# Stars and Galaxies. Evolution of Stars

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 chapter 13 3 Stars and Galaxies section 3 Evolution of Stars Before You Read What makes one star different from another? Do you think the Sun is the same as other stars? Write your ideas on the lines below. What You ll Learn how stars are sorted into groups ways the Sun is the same as other types of stars ways the Sun is different from other types of stars how stars develop Read to Learn Classifying Stars When you look at the night sky, all stars might look about the same. However, they re very different. They vary in age and size. They vary in temperature and brightness as well. These features led scientists to organize stars into categories, or groups. How is a star s temperature related to its brightness? In the early 1900s, two scientists named Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell noticed that hotter stars are usually brighter. In other words, stars with higher temperatures have brighter absolute magnitudes. How do scientists show this relationship? Hertzsprung and Russell developed a graph to show this relationship. You can see this graph on the next page. The temperatures are at the bottom. Absolute magnitude goes up the left side. A graph that shows this relationship between a star s temperature and its brightness is called a Hertzsprung- Russell diagram, or an H-R diagram. Make Flash Cards to help you record new vocabulary words. Write the word on one side of the flash card and a brief definition on the other side. C Study Coach Create a Foldable as shown below about evolution of stars. Label the three columns Star Classification, Star Temperature and Color, and How a Star Evolves. Star Classification Star Temp. and Color How a Star Evolves Reading Essentials 197

2 Picture This 1. Complete the Diagram Color hot, bright stars blue. Color cool, dim stars red. Color inbetween stars yellow. Read to find out how to color dwarfs and giants. Increasing brightness White dwarfs Main sequence Supergiants Sun Giants 20, ,000 10,000 6,000 3,000 Spectral Temperature (K) class O B A F G K M 2. Identify What are small stars that are hot but not bright called? What is the main sequence? The H-R diagram above shows the connection between a star s temperature and its brightness. As you can see, most stars seem to fit into a band that runs from the upper left to the lower right. This band is called the main sequence. Hot, blue, bright stars begin at 20,000 K and continue to about 15,000 K. Cool, red, dim stars range from 5,000 K to 3,000 K. Yellow stars, like the Sun, are in between. What are dwarfs? About 90 percent of all stars are main sequence stars. Most of these are small, red stars found in the lower right of the H-R diagram. Some of the stars that are not in the main sequence are hot, but they are not bright. These small stars are called white dwarfs, although they are usually blue in color. White dwarfs are found on the lower left of the H-R diagram. What are giants? Other stars are very bright, but they are not hot. These large stars are called giants or red giants, because they are usually red in color. They re found on the upper right of the H-R diagram. The largest giants are called supergiants. These stars can be hundreds of times bigger than the Sun and thousands of times brighter. 198 Stars and Galaxies

3 How do stars shine? For centuries, people have wondered what stars were made of and what made them shine. Over time, people realized the Sun had been shining for billions of years. What material could burn for so long? What process creates the light that reaches Earth? In the 1930s, scientists made an important discovery about atoms. Scientists observed that the nuclei, or centers, of atoms reacted with one another. They hypothesized that the center of the Sun was hot enough to cause hydrogen atoms to fuse, or link together, and form another kind of atom helium atoms. This reaction, called fusion, releases huge amounts of energy. Much of this energy is released as different kinds of light. A very small part of this light comes to Earth. Evolution of Stars The H-R diagram explained a lot about stars. However, scientists wondered why some stars didn t fit in the main sequence. Scientists also wondered what happened when a star used up its hydrogen fuel. Now, there are theories about how stars evolve, or change over time. These theories also explain what makes stars different from one another, and what happens when a star dies. When a star uses up its hydrogen, that star is no longer in the main sequence. This can take less than 1 million years for the brightest stars. It can take billions of years for the dimmest stars. The Sun has a main sequence life span of about 10 billion years. Half of its life is still in the future. How are stars formed? Stars begin as a large cloud of gas and dust called a nebula (NEB yuh luh). The pull of gravity between the particles of gas and dust causes the nebula to contract, or shrink. The nebula can break apart into smaller and smaller pieces. Each piece eventually might collapse to form a star. The particles in the smaller pieces of nebula move closer together. This causes temperatures in each piece to rise. When the temperature in the core of a piece of nebula reaches 10 million K, fusion begins. Energy is released from the core and travels outward. Now the object is a star. 3. Identify What is the name of the process in which hydrogen is converted to helium? Applying Math 4. Calculate About how many years are left in the Sun s main sequence life span? Reading Essentials 199

4 5. Infer What is the relationship between how much hydrogen a star has and the star s temperature? What is a giant? After a star is formed, the heat created by fusion creates outward pressure. Without this pressure, the star would collapse from its own gravity. The star becomes a main sequence star. It continues to use its hydrogen fuel. The different stages in the life of a star are shown in the illustration on this page and the next page. When hydrogen in the core of the star runs out, the core contracts and temperatures inside the star increase. The outer layers of the star expand and cool. In this late stage in its life cycle, a star is called a giant. As the core contracts, its temperature continues to rise. By the time it reaches 100 million K, the star is huge. Its outer layers are much cooler than when it was a main sequence star. In about 5 billion years, the Sun will become a giant. What is a white dwarf? The star s core contracts even more after it uses much of its helium and the outer layers escape into space. This leaves only the hot, dense core. At this stage in a star s life cycle, it is about the size of Earth. It is called a white dwarf. In time, the white dwarf will cool and stop giving off light. What are supergiants and supernovas? The length time it takes for a star to go through its stages of life depends on its mass. The stages happen more quickly and more violently in stars that are more than eight times more massive than the Sun. In massive stars, the core heats up to much higher temperatures. Heavier and heavier elements form in the core. The star expands into a supergiant. Finally, iron forms in the core. Iron can t release energy through fusion. The core collapses violently. This sends a shock wave outward through the star. The outer part of the star explodes. This produces a kind of star called a supernova. A supernova can be millions of times brighter than the original star was. 200 Stars and Galaxies

5 What is a neutron star? What happens next depends on the size of the supernova s collapsed core. If the collapsed core is between 1.4 and 3 times as massive as the Sun, the core shrinks until it is only about 20 km in diameter. In this dense core, there are only neutrons. This kind of star is called a neutron star. Because the star is so dense, one teaspoonful of a neutron star would weigh more than 600 million metric tons on Earth. What is a black hole? The core of some supernovas is more than three times more massive than the Sun. Nothing can stop the core s collapse in these supernovas. All of the core s mass collapses to a point. The gravity near this point is so strong that not even light can escape from it. Because light cannot escape from this region, it is called a black hole. If you could shine a light into a black hole, the light would disappear into it. However, a black hole is not like a vacuum cleaner. It does not pull in faraway objects. Stars and planets can orbit around a black hole, as long as they are far enough away. Where does a nebula s matter come from? You learned that a star begins as a nebula. Where does the matter, or gas and dust, come from to form the nebula? Some of it was once in other stars. A star ejects large amounts of matter during the course of its life. Some of this matter becomes part of a nebula. It can develop into new stars. The matter in stars is recycled many times. The matter that is created in the cores of stars and during supernova explosions is also recycled. Elements such as carbon and iron can become parts of new stars. Spectrographs of the Sun show that it contains some carbon, iron, and other heavy elements. However, the Sun is too young to have formed these elements itself. The Sun condensed from material that was created in stars that died long ago. Some elements condense to form planets and other objects. In fact, your body contains many atoms that were formed in the cores of ancient stars. 6. Infer If the collapsed core of a supernova is 2.4 times as massive as the Sun, what will it become next? Reading Essentials 201

6 After You Read Mini Glossary black hole: the final stage in the evolution of a very massive star, where the core collapses to a point that its gravity is so strong that not even light can escape giant: a late stage in the life of a low-mass star, when the core contracts but its outer layers expand and cool; a large, bright, cool star nebula (NEB yuh luh): a large cloud of gas and dust where stars are formed neutron star: a very dense core of a collapsed star that can shrink to about 20 km in diameter and contains only neutrons supergiant: late stage in the life cycle of a massive star in which the core heats up and the star expands; a large, very bright star white dwarf: a late stage in the life cycle of a low-mass star; formed when its outer layers escape into space, leaving behind a hot, dense core; a small, dim, hot star 1. Review the terms and their definitions in the Mini Glossary. Write a sentence to compare a white dwarf and a giant. 2. Fill in the blanks to review what you have learned about the life of a massive star. A massive star forms in a. The star burns hydrogen fuel as a main star. The core heats up. The star expands and cools into a. The star then explodes as a. Depending on its mass, it will then become either a or a. 3. Could you use the flash cards you created to describe how the Sun developed? What information was helpful? What other information should have been on the cards? End of Section 202 Stars and Galaxies Visit blue.msscience.com to access your textbook, interactive games, and projects to help you learn more about the evolution of stars.

### They developed a graph, called the H-R diagram, that relates the temperature of a star to its absolute magnitude.

Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell noticed that stars with higher temperatures and large sizes also have brighter absolute magnitudes the actual amount of light given off by a star. (also referred to

### Stars and Galaxies. Evolution of Stars

Stars and Galaxies Evolution of Stars What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with the statement

### Life Cycle of a Star - Activities

Name: Class Period: Life Cycle of a Star - Activities A STAR IS BORN STAGES COMMON TO ALL STARS All stars start as a nebula. A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust. Gravity can pull some of the gas

### Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning & heating up. Eventually, it gets hot enough for fusion to take place, and a

Stars Star- large ball of gas held together by gravity that produces tremendous amounts of energy and shines Sun- our closest star Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning

### Galaxies Galore. Types of Galaxies: Star Clusters. Spiral spinning wit arms Elliptical roundish Irregular no set pattern

Stars Studying Stars Astronomers use a spectroscope to study the movement of stars Blue shift towards earth Red shift away from earth Change in a wavelength moving toward or away from earth is the Doppler

### Life of a Star. Pillars of Creation

Life of a Star Life of a Star Pillars of Creation Life of a Star Pillars of Creation Stars form from massive clouds of gas that primarily consist of hydrogen. Life of a Star Gravity causes gas to contract

### 25.2 Stellar Evolution. By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star.

25.2 Stellar Evolution By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star. Star Birth The birthplaces of stars are dark, cool interstellar clouds,

### 2.) 3.) Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Characteristic:

Grade / Name: Date: Period: CATALYST 1.) 2.) 3.) Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Characteristic: 1 OBJECTIVE SWBAT describe the life cycle of a star SWBAT identify the major source of 'power' in stars

### CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES

CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES Characteristics of the Sun 1. The Sun is located about 150 million kilometres from the Earth. 2. The Sun is made up of hot gases, mostly hydrogen and helium. 3. The size of

### Study Guide Chapter 2

Section: Stars Pages 32-38 Study Guide Chapter 2 Circle the letter of the best answer for each question. 1. What do scientists study to learn about stars? a. gravity c. space b. starlight d. colors COLOR

### TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION (The Universe) A. THE UNIVERSE: The universe encompasses all matter in existence. According to the Big Bang Theory, the universe was formed 10-20 billion years ago from a

### THE UNIVERSE CHAPTER 20

THE UNIVERSE CHAPTER 20 THE UNIVERSE UNIVERSE everything physical in and Includes all space, matter, and energy that has existed, now exists, and will exist in the future. How did our universe form, how

### Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 25 Beyond Our Solar System 25.1 Properties of Stars Characteristics of Stars A constellation is an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical

### Beyond the Solar System 2006 Oct 17 Page 1 of 5

I. Stars have color, brightness, mass, temperature and size. II. Distances to stars are measured using stellar parallax a. The further away, the less offset b. Parallax angles are extremely small c. Measured

### Stars. The composition of the star It s temperature It s lifespan

Stars Stars A star is a ball of different elements in the form of gases The elements and gases give off electromagnetic radiation (from nuclear fusion) in the form of light Scientists study the light coming

### Earth Space Systems. Semester 1 Exam. Astronomy Vocabulary

Earth Space Systems Semester 1 Exam Astronomy Vocabulary Astronomical Unit- Aurora- Big Bang- Black Hole- 1AU is the average distance between the Earth and the Sun (93 million miles). This unit of measurement

### Stellar Evolution and the HertzsprungRussell Diagram 7/14/09. Astronomy 101

Stellar Evolution and the HertzsprungRussell Diagram 7/14/09 Astronomy 101 Astronomy Picture of the Day Astronomy 101 Outline for Today Astronomy Picture of the Day News Articles Business Return Lab 5

### Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe Chapter Wrap-Up What makes up the universe and how does

### Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 PROPERTIES OF STARS Distance Measuring a star's distance can be very difficult Stellar parallax Used for measuring distance to a star Apparent shift in a star's position

### Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

### The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14

The Night Sky The Universe Chapter 14 Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Celestial observation dates to ancient civilizations

### Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the universe; its nature, origin and evolution. General Relativity is the mathematical basis of cosmology from which

### Earth in Space. Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe

Earth in Space Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Key Concepts What are stars? How does the Sun compare to other stars? Where is Earth located in the universe? How is the universe structured? What do you

### Birth & Death of Stars

Birth & Death of Stars Objectives How are stars formed How do they die How do we measure this The Interstellar Medium (ISM) Vast clouds of gas & dust lie between stars Diffuse hydrogen clouds: dozens of

### Unit 1: Space. Section 2- Stars

Unit 1: Space Section 2- Stars Stars Recall: stars are celestial bodies of hot gas that give off heat and light Stars The milky way contains hundreds of billions of stars and is only one of hundreds of

### Directed Reading A. Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS THE LIFE CYCLE OF SUNLIKE STARS A TOOL FOR STUDYING STARS.

Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS (pp. 444 449) 1. Besides by mass, size, brightness, color, temperature, and composition, how are stars classified? a.

### ANSWER KEY. Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe. Telescopes Guided Reading and Study. Characteristics of Stars Guided Reading and Study

Stars, Galaxies, a the Universe Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Telescopes Use Target Reading Skills Check student definitions for accuracy. 1. Electromagneticradiationisenergythatcan travel through

### Galaxies and Stars. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The reaction below represents an energy-producing process.

Galaxies and Stars 1. To an observer on Earth, the Sun appears brighter than the star Rigel because the Sun is A) hotter than Rigel B) more luminous than Rigel C) closer than Rigel D) larger than Rigel

### Daily Science 03/30/2017

Daily Science 03/30/2017 The atmospheres of different planets contain different gases. Which planet is most likely Earth? a. planet 1 b. planet 2 c. planet 3 d. planet 4 KeslerScience.com Can you name

### CHAPTER 4 STARS, GALAXIES & THE UNIVERSE

CHAPTER 4 STARS, GALAXIES & THE UNIVERSE LESSON 1: TELESCOPES ALL TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION TRAVEL AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT 186,000 miles per second!! Electromagnetic Radiation = energy that travels

### Gravity simplest. fusion

Gravity simplest fusion The life of a star has a complex relationship with gravity: 1. Gravity is what brings the original dust together to make a star 2. Gravity wants to crush the star Gravity pulls

### Stars and Planets GPS S4E1 A-D: Students will compare and contrast the physical attributes of stars, star patterns, and planets. Ms.

Stars and Planets GPS S4E1 A-D: Students will compare and contrast the physical attributes of stars, star patterns, and planets. Ms. D AngeloD Physical Attributes of Stars Number Size Color Pattern A star

### Astronomy Study Guide Answer Key

Astronomy Study Guide Answer Key Section 1: The Universe 1. Cosmology is the study of how the universe is arranged. 2. Identify the type of cosmology a. The sun is the center of the Universe Heliocentric

### Chapter 24. Stars, Galaxies & the Universe. Distance units

Chapter 24 Stars, Galaxies & the Universe Distance units To talk about space we need to come up with distance units a little more appropriate than just miles. Otherwise it would be like measuring from

### The Universe. But first, let s talk about light! 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Universe But first, let s talk about light! Light is fast! The study of light All forms of radiation travel at 300,000,000 meters (186,000 miles) per second Since objects in space are so far away,

### UNIT 3: Astronomy Chapter 26: Stars and Galaxies (pages )

CORNELL NOTES Directions: You must create a minimum of 5 questions in this column per page (average). Use these to study your notes and prepare for tests and quizzes. Notes will be turned in to your teacher

### What do the Roman numerals mean and how do stars die

What do the Roman numerals mean and how do stars die What is luminosity? Luminosity is the energy emitted from a star, or basically how bright it is compared to our Sun The higher the luminosity, the higher

### Chapter 9: Measuring the Stars

Chapter 9: Measuring the Stars About 10 11 (100,000,000,000) stars in a galaxy; also about 10 11 galaxies in the universe Stars have various major characteristics, the majority of which fall into several

### Astronomy 10 Test #2 Practice Version

Given (a.k.a. `First ) Name(s): Family (a.k.a. `Last ) name: ON YOUR PARSCORE: `Bubble your name, your student I.D. number, and your multiple-choice answers. I will keep the Parscore forms. ON THIS TEST

### CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES

CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES 28.1 A CLOSER LOOK AT LIGHT Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation, which is energy that travels in waves. Waves of energy travel at 300,000 km/sec (speed of light Ex:

### 1 A Solar System Is Born

CHAPTER 16 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Our Solar System California Science Standards 8.2.g, 8.4.b, 8.4.c, 8.4.d BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions:

### Lecture 21 Formation of Stars November 15, 2017

Lecture 21 Formation of Stars November 15, 2017 1 2 Birth of Stars Stars originally condense out of a COLD, interstellar cloud composed of H and He + trace elements. cloud breaks into clumps (gravity)

### CHAPTER 29: STARS BELL RINGER:

CHAPTER 29: STARS BELL RINGER: Where does the energy of the Sun come from? Compare the size of the Sun to the size of Earth. 1 CHAPTER 29.1: THE SUN What are the properties of the Sun? What are the layers

### 18. Which graph best represents the relationship between the number of sunspots and the amount of magnetic activity in the Sun?

1. Which star has a surface temperature most similar to the surface temperature of Alpha Centauri? A) Polaris B) Betelgeuse C) Procyon B D) Sirius 2. Giant stars have greater luminosity than our sun mainly

### Lecture Outlines. Chapter 20. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines Chapter 20 Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 20 Stellar Evolution Units of Chapter 20 20.1 Leaving the Main Sequence 20.2 Evolution of a Sun-Like Star 20.3 The Death

### Characteristics of Stars

Characteristics of Stars This section explains how astronomers measure distances to stars. It also describes how stars are classified. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about stars, stop and write

### Recall what you know about the Big Bang.

What is this? Recall what you know about the Big Bang. Most of the normal matter in the universe is made of what elements? Where do we find most of this normal matter? Interstellar medium (ISM) The universe

### Star formation and Evolution

Star formation and Evolution 1 Star formation and Evolution Stars burn fuel to produce energy and shine so they must evolve and live through a life cycle In the Milky Way we see stars at every stage of

### Selected Questions from Minute Papers. Outline - March 2, Stellar Properties. Stellar Properties Recap. Stellar properties recap

Black Holes: Selected Questions from Minute Papers Will all the material in the Milky Way eventually be sucked into the BH at the center? Does the star that gives up mass to a BH eventually get pulled

### The Evolution of Low Mass Stars

The Evolution of Low Mass Stars Key Ideas: Low Mass = M < 4 M sun Stages of Evolution of a Low Mass star: Main Sequence star star star Asymptotic Giant Branch star Planetary Nebula phase White Dwarf star

### 10/29/2009. The Lives And Deaths of Stars. My Office Hours: Tuesday 3:30 PM - 4:30 PM 206 Keen Building. Stellar Evolution

of s Like s of Other Stellar The Lives And Deaths of s a Sun-like s More 10/29/2009 My Office Hours: Tuesday 3:30 PM - 4:30 PM 206 Keen Building Test 2: 11/05/2009 of s Like s of Other a Sun-like s More

### Astronomy Ch. 21 Stellar Explosions. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch. 21 Stellar Explosions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A surface explosion on a white dwarf, caused

### Light. Transverse electromagnetic wave, or electromagnetic radiation. Includes radio waves, microwaves, infra-red, visible, UV, X-rays, and gamma rays

Light Transverse electromagnetic wave, or electromagnetic radiation Includes radio waves, microwaves, infra-red, visible, UV, X-rays, and gamma rays The type of light is determined purely by wavelength.

### The Earth in the Universe

The Earth in the Universe (OCR) Evidence for the age of the Earth Scientists once thought that the Earth was only 6000 years old. Rocks have provided lots of evidence for the world being older. 1) Erosion

### 9.4. The Life Cycle of Stars. Star Beginnings

The Life Cycle of Stars 9.4 Every star has a life cycle: a beginning, a middle, and an end. The life of a star may last billions of years. Our Sun, for example, has been around for almost five billion

### Stellar Evolution. The lives of low-mass stars. And the lives of massive stars

Stellar Evolution The lives of low-mass stars And the lives of massive stars Stars of High Mass High mass stars fuse H He, but do so in a different reaction: the CNO cycle Carbon is a catalyst, speeding

### Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs

Life of a Low-Mass Star AST 101 Introduction to Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs REVIEW END STATE: PLANETARY NEBULA + WHITE DWARF WHAS IS A WHITE DWARF? Exposed core of a low-mass

### 10/17/2012. Stellar Evolution. Lecture 14. NGC 7635: The Bubble Nebula (APOD) Prelim Results. Mean = 75.7 Stdev = 14.7

1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96 10/17/2012 Stellar Evolution Lecture 14 NGC 7635: The Bubble Nebula (APOD) Prelim Results 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Mean = 75.7 Stdev = 14.7 1 Energy

### Astronomy in the news? Patriots goal-line interception

Monday, February 2, 2015 First exam Friday. First Sky Watch Due. Review sheet posted Today. Review session Thursday, 5 6 PM, RLM 6.104 Reading: Chapter 6 Supernovae, Sections 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 Chapter 1 Introduction,

### Exam #2 Review Sheet. Part #1 Clicker Questions

Exam #2 Review Sheet Part #1 Clicker Questions 1) The energy of a photon emitted by thermonuclear processes in the core of the Sun takes thousands or even millions of years to emerge from the surface because

### 1. Galaxy (a) the length of a planet s day. 2. Rotational Period (b) dust and gases floating in space

Vocabulary: Match the vocabulary terms on the left with the definitions on the right 1. Galaxy (a) the length of a planet s day 2. Rotational Period (b) dust and gases floating in space 3. Orbital Period

### Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents

Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the

### A supernova is the explosion of a star. It is the largest explosion that takes place in space.

What is a supernova? By NASA, adapted by Newsela staff on 03.28.17 Word Count 974 Level 1110L TOP: A vivid view of a supernova remnant captured by NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space observatories and the

### Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro Lecture 25 1

Chapter 12: The Life Cycle of Stars (contʼd) How are stars born, and how do they die? 4/9/09 Habbal Astro 110-01 Lecture 25 1 12.3 Life as a High-Mass Star Learning Goals What are the life stages of a

### Guiding Questions. The Deaths of Stars. Pathways of Stellar Evolution GOOD TO KNOW. Low-mass stars go through two distinct red-giant stages

The Deaths of Stars 1 Guiding Questions 1. What kinds of nuclear reactions occur within a star like the Sun as it ages? 2. Where did the carbon atoms in our bodies come from? 3. What is a planetary nebula,

### The Deaths of Stars 1

The Deaths of Stars 1 Guiding Questions 1. What kinds of nuclear reactions occur within a star like the Sun as it ages? 2. Where did the carbon atoms in our bodies come from? 3. What is a planetary nebula,

### SEQUENCING THE STARS

SEQUENCING THE STARS ROBERT J. VANDERBEI Using images acquired with modern CCD cameras, amateur astronomers can make Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams from their own images of clusters. In this way, we can

### Stars with Mⵙ go through two Red Giant Stages

Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock adhancock@wm.edu Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Death of Stars Nuclear reactions in small stars How stars disperse carbon How low mass stars die The nature of white dwarfs

### High Mass Stars. Dr Ken Rice. Discovering Astronomy G

High Mass Stars Dr Ken Rice High mass star formation High mass star formation is controversial! May form in the same way as low-mass stars Gravitational collapse in molecular clouds. May form via competitive

### Learning About Our Solar System

Learning About Our Solar System By debbie Routh COPYRIGHT 2004 Mark Twain Media, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58037-876-5 Printing No. 404007-EB Mark Twain Media, Inc., Publishers Distributed by Carson-Dellosa Publishing

### Neutron Stars. But what happens to the super-dense core? It faces two possible fates:

Neutron Stars When a massive star runs out of fuel, its core collapses from the size of the Earth to a compact ball of neutrons just ten miles or so across. Material just outside the core falls onto this

### The Stars. Chapter 14

The Stars Chapter 14 Great Idea: The Sun and other stars use nuclear fusion reactions to convert mass into energy. Eventually, when a star s nuclear fuel is depleted, the star must burn out. Chapter Outline

### Dark Matter. About 90% of the mass in the universe is dark matter Initial proposals: MACHOs: massive compact halo objects

1 Dark Matter About 90% of the mass in the universe is dark matter Initial proposals: MACHOs: massive compact halo objects Things like small black holes, planets, other big objects They must be dark (so

### Notes for Wednesday, July 16; Sample questions start on page 2 7/16/2008

Notes for Wednesday, July 16; Sample questions start on page 2 7/16/2008 Wed, July 16 MW galaxy, then review. Start with ECP3Ch14 2 through 8 Then Ch23 # 8 & Ch 19 # 27 & 28 Allowed Harlow Shapely to locate

### Astronomy Exam 3 - Sun and Stars

Astronomy Exam 3 - Sun and Stars Study online at quizlet.com/_4zgp6 1. `what are the smallest group of stars in the H-R diagram 2. A star has a parallax of 0.05". what is the distance from the earth? white

### Astronomy-part 3 notes Properties of Stars

Astronomy-part 3 notes Properties of Stars What are Stars? Hot balls of that shine because nuclear fusion (hydrogen to helium) is happening at their cores. They create their own. Have different which allow

### Einführung in die Astronomie II

Einführung in die Astronomie II Teil 10 Peter Hauschildt yeti@hs.uni-hamburg.de Hamburger Sternwarte Gojenbergsweg 112 21029 Hamburg 15. Juni 2017 1 / 47 Overview part 10 Death of stars AGB stars PNe SNe

### ASTRONOMY QUIZ NUMBER 11

ASTRONOMY QUIZ NUMBER. Suppose you measure the parallax of a star and find 0. arsecond. The distance to this star is A) 0 light-years B) 0 parsecs C) 0. light-year D) 0. parsec 2. A star is moving toward

### Properties of Stars & H-R Diagram

Properties of Stars & H-R Diagram What is a star? A cloud of gas, mainly hydrogen and helium The core is so hot/dense that nuclear fusion can occur. The fusion converts light nuclei (elements) into heavier

### HR Diagram, Star Clusters, and Stellar Evolution

Ay 1 Lecture 9 M7 ESO HR Diagram, Star Clusters, and Stellar Evolution 9.1 The HR Diagram Stellar Spectral Types Temperature L T Y The Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) Diagram It is a plot of stellar luminosity

### How the Sun Works. Presented by the

How the Sun Works Presented by the The Sun warms our planet every day, provides the light by which we see and is absolutely necessary for life on Earth. In this presentation, we will examine the fascinating

### Our Universe: Creation, Galaxies, Stars and Celestial Objects

Our Universe: Creation, Galaxies, Stars and Celestial Objects Big Bang Theory Our universe began with one huge exploding atom that relapsed all the energy and matter that exists in the universe today.

### 20. Stellar Death. Interior of Old Low-Mass AGB Stars

20. Stellar Death Low-mass stars undergo three red-giant stages Dredge-ups bring material to the surface Low -mass stars die gently as planetary nebulae Low -mass stars end up as white dwarfs High-mass

### M42 (The Orion Nebula) and M43

3.4b demonstrate an understanding that emission nebulae, absorption nebulae and open clusters are associated with the birth of stars 3.4c demonstrate an understanding that planetary nebulae and supernovae

### Astronomy Part 1 Regents Questions

Regents Questions 1. The Sun revolves around the center of A) Polaris B) Aldebaran C) Earth D) the Milky Way Galaxy 4. In which sequence are the items listed from least total mass to greatest total mass?

### Stellar Evolution - Chapter 12 and 13. The Lives and Deaths of Stars White dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes

Stellar Evolution - Chapter 12 and 13 The Lives and Deaths of Stars White dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes During the early stages of a star formation the objects are called a protostars. The internal

### Astronomy. Stellar Evolution

Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock adhancock@wm.edu Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Stellar Evolution Main Sequence star changes during nuclear fusion What happens when the fuel runs out Old stars and second

### Lecture 24: Testing Stellar Evolution Readings: 20-6, 21-3, 21-4

Lecture 24: Testing Stellar Evolution Readings: 20-6, 21-3, 21-4 Key Ideas HR Diagrams of Star Clusters Ages from the Main Sequence Turn-off Open Clusters Young clusters of ~1000 stars Blue Main-Sequence

### OPEN CLUSTER PRELAB The first place to look for answers is in the lab script!

NAME: 1. Define using complete sentences: Globular Cluster: OPEN CLUSTER PRELAB The first place to look for answers is in the lab script! Open Cluster: Main Sequence: Turnoff point: Answer the following

### The Death of Stars. Today s Lecture: Post main-sequence (Chapter 13, pages ) How stars explode: supernovae! White dwarfs Neutron stars

The Death of Stars Today s Lecture: Post main-sequence (Chapter 13, pages 296-323) How stars explode: supernovae! White dwarfs Neutron stars White dwarfs Roughly the size of the Earth with the mass of

### Astronomy 150: Killer Skies Lecture 20, March 7

Assignments: Astronomy 150: Killer Skies Lecture 20, March 7 HW6 was due at start of class HW7 due next Friday at start of class Night Observing finished Last time: Properties of Stars Today: Properties

### Figure 19.19: HST photo called Hubble Deep Field.

19.3 Galaxies and the Universe Early civilizations thought that Earth was the center of the universe. In the sixteenth century, we became aware that Earth is a small planet orbiting a medium-sized star.

### Galaxies and Star Systems

Chapter 5 Section 5.1 Galaxies and Star Systems Galaxies Terms: Galaxy Spiral Galaxy Elliptical Galaxy Irregular Galaxy Milky Way Galaxy Quasar Black Hole Types of Galaxies A galaxy is a huge group of

### Chapter 20 Stellar Evolution Part 2. Secs. 20.4, 20.5

Chapter 20 Stellar Evolution Part 2. Secs. 20.4, 20.5 20.4 Evolution of Stars More Massive than the Sun It can be seen from this H-R diagram that stars more massive than the Sun follow very different paths

### Heading for death. q q

Hubble Photos Credit: NASA, The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Heading for death. q q q q q q Leaving the main sequence End of the Sunlike star The helium core The Red-Giant Branch Helium Fusion Helium

### Stellar Explosions (ch. 21)

Stellar Explosions (ch. 21) First, a review of low-mass stellar evolution by means of an illustration I showed in class. You should be able to talk your way through this diagram and it should take at least

### Astronomy 113. Dr. Joseph E. Pesce, Ph.D. Dr. Joseph E. Pesce, Ph.D.

Astronomy 113 Dr. Joseph E. Pesce, Ph.D. Stellar Deaths/Endpoints 13-2 Low Mass Stars ³ Like the Sun (< 2 M ) ² Live about 10 billion years (sun is middle aged) ² Create elements through Carbon, Nitrogen,

### The Sun s center is much hotter than the surface. The Sun looks large and bright in the sky. Other stars look much smaller.

The Sun A star is a huge ball of hot, glowing gases. The Sun is a star. The width of the Sun is equal to the width of 100 Earths placed side by side. The Sun is extremely hot. The surface of the Sun has