Daily Science 03/30/2017

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1 Daily Science 03/30/2017 The atmospheres of different planets contain different gases. Which planet is most likely Earth? a. planet 1 b. planet 2 c. planet 3 d. planet 4 KeslerScience.com

2 Can you name life cycles they you are familiar with?

3 What is the life cycle of a human?

4 What would a star s life cycle look like?

5 Essential Questions: 1. What is the life cycle of a star? 2. How does the mass of a star predict the sequence of events in the life cycle of a star?

6 Life Cycle of a Star

7 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Life cycle of a star Infant The sequence of changes that occur in a star as it ages. Death Youth Old Age Middle Age

8 1. Briefly describe the process of nuclear fusion. 2. How does mass play a role in the life cycle of a star? 3. What is a white dwarf? KeslerScience.com

9

10 Quick Action INB Templates Life Cycle of a Star 1. Cut out the Life Cycle of a Star template. 2. Glue it into your journal.

11 Daily Science 04/03/2107 Jerry makes a drawing of the planets in the solar system. He puts the planets in order and uses the same scale for the size of each planet. When he shows his drawing to Leila, she tells him he has made a mistake. Which mistake has Jerry made? a. Saturn should be closer to the Sun than Jupiter. b. Uranus and Neptune should be more similar in size to the inner four planets. c. The rocky planets should not be quite so tiny compared with the gaseous planets. d. Jupiter should be drawn larger than Saturn.

12 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Life cycle of a star Infant The sequence of changes that occur in a star as it ages. Death Youth Old Age Middle Age

13

14 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Where do stars come from? Interstellar medium A thinly spread area of gas and dust The gas is mostly hydrogen (H 2 ) The dust is mostly carbon (C) and silicon (Si)

15 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Nebula Interstellar medium begins to collect into big clouds. The birthplace of stars, as stars are made up of gas and dust. Star Nursery

16 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Protostar Inside the nebula are regions of greater and less gravity causing the gas and dust to pull together. As more atoms gather, their gravitational attraction increases. Not a very stable phase because many reactions are occurring within the protostar.

17 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Equilibrium A battle between gravity and gas pressure Reactions within life cycle phases where gravity and gas pressure are constantly changing. Equilibrium is reached when both are equal.

18 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary A Star is Born when a critical temperature in the core of the protostar is reached and nuclear fusion begins. Hydrogen (H 2 ) begins fusing into helium (He).

19 What are the parts of an atom?

20 What are the parts of an atom?

21 Each hydrogen atom has one proton

22 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Star An extremely hot ball of gas, with hydrogen (H 2 ) fusing into helium(he)at its core. Spend most of their lives fusing hydrogen When the hydrogen is used up, stars fuse helium to carbon They are always trying to achieve equilibrium

23 Assess your understanding What is a nebula?

24 Assess your understanding What is a nebula? A large cloud of dust and gas

25 Assess your understanding What causes the gas and dust in a nebula to contract?

26 Assess your understanding What causes the gas and dust in a nebula to contract? GRAVITY

27 Assess your understanding What is the major difference between a nebula and a star?

28 Assess your understanding What is the major difference between a nebula and a star? The amount of space they take up The tightly packed gas in a star undergoes fusion which produces energy, while in a nebula does not.

29 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Main Sequence Stars live out most of their lives in this phase. Stars have achieved nuclear fusion. Stars stays at equilibrium. Stars radiate (shine) energy into space.

30 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Low Mass Stars in Main Sequence The mass of a star determines what happens to it after living most of its life in Main Sequence.

31 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Low mass stars Half as massive as the Sun Can live 80 to 100 billion years in Main Sequence. Example - Red Dwarf Our Sun A medium sized, low mass star Spends about 10 billion years in Main Sequence. A Main Sequence star for about 4.57 billion years.

32 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Red Giant Phase after Main Sequence Low and high mass Main Sequence stars progress to Red Giants. Outer gas layers of the star expand As the star uses all its fuel its core shrinks. Red in color High luminosity

33 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Planetary nebula Occurs at the end of a low mass Red Giant s life. The outer layers of the star are expelled. The core is very hot and luminous. The outer shell appears as bright colored gas clouds.

34 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary White Dwarf Forms when a low mass star runs out of fuel. The core of a planetary nebula Final stage in the cycle for low mass stars Incredibly dense Gravity is 350,000 times that of gravity on Earth. Will change colors as it cools

35 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Black Dwarf End product of a White Dwarf The last stage of stellar evolution for low mass stars No longer emits heat or light No longer a star

36 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary

37 Quick Action Life Cycle of a Star mass mass

38 Quick Action Life Cycle of a Star Low Mass High Mass Main Sequence SUN Red Giant Star-Forming Nebula Planetary Nebula White Dwarf

39 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary

40 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary High Mass Main Sequence The mass of a star determines what happens to it after living most of its life in Main Sequence.

41 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary High Mass stars - 10 times as massive as our Sun Remains in Main Sequence for about 20 million years.

42 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Red Super Giants The same thing as a giant star only much bigger. As a star gets older it begins to run out of fuel and expand.

43 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Supernova Last stage of a massive star s life Occurs as the star runs out of nuclear fuel, some of its mass flows into its core. Core becomes so heavy that it cannot withstand its own gravitational force. The core collapses and results in a giant explosion.

44 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Neutron Star The core left behind in a supernova Very dense - 1Tsp. = 1billion tons Gravity is 2 billion times that of the gravity on Earth. Gravity presses the material in on itself so tightly that protons and electrons combine to make neutrons, yielding the name "neutron star.

45 Life Cycle of a Star Vocabulary Black Hole Forms when very massive stars collapse at the end of their life cycle A large area in space with a very strong gravitational pull Nothing can escape, even light.

46 Quick Action Life Cycle of a Star Low Mass High Mass Main Sequence SUN Massive Star Red Super Giant Red Giant Star-Forming Nebula Neutron Star Supernova Planetary Nebula White Dwarf Black Hole

47 Check for Understanding Can you 1. Describe why a star goes through a cycle? 2. Predict what stages a low mass star will pass through in its lifetime? 3. Label a blank Life Cycle of a Star diagram?

48 Exit ticket Stars of different sizes have different life cycles. What are the next two stages in the life cycle of a star similar to Earth s Sun? a. white dwarf and then red dwarf b. red giant and then nova c. nova and then white dwarf d. red giant and then white dwarf

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