it reflects green light and absorbs other colors. Everything looks red through a red filter because the filter emits red light and absorbs other colors. the filter absorbs red light and emits other colors. the filter transmits red light and absorbs other colors. the filter reflects red light and transmits other colors.

2 Which of the following statements best describes the two principal advantages of telescopes over eyes? Telescopes can collect far more light with far better angular resolution. Telescopes can collect far more light with far greater magnification. Telescopes have much more magnification and better angular resolution. Telescopes collect more light and are unaffected by twinkling. Telescopes can see farther without image distortion and can record more accurate colors. Currently, the largest optical telescope mirrors have a diameter of 1 m. 2 m. 5 m. 10 m. 100 m. What do we mean by the diffraction limit of a telescope? It is the maximum size to which any telescope can be built. It describes the farthest distance to which the telescope can see. It describes the maximum exposure time for images captured with the telescope. It is the best angular resolution the telescope could achieve with perfect optical quality and in the absence of atmospheric distortion. What causes stars to twinkle? It is intrinsic to the stars their brightness varies as they expand and contract. variations in the absorption of the atmosphere variable absorption by interstellar gas along the line of sight to the star bending of light rays by turbulent layers in the atmosphere the inability of the human eye to see faint objects

3 What is the purpose of adaptive optics? to improve the angular resolution of telescopes in space to eliminate the distorting effects of atmospheric turbulence for telescopes on the ground to increase the collecting area of telescopes on the ground to increase the magnification of telescopes on the ground to allow several small telescopes to work together like a single larger telescope Which planet has the highest average surface temperature, and why? Mercury, because it is closest to the Sun Mercury, because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere Venus, because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere Mars, because of its red color Jupiter, because it is so big The most metal-rich terrestrial planet is Mercury. Venus. Earth. the Moon. Mars.

4 Which planet, other than Earth, has visible water ice on it? Mercury Venus the Moon Mars Jupiter Pluto is different from the outer planets in all of the following ways except which one? Its surface temperature is very cold. It is made mostly of ices. Its orbit is not very close to being circular. It has few moons. It doesn't have rings. Which of the following is furthest from the Sun? Pluto Neptune an asteroid in the asteroid belt a comet in the Kuiper belt a comet in the Oort cloud Why did the solar nebula heat up as it collapsed? Nuclear fusion occurring in the core of the protosun produced energy that heated the nebula. As the cloud shrank, its gravitational potential energy was converted to kinetic energy and then into thermal energy. Radiation from other nearby stars that had formed earlier heated the nebula. The shock wave from a nearby supernova heated the gas. Collisions among planetesimals generated friction and heat.

5 Why did the solar nebula flatten into a disk? The interstellar cloud from which the solar nebula formed was originally somewhat flat. The force of gravity pulled the material downward into a flat disk. As the nebula cooled, the gas and dust settled onto a disk. It flattened as a natural consequence of collisions between particles in the nebula, changing random motions into more orderly ones. Rank the five terrestrial worlds in order of size from smallest to largest: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars. Mercury, Moon, Venus, Earth, Mars. Moon, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars. Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth. Mercury, Moon, Mars, Earth, Venus. What is differentiation in planetary geology? the process by which gravity separates materials according to density the process by which different types of minerals form a conglomerate rock any process by which a planet's surface evolves differently from another planet's surface any process by which one part of a planet's surface evolves differently from another part of the same planet's surface any process by which a planet evolves differently from its moons

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