What do the Roman numerals mean and how do stars die

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "What do the Roman numerals mean and how do stars die"

Transcription

1 What do the Roman numerals mean and how do stars die

2 What is luminosity? Luminosity is the energy emitted from a star, or basically how bright it is compared to our Sun The higher the luminosity, the higher the absolute magnitude (brightness) a star is -8.1 star is more luminous than an 8.1 star

3 OBAFGKM O are the hottest stars and are blue M are the coolest stars blue But this doesn t tell us which star is bigger. You can have two O class stars, but how do you tell which one is biggest?

4 What else can help us? Next to the spectral class (OBAFGKM), there is a roman numeral. ROMAN NUMERALS I II III IV V

5 I-class stars Roman numeral (I) class stars are the biggest and are called supergiants Examples: Betelgeuse, Deneb, Eta Carinae, Rigel, Anatares, VY Canis Majoris (largest star ever recorded).

6

7 Where are they located?

8 III-class stars Roman numeral (III) class stars are smaller than supergiants, therefore they are called giants Examples: Arcturus, Mira, Aldebaran, Pollux, Polaris.

9

10 Where are they located?

11 V-class stars Roman numeral (V) class stars are smaller than giants and are called main sequence stars percent of all stars lie here Examples: Spica, Proxima Centauri, Sun, Procyon, Altair, Achenar, Bellatrix, Vega, Sirius, Regulus, Shaula..

12 Where are they located?

13 Check for understanding What are I-class stars called? What are III-class stars called? What are V-class stars called?

14 How stars are born 1.) There s a big cloud of gas and dust that accretes together. 2.) Temperature and pressure increase in order to support hydrogen fusion 3.) A star is born and burns either fast or slowly depending on size, temperature, luminosity

15 All stars die but in different ways A star s death is dependent mainly on it s mass (how much matter there is) The more mass you have, the larger you are 10Msun = 10 times the mass of the Sun 100Msun = 100 times mass of the Sun.5Msun = ½ the mass of the Sun.

16 What keeps the star alive? Nuclear fusion keeps the star in stellar equilibrium The pressure pushing down is equaled by the energy pushing out from the core of the star Once the fusion stops, the star starts to collapse inward due the overlying pressure

17 How low mass stars die Stars with less than 10 solar masses generally die a pretty boring death. Such stars include most of the entire main sequence (V-class stars)

18

19 After the collapse Once the star runs out of fuel it collapses in, but the heat and pressure increase rapidly which jumpstarts the fusion again The star continues to expand it s outer helium later getting bigger and bigger creating a red giant Giant = bigger so luminosity does.?.

20 Red Giant

21

22 What happens next? The temperature can t increase anymore to fuse the Carbon contained in the core The core is very small (size of earth), and doesn t have a huge grip on the outer layers The outer layers then get shed off into space by solar winds.

23 Planetary nebula Planetary nebula is a cloud of ejected space dust from the death of a red giant

24

25 .

26 At the center of the nebula At the center of the nebula is a white dwarf White meaning it is hot, dwarf meaning small Cooling core of carbon is left over

27 Cool for millions/trillions of years

28 Check for understanding Put the events in order for death of a low mass star: 1.) Star collapses 2.) White dwarf 3.) Low mass star 4.) Red Giant 5.) Planetary nebula 6.) Star expands due to increased temperature 7.) Hydrogen fusion stops

29 How high mass stars die Basically everything s the same as a normal main sequence star until the red giant stage Generally a higher mass means a bigger size If a star is bigger, it burns at a higher luminosity which increases the energy it emits

30 Red/Blue Supergiant The outward expansion becomes too much for the star because it can t fuse anymore It starts the collapse, but heat and pressure jumpstart fusion again! The star then expands to an insane size almost 700 times the size of the Sun.

31 Red/Blue Supergiant

32 What s different? During the red giant stage a star can t fuse Carbon, but a supergiant can because temperatures are higher than 600 million Kelvin Carbon fuses into Nitrogen, Oxygen, Sodium, Magnesium, all the way up to Iron, but that s it.

33

34 What happens next? The supergiant can t fuse iron, therefore fusion stops abruptly causing the star to collapse inward very rapidly

35 Electrons and protons Electrons are pressured so close together but they can t touch, therefore the combine with protons to form neutrons The pressure pushing outwards ceases to exist and gravity takes over, incredibly fast The star shrinks down to the size of a few kilometers composed entirely of neutrons.

36 (1) Supernova The gravitational collapse releases more 100 times more energy in one second as the Sun does in it s entire lifetime! The layers of gas are shot outwards as a supernova Hundreds of billions of degrees!

37 SUPERNOVA

38 Stars that could go supernova? Betelgeuse Antares Spica Eta Carinae VY Canis Majoris

39 Are supernova s necessary? When a star explodes it releases so much heat that heavier elements after iron can fuse into new elements Thus any element after 26 on the periodic table was conceived in the explosion of a supernova! No planets! No people! No YOU!

40 Neutron Stars After the star explodes, all that is left is a ball of neutrons which weighs A LOT One teaspoon of a neutron star weighs as much as Mount Everest!!! Rotating neutron stars are called pulsars which radiate high forms of radiation

41 (2) Black hole If the pressure is high enough, the neutron star continues to collapse further into a black hole Gravity is so intense that light can t even escape If you pass the event horizon, you will not return.

42 What happens in a black hole? In a black hole you can t escape Your body is stretched out and squeezed into a process called spaghettification! You will look like a squeezed out tube of toothpaste K_8R03jIZI&feature=related

43 Check for understanding 1.) Neutron Star 2.) High mass star 3.) Black hole 4.) Red Supergiant 5.) Supernova 6.) Red Giant

44 mze7vzmt1z8&feature=related Aji_1XwH2CA&feature=related qtumr-uyrzi&feature=related ocohw8ppkj4&feature=related

Protostars on the HR Diagram. Lifetimes of Stars. Lifetimes of Stars: Example. Pressure-Temperature Thermostat. Hydrostatic Equilibrium

Protostars on the HR Diagram. Lifetimes of Stars. Lifetimes of Stars: Example. Pressure-Temperature Thermostat. Hydrostatic Equilibrium Protostars on the HR Diagram Once a protostar is hot enough to start, it can blow away the surrounding gas Then it is visible: crosses the on the HR diagram The more the cloud, the it will form stars Lifetimes

More information

What is a star? A body of gases that gives off tremendous amounts of energy in the form of light & heat. What star is closest to the earth?

What is a star? A body of gases that gives off tremendous amounts of energy in the form of light & heat. What star is closest to the earth? Stars What is a star? A body of gases that gives off tremendous amounts of energy in the form of light & heat. What star is closest to the earth? Answer: The SUN It s about 150,000,000 km from earth =

More information

They developed a graph, called the H-R diagram, that relates the temperature of a star to its absolute magnitude.

They developed a graph, called the H-R diagram, that relates the temperature of a star to its absolute magnitude. Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell noticed that stars with higher temperatures and large sizes also have brighter absolute magnitudes the actual amount of light given off by a star. (also referred to

More information

Review: HR Diagram. Label A, B, C respectively

Review: HR Diagram. Label A, B, C respectively Stellar Evolution Review: HR Diagram Label A, B, C respectively A C B a) A: White dwarfs, B: Giants, C: Main sequence b) A: Main sequence, B: Giants, C: White dwarfs c) A: Main sequence, B: White Dwarfs,

More information

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 2 BASIC ASTRONOMY, AND STARS AND THEIR EVOLUTION Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics CSUSB COURSE WEBPAGE: http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen MOTIONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

More information

LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR

LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR First stage = Protostar PROTOSTAR Cloud of gas and dust many light-years across Gravity tries to pull the materials together Eventually, at the center of the ball of dust and gas,

More information

Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning & heating up. Eventually, it gets hot enough for fusion to take place, and a

Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning & heating up. Eventually, it gets hot enough for fusion to take place, and a Stars Star- large ball of gas held together by gravity that produces tremendous amounts of energy and shines Sun- our closest star Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning

More information

Protostars on the HR Diagram. Lifetimes of Stars. Lifetimes of Stars: Example. Pressure-Temperature Thermostat. Hydrostatic Equilibrium

Protostars on the HR Diagram. Lifetimes of Stars. Lifetimes of Stars: Example. Pressure-Temperature Thermostat. Hydrostatic Equilibrium Protostars on the HR Diagram Once a protostar is hot enough to start, it can blow away the surrounding gas Then it is visible: crosses the on the HR diagram The more the cloud, the it will form stars Lifetimes

More information

The Hertzsprung - Russell Diagram Laboratory 11

The Hertzsprung - Russell Diagram Laboratory 11 The Hertzsprung - Russell Diagram Laboratory 11 Objective: In this laboratory a random sample of stars will be used to create a HR Diagram. From the diagram it will be determined which category certain

More information

Stars. The composition of the star It s temperature It s lifespan

Stars. The composition of the star It s temperature It s lifespan Stars Stars A star is a ball of different elements in the form of gases The elements and gases give off electromagnetic radiation (from nuclear fusion) in the form of light Scientists study the light coming

More information

Ch. 29 The Stars Stellar Evolution

Ch. 29 The Stars Stellar Evolution Ch. 29 The Stars 29.3 Stellar Evolution Basic Structure of Stars Mass effects The more massive a star is, the greater the gravity pressing inward, and the hotter and more dense the star must be inside

More information

*Generally speaking, there are two main life cycles for stars. *The factor which determines the life cycle of the star is its mass.

*Generally speaking, there are two main life cycles for stars. *The factor which determines the life cycle of the star is its mass. Generally speaking, there are two main life cycles for stars. The factor which determines the life cycle of the star is its mass. 1 solar mass = size of our Sun Any star less than about three solar masses

More information

Chapters 12 and 13 Review: The Life Cycle and Death of Stars. How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/1/2009 Habbal Astro Lecture 27 1

Chapters 12 and 13 Review: The Life Cycle and Death of Stars. How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/1/2009 Habbal Astro Lecture 27 1 Chapters 12 and 13 Review: The Life Cycle and Death of Stars How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/1/2009 Habbal Astro 110-01 Lecture 27 1 Stars are born in molecular clouds Clouds are very cold:

More information

Life Cycle of a Star Worksheet

Life Cycle of a Star Worksheet Life Cycle of a Star Worksheet A STAR IS BORN STAGES COMMON TO ALL STARS All stars start as a nebula. A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust. Gravity can pull some of the gas and dust in a nebula together.

More information

StarTalk. Sanjay Yengul May "To know ourselves, we must know the stars."

StarTalk. Sanjay Yengul May To know ourselves, we must know the stars. StarTalk Sanjay Yengul May 2016 "To know ourselves, we must know the stars." Twinkle Twinkle How many stars are there? How big are these stars? Picture of night sky What are they made of? Why do they shine?

More information

18. Which graph best represents the relationship between the number of sunspots and the amount of magnetic activity in the Sun?

18. Which graph best represents the relationship between the number of sunspots and the amount of magnetic activity in the Sun? 1. Which star has a surface temperature most similar to the surface temperature of Alpha Centauri? A) Polaris B) Betelgeuse C) Procyon B D) Sirius 2. Giant stars have greater luminosity than our sun mainly

More information

NSB ideas on Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

NSB ideas on Hertzsprung-Russell diagram Contents Big ideas Not so big ideas about the sun Not so big ideas about Hertzsprung-Russell diagram Not so big ideas about white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes Questions on chapter 10, 11, 12,

More information

Abundance of Elements. Relative abundance of elements in the Solar System

Abundance of Elements. Relative abundance of elements in the Solar System Abundance of Elements Relative abundance of elements in the Solar System What is the origin of elements in the universe? Three elements formed in the first minutes after the big bang (hydrogen, helium

More information

Life and Death of a Star 2015

Life and Death of a Star 2015 Life and Death of a Star 2015 Name Date 1. In the main-sequence, the core is slowly shrinking because A. the mass of the star is slowly increasing B. hydrogen fusing to helium makes the core more dense

More information

the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes

the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes The spectral lines of stars tell us their approximate composition Remember last year in Physics?

More information

LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR

LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR First stage = Protostar PROTOSTAR Cloud of gas and dust many light-years across Gravity tries to pull the materials together Eventually, at the center of the ball of dust and gas,

More information

Stellar Evolution Notes

Stellar Evolution Notes Name: Block: Stellar Evolution Notes Stars mature, grow old and die. The more massive a star is, the shorter its life will be. Our Sun will live about 10 billion years. It is already 5 billion years old,

More information

λ = 650 nm = c = m s 1 f =? c = fλ f = c λ = ( m s 1 ) ( m) = = Hz T = 1 f 4.

λ = 650 nm = c = m s 1 f =? c = fλ f = c λ = ( m s 1 ) ( m) = = Hz T = 1 f 4. Chapter 13 Stars Section 13.1 Astronomical measurements Worked example: Try yourself 13.1.1 CALCULATING THE FREQUENCY AND PERIOD OF LIGHT The speed of light in a vacuum is approximately 3.0 10 8 m s 1.

More information

The Life Cycle of Stars. : Is the current theory of how our Solar System formed.

The Life Cycle of Stars. : Is the current theory of how our Solar System formed. Life Cycle of a Star Video (5 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pm9cqdlqi0a The Life Cycle of Stars Solar Nebula Theory : Is the current theory of how our Solar System formed. This theory states that

More information

GALAXIES AND STARS. 2. Which star has a higher luminosity and a lower temperature than the Sun? A Rigel B Barnard s Star C Alpha Centauri D Aldebaran

GALAXIES AND STARS. 2. Which star has a higher luminosity and a lower temperature than the Sun? A Rigel B Barnard s Star C Alpha Centauri D Aldebaran GALAXIES AND STARS 1. Compared with our Sun, the star Betelgeuse is A smaller, hotter, and less luminous B smaller, cooler, and more luminous C larger, hotter, and less luminous D larger, cooler, and more

More information

Life and Death of a Star. Chapters 20 and 21

Life and Death of a Star. Chapters 20 and 21 Life and Death of a Star Chapters 20 and 21 90 % of a stars life Most stars spend most of their lives on the main sequence. A star like the Sun, for example, after spending a few tens of millions of years

More information

The Formation of Stars

The Formation of Stars The Formation of Stars A World of Dust The space between the stars is not completely empty, but filled with very dilute gas and dust, producing some of the most beautiful objects in the sky. We are interested

More information

Life Cycle of a Star - Activities

Life Cycle of a Star - Activities Name: Class Period: Life Cycle of a Star - Activities A STAR IS BORN STAGES COMMON TO ALL STARS All stars start as a nebula. A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust. Gravity can pull some of the gas

More information

A Star Becomes a Star

A Star Becomes a Star A Star Becomes a Star October 28, 2002 1) Stellar lifetime 2) Red Giant 3) White Dwarf 4) Supernova 5) More massive stars Review Solar winds/sunspots Gases and Dust Molecular clouds Protostars/Birth of

More information

Instructions. Students will underline the portions of the PowerPoint that are underlined.

Instructions. Students will underline the portions of the PowerPoint that are underlined. STARS Instructions Students will underline the portions of the PowerPoint that are underlined. Nuclear Furnace 1. A star is like a gigantic nuclear furnace. 2. The nuclear reactions inside convert hydrogen

More information

Reading and Announcements. Read Chapter 14.1, 14.2 Homework #6 due Tuesday, March 26 Exam #2, Thursday, March 28

Reading and Announcements. Read Chapter 14.1, 14.2 Homework #6 due Tuesday, March 26 Exam #2, Thursday, March 28 Reading and Announcements Read Chapter 14.1, 14.2 Homework #6 due Tuesday, March 26 Exam #2, Thursday, March 28 The life of the Sun The Sun started as a cloud of gas. Gravity caused the cloud to collapse.

More information

Low mass stars. Sequence Star Giant. Red. Planetary Nebula. White Dwarf. Interstellar Cloud. White Dwarf. Interstellar Cloud. Planetary Nebula.

Low mass stars. Sequence Star Giant. Red. Planetary Nebula. White Dwarf. Interstellar Cloud. White Dwarf. Interstellar Cloud. Planetary Nebula. Low mass stars Interstellar Cloud Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf Interstellar Cloud Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf Low mass stars Interstellar Cloud

More information

Appendix A: Stellar Life Cycle Stages

Appendix A: Stellar Life Cycle Stages Appendix A: Stellar Life Cycle Stages STELLAR NEBULA A STELLAR NEBULA is the birthplace of stars. These giant gas clouds in space are mostly hydrogen gas. Gravity clumps the hydrogen atoms together. Once

More information

The Life Cycles of Stars. Modified from Information provided by: Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC

The Life Cycles of Stars. Modified from Information provided by: Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC The Life Cycles of Stars Modified from Information provided by: Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star... What do you see? How I Wonder What You Are... Stars have: Different Colors -

More information

Astronomy Ch. 20 Stellar Evolution. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Astronomy Ch. 20 Stellar Evolution. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch. 20 Stellar Evolution MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A star (no matter what its mass) spends

More information

Astronomy Ch. 20 Stellar Evolution. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Astronomy Ch. 20 Stellar Evolution. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch. 20 Stellar Evolution MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A star (no matter what its mass) spends

More information

Daily Science 03/30/2017

Daily Science 03/30/2017 Daily Science 03/30/2017 The atmospheres of different planets contain different gases. Which planet is most likely Earth? a. planet 1 b. planet 2 c. planet 3 d. planet 4 KeslerScience.com Can you name

More information

Astronomy 210. Outline. Stellar Properties. The Mosquito Dilemma. Solar Observing & HW9 due April 15 th Stardial 2 is available.

Astronomy 210. Outline. Stellar Properties. The Mosquito Dilemma. Solar Observing & HW9 due April 15 th Stardial 2 is available. Astronomy 210 Outline This Class (Lecture 31): Stars: Spectra and the H-R Diagram Next Class: Life and Death of the Sun Solar Observing & HW9 due April 15 th Stardial 2 is available. The Mosquito dilemma

More information

1. What is the primary difference between the evolution of a low-mass star and that of a high-mass star?

1. What is the primary difference between the evolution of a low-mass star and that of a high-mass star? FYI: The Lives of Stars E3:R6b 1. Read FYI: The Lives of Stars As you read use the spaces below to write down any information you find especially interesting. Also define the bold terms used in the text.

More information

Galaxies and Stars. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The reaction below represents an energy-producing process.

Galaxies and Stars. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The reaction below represents an energy-producing process. Galaxies and Stars 1. To an observer on Earth, the Sun appears brighter than the star Rigel because the Sun is A) hotter than Rigel B) more luminous than Rigel C) closer than Rigel D) larger than Rigel

More information

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Beyond Our Solar System Earth Science, 13e Chapter 24 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College Properties of stars Distance Distances to the stars are very

More information

Logistics. Test 3 will be 4/24 MRS 2 due Thursday 4/17

Logistics. Test 3 will be 4/24 MRS 2 due Thursday 4/17 Stellar Evolution Logistics Test 3 will be 4/24 MRS 2 due Thursday 4/17 GTA Award The Graduate Teaching Assistant Excellence Award is an internal initiative which is intended to promote, recognize, and

More information

Phys 100 Astronomy (Dr. Ilias Fernini) Review Questions for Chapter 9

Phys 100 Astronomy (Dr. Ilias Fernini) Review Questions for Chapter 9 Phys 0 Astronomy (Dr. Ilias Fernini) Review Questions for Chapter 9 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. We know that giant stars are larger in diameter than the sun because * a. they are more luminous but have about the

More information

Life of a Star. Pillars of Creation

Life of a Star. Pillars of Creation Life of a Star Life of a Star Pillars of Creation Life of a Star Pillars of Creation Stars form from massive clouds of gas that primarily consist of hydrogen. Life of a Star Gravity causes gas to contract

More information

Ch. 16 & 17: Stellar Evolution and Death

Ch. 16 & 17: Stellar Evolution and Death Ch. 16 & 17: Stellar Evolution and Death Stars have lives: born, evolve, die Mass determines stellar evolution: Really Low Mass (0.08 to 0.4 M sun ) Low Mass: (0.4 to 4 M sun ) Long lives High Mass (4

More information

Stars and Galaxies 1

Stars and Galaxies 1 Stars and Galaxies 1 Characteristics of Stars 2 Star - body of gases that gives off great amounts of radiant energy as light and heat 3 Most stars look white but are actually different colors Antares -

More information

The Life Cycles of Stars. Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC

The Life Cycles of Stars. Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC STARS I. Stellar Evolution The Life Cycles of Stars Dr. Jim Lochner, NASA/GSFC A. Nebula- cloud of gas and dust B. Protostar- spinning disk C. Main Sequence 1. When the protostar reaches 15 million C,

More information

CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES

CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES Characteristics of the Sun 1. The Sun is located about 150 million kilometres from the Earth. 2. The Sun is made up of hot gases, mostly hydrogen and helium. 3. The size of

More information

Review Questions for the new topics that will be on the Final Exam

Review Questions for the new topics that will be on the Final Exam Review Questions for the new topics that will be on the Final Exam Be sure to review the lecture-tutorials and the material we covered on the first three exams. How does speed differ from velocity? Give

More information

Post Activity/ Homework Questions: 1. Before a star forms A. Where do you think the gas and dust originally came from?

Post Activity/ Homework Questions: 1. Before a star forms A. Where do you think the gas and dust originally came from? Critical Thinking Questions: (work on these with a partner) 1. During the formation of a Red Giant Star, the core of a star pushes the outer shell back only enough to make the star larger. However, during

More information

10/26/ Star Birth. Chapter 13: Star Stuff. How do stars form? Star-Forming Clouds. Mass of a Star-Forming Cloud. Gravity Versus Pressure

10/26/ Star Birth. Chapter 13: Star Stuff. How do stars form? Star-Forming Clouds. Mass of a Star-Forming Cloud. Gravity Versus Pressure 10/26/16 Lecture Outline 13.1 Star Birth Chapter 13: Star Stuff How do stars form? Our goals for learning: How do stars form? How massive are newborn stars? Star-Forming Clouds Stars form in dark clouds

More information

days to rotate in its own axis km in diameter ( 109 diameter of the Earth ) and kg in mass ( mass of the Earth)

days to rotate in its own axis km in diameter ( 109 diameter of the Earth ) and kg in mass ( mass of the Earth) The Sun - It is located at the centre of our solar system with all planets and objects (comets and asteroids) revolving around it Page 1 of 6 - It s gravitational pull keeps the planets and other objects

More information

Gravity simplest. fusion

Gravity simplest. fusion Gravity simplest fusion The life of a star has a complex relationship with gravity: 1. Gravity is what brings the original dust together to make a star 2. Gravity wants to crush the star Gravity pulls

More information

Lecture 21 Formation of Stars November 15, 2017

Lecture 21 Formation of Stars November 15, 2017 Lecture 21 Formation of Stars November 15, 2017 1 2 Birth of Stars Stars originally condense out of a COLD, interstellar cloud composed of H and He + trace elements. cloud breaks into clumps (gravity)

More information

Birth & Death of Stars

Birth & Death of Stars Birth & Death of Stars Objectives How are stars formed How do they die How do we measure this The Interstellar Medium (ISM) Vast clouds of gas & dust lie between stars Diffuse hydrogen clouds: dozens of

More information

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the universe; its nature, origin and evolution. General Relativity is the mathematical basis of cosmology from which

More information

Astronomy 104: Second Exam

Astronomy 104: Second Exam Astronomy 104: Second Exam Stephen Lepp October 29, 2014 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. Short Answer A The Sun is powered by converting hydrogen to what?

More information

Classifying Stars. Scientists classify stars by: 1. Temperature 2. Brightness

Classifying Stars. Scientists classify stars by: 1. Temperature 2. Brightness STARS Classifying Stars Scientists classify stars by: 1. Temperature 2. Brightness Star Temperature 1. The color of a star tells us about its temperature. Blue stars are the hottest, 7500 C- 40,000 C.

More information

Last time: looked at proton-proton chain to convert Hydrogen into Helium, releases energy.

Last time: looked at proton-proton chain to convert Hydrogen into Helium, releases energy. Last time: looked at proton-proton chain to convert Hydrogen into Helium, releases energy. Last time: looked at proton-proton chain to convert Hydrogen into Helium, releases energy. Fusion rate ~ Temperature

More information

Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs

Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs Life of a Low-Mass Star AST 101 Introduction to Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs REVIEW END STATE: PLANETARY NEBULA + WHITE DWARF WHAS IS A WHITE DWARF? Exposed core of a low-mass

More information

The Universe. is space and everything in it.

The Universe. is space and everything in it. The Universe is space and everything in it. Galaxies A galaxy is a supercluster of stars, gas, and dust that are held together by gravity. There are three main types of galaxies: Irregular Elliptical Spiral

More information

Stellar Evolution and the HertzsprungRussell Diagram 7/14/09. Astronomy 101

Stellar Evolution and the HertzsprungRussell Diagram 7/14/09. Astronomy 101 Stellar Evolution and the HertzsprungRussell Diagram 7/14/09 Astronomy 101 Astronomy Picture of the Day Astronomy 101 Outline for Today Astronomy Picture of the Day News Articles Business Return Lab 5

More information

Stars. A star is a ball of burning gas. Mr. Fetch s Earth Science Classroom

Stars. A star is a ball of burning gas. Mr. Fetch s Earth Science Classroom Stars A star is a ball of burning gas. 1 Stars: The Hertzsrung-Russell diagram (HR) If we were to graph all of the stars in the sky, we would find a graph like this one. Comparing stars temperature to

More information

High Mass Stars. Dr Ken Rice. Discovering Astronomy G

High Mass Stars. Dr Ken Rice. Discovering Astronomy G High Mass Stars Dr Ken Rice High mass star formation High mass star formation is controversial! May form in the same way as low-mass stars Gravitational collapse in molecular clouds. May form via competitive

More information

Stars and Galaxies. Evolution of Stars

Stars and Galaxies. Evolution of Stars chapter 13 3 Stars and Galaxies section 3 Evolution of Stars Before You Read What makes one star different from another? Do you think the Sun is the same as other stars? Write your ideas on the lines below.

More information

Chapter 12 Review. 2) About 90% of the star's total life is spent on the main sequence. 2)

Chapter 12 Review. 2) About 90% of the star's total life is spent on the main sequence. 2) Chapter 12 Review TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 1) As a main-sequence star, the Sun's hydrogen supply should last about 10 billion years from the zero-age

More information

Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science

Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Stars & Galaxies Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Chapter 27, Section 1 27.1 Characteristics of Stars How do astronomers determine the composition and surface temperature of a star? Composition & Temperature

More information

Chapter 14: The Bizarre Stellar Graveyard. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 14: The Bizarre Stellar Graveyard. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14: The Bizarre Stellar Graveyard Assignments 2 nd Mid-term to be held Friday Nov. 3 same basic format as MT1 40 mult. choice= 80 pts. 4 short answer = 20 pts. Sample problems on web page Origin

More information

How Do Stars Appear from Earth?

How Do Stars Appear from Earth? How Do Stars Appear from Earth? Magnitude: the brightness a star appears to have from Earth Apparent Magnitude depends on 2 things: (actual intrinsic brightness) The color of a star is related to its temperature:

More information

Chapter 28 Stars and Their Characteristics

Chapter 28 Stars and Their Characteristics Chapter 28 Stars and Their Characteristics Origin of the Universe Big Bang Theory about 10-20 bya all matter in the universe existed in a hot dense state about the size of an atom (tiny). That matter sort

More information

SOLAR SYSTEM, STABILITY OF ORBITAL MOTIONS, SATELLITES

SOLAR SYSTEM, STABILITY OF ORBITAL MOTIONS, SATELLITES SOLAR SYSTEM, STABILITY OF ORBITAL MOTIONS, SATELLITES Q1. The figure below shows what scientists over 1000 years ago thought the solar system was like. Give one way that the historical model of the solar

More information

Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro Lecture 25 1

Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro Lecture 25 1 Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro 110-01 Lecture 25 1 12.3 Life as a High-Mass Star Learning Goals What are the life stages of a

More information

Chapter 17 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Star Stuff Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 17 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Star Stuff Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 17 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Star Stuff Star Stuff 17.1 Lives in the Balance Our goals for learning: How does a star's mass affect nuclear fusion? How does a star's mass affect

More information

CONTENT EXPECTATIONS

CONTENT EXPECTATIONS THE SUN & THE STARS CONTENT EXPECTATIONS STARS What are stars? Are they all the same? What makes them different? What is our nearest star? THE SUN Why is it important? provides heat and light that we need

More information

Low-mass Stellar Evolution

Low-mass Stellar Evolution Low-mass Stellar Evolution The lives of low-mass stars And the lives of massive stars The Structure of the Sun Let s review: The Sun is held together by? The inward force is balanced by? Thinking about

More information

Birth and Death of Stars. Birth of Stars. Gas and Dust Clouds. Astronomy 110 Class 11

Birth and Death of Stars. Birth of Stars. Gas and Dust Clouds. Astronomy 110 Class 11 Birth and Death of Stars Astronomy 110 Class 11 Birth of Stars Start in cloud of gas and dust Contraction and Fragmentation Gravitational collapse and heating Protostar and disk Main Sequence Star Gas

More information

High Mass Stars and then Stellar Graveyard 7/16/09. Astronomy 101

High Mass Stars and then Stellar Graveyard 7/16/09. Astronomy 101 High Mass Stars and then Stellar Graveyard 7/16/09 Astronomy 101 Astronomy Picture of the Day Astronomy 101 Something Cool Betelgeuse Astronomy 101 Outline for Today Astronomy Picture of the Day Something

More information

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 25 Beyond Our Solar System 25.1 Properties of Stars Characteristics of Stars A constellation is an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical

More information

Position 1 Position 2 6 after position 1 Distance between positions 1 and 2 is the Bigger = bigger parallax (Ɵ)

Position 1 Position 2 6 after position 1 Distance between positions 1 and 2 is the Bigger = bigger parallax (Ɵ) STARS CHAPTER 10.1 the solar neighborhood The distances to the nearest stars can be measured using Parallax => the shift of an object relative to some distant background as the observer s point of view

More information

The Life and Death of Stars

The Life and Death of Stars The Life and Death of Stars What is a Star? A star is a sphere of plasma gas that fuses atomic nuclei in its core and so emits light The name star can also be tagged onto a body that is somewhere on the

More information

Introduction to Astronomy. Lecture 8: The Death of Stars White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

Introduction to Astronomy. Lecture 8: The Death of Stars White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes Introduction to Astronomy Lecture 8: The Death of Stars White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes Continued from Last Week Lecture 7 Observing Stars Clusters of stars Some clouds start breaking into

More information

Properties of Stars. Characteristics of Stars

Properties of Stars. Characteristics of Stars Properties of Stars Characteristics of Stars A constellation is an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical characters. The sky contains 88 constellations. Star Color and Temperature Color

More information

Chapter 13 Notes The Deaths of Stars Astronomy Name: Date:

Chapter 13 Notes The Deaths of Stars Astronomy Name: Date: Chapter 13 Notes The Deaths of Stars Astronomy Name: Date: I. The End of a Star s Life When all the fuel in a star is used up, will win over pressure and the star will die nuclear fuel; gravity High-mass

More information

Astronomy 104: Stellar Astronomy

Astronomy 104: Stellar Astronomy Astronomy 104: Stellar Astronomy Lecture 18: A High-Mass Star s Life and Death (a.k.a. - Things that go BOOM in the night) Spring Semester 2013 Dr. Matt Craig 1 1 Reading Today: Chapter 12.1 (Life and

More information

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 PROPERTIES OF STARS Distance Measuring a star's distance can be very difficult Stellar parallax Used for measuring distance to a star Apparent shift in a star's position

More information

Stars and their properties: (Chapters 11 and 12)

Stars and their properties: (Chapters 11 and 12) Stars and their properties: (Chapters 11 and 12) To classify stars we determine the following properties for stars: 1. Distance : Needed to determine how much energy stars produce and radiate away by using

More information

Recall what you know about the Big Bang.

Recall what you know about the Big Bang. What is this? Recall what you know about the Big Bang. Most of the normal matter in the universe is made of what elements? Where do we find most of this normal matter? Interstellar medium (ISM) The universe

More information

To infinity, and beyond!

To infinity, and beyond! stars The night sky is filled with stars that shine at different levels of brightness. The brightness of the stars we observe can be related to the size of the star or its distance from Earth. In order

More information

Notepack 23 12/19/2014 Stellar Evolution: Aim: The Life Cycle of a Star

Notepack 23 12/19/2014 Stellar Evolution: Aim: The Life Cycle of a Star Notepack 23 12/19/2014 Stellar Evolution: Aim: The Life Cycle of a Star Do Now: Where do stars come from? What are they made of? What is a Star? What is a Star? A star is a massive ball of gas that has

More information

Missing words: mass hydrogen burning electrostatic repulsion. gravitationally hydrogen temperature protostar

Missing words: mass hydrogen burning electrostatic repulsion. gravitationally hydrogen temperature protostar Instructions Fill in the blanks of each frame using the list of missing words given. Cut out each frame and arrange them on your page in order, then stick them down. The first two frames are already in

More information

Why Do Stars Leave the Main Sequence? Running out of fuel

Why Do Stars Leave the Main Sequence? Running out of fuel Star Deaths Why Do Stars Leave the Main Sequence? Running out of fuel Observing Stellar Evolution by studying Globular Cluster HR diagrams Plot stars in globular clusters in Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

More information

ASTRONOMY 1 EXAM 3 a Name

ASTRONOMY 1 EXAM 3 a Name ASTRONOMY 1 EXAM 3 a Name Identify Terms - Matching (20 @ 1 point each = 20 pts.) Multiple Choice (25 @ 2 points each = 50 pts.) Essays (choose 3 of 4 @ 10 points each = 30 pt 1.Luminosity D 8.White dwarf

More information

Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27, Section 1. Composition & Temperature. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Characteristics of Stars

Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27, Section 1. Composition & Temperature. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Characteristics of Stars Stars & Galaxies Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Chapter 27, Section 1 27.1 Characteristics of Stars Composition & Temperature Scientists use the following tools to study stars Telescope Observation Spectral

More information

Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 4

Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 4 Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 4 Chapter 15 1. Emission nebulas emit light because a) they absorb high energy radiation (mostly UV) from nearby bright hot stars and re-emit it in visible wavelengths.

More information

Explain how the sun converts matter into energy in its core. Describe the three layers of the sun s atmosphere.

Explain how the sun converts matter into energy in its core. Describe the three layers of the sun s atmosphere. Chapter 29 and 30 Explain how the sun converts matter into energy in its core. Describe the three layers of the sun s atmosphere. Explain how sunspots are related to powerful magnetic fields on the sun.

More information

Age of M13: 14 billion years. Mass of stars leaving the main-sequence ~0.8 solar masses

Age of M13: 14 billion years. Mass of stars leaving the main-sequence ~0.8 solar masses Age of M13: 14 billion years. Mass of stars leaving the main-sequence ~0.8 solar masses Helium coreburning stars Giants Subgiants Main Sequence Here is a way to think about it. Outside of star Plenty of

More information

Astro 21 first lecture. stars are born but also helps us study how. Density increases in the center of the star. The core does change from hydrogen to

Astro 21 first lecture. stars are born but also helps us study how. Density increases in the center of the star. The core does change from hydrogen to Astro 21 first lecture The H-R H R Diagram helps us study how stars are born but also helps us study how they die. Stars spend most of their lives as main sequence stars. The core does change from hydrogen

More information

2002 Exploratorium,

2002 Exploratorium, Life Cycles Of The Stars This activity helps students conceptualize the time scales involved in astronomical processes such as the life cycles of the stars. Materials Needed Star histories (see attached

More information

25.2 Stellar Evolution. By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star.

25.2 Stellar Evolution. By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star. 25.2 Stellar Evolution By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star. Star Birth The birthplaces of stars are dark, cool interstellar clouds,

More information

Lec 9: Stellar Evolution and DeathBirth and. Why do stars leave main sequence? What conditions are required for elements. Text

Lec 9: Stellar Evolution and DeathBirth and. Why do stars leave main sequence? What conditions are required for elements. Text 1 Astr 102 Lec 9: Stellar Evolution and DeathBirth and Evolution Why do stars leave main sequence? What conditions are required for elements Text besides Hydrogen to fuse, and why? How do stars die: white

More information