8.8A describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, galaxies and use models such as HR diagrams for classification

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1 8.8A describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, galaxies and use models such as HR diagrams for classification 8.8B recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star near the edge of a discshaped galaxy of stars and that the Sun is many thousands of times closer to the Earth than any other star

2 Where do stars come from? a big cloud of dust and gas called a nebula (nebulae is plural) Named after the Latin word for cloud, A nebula can be many light years across. It is in these nebulae that dust and gas can come together to form stars. They are also often stellar nurseries i.e. the place where stars are born A star is not truly a star until it can fuse hydrogen into helium. Before that, they are called protostars. A protostar is formed as gravity begins to pull the gases together into a ball.

3 Nebulae

4 A Protostar is a ball of dust and gases that has not yet reached a high enough temperature (10 million Kelvin) to begin hydrogen fusion and become a star. Protostars

5 About stars: All stars are huge spheres of glowing gas They are made mostly of hydrogen, and they make energy by nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion picture: Heat and pressure cause the Hydrogen atoms to fuse and helium (the next heaviest element) is made. What is given off? Energy!!

6 A closer look at Nuclear Fusion

7 About stars: Stars are classified by their physical characteristics: Size Temperature Brightness

8 Size of Stars Many stars are the same size of the sun, which is medium sized Very large stars are called giant or supergiant stars White dwarf stars are about the size of the Earth Neutron stars are even smaller, only about 20km in diameter

9 Color and Temperature of Stars A star s color reveals its temperature The coolest stars appear reddish in color The hottest stars in the sky appear slightly bluer than the sun

10 Brightness of a Star Stars differ in brightness the amount of light they give off The brightness of a star depends upon its size and temperature How bright a star looks from Earth depends on the distance from Earth and how bright the star actually is A star s brightness is described by its Apparent magnitude Absolute magnitude

11 A star s apparent magnitude is its brightness as seen from Earth This means that stars that are far away often appear dim compared to nearer stars, even though they may be brighter. Just like a flashlight looks brighter the closer it is to you, a star looks brighter the closer it is to Earth Apparent Magnitude

12 Absolute Magnitude Absolute Magnitude is the actual brightness of a star. It is determined as if it were at a standard distance from Earth If you take two stars and look at them from the exact same distance, the brighter one will have a higher absolute magnitude. Stars that are larger or hotter will have a higher absolute magnitude. Stars in a globular cluster are all at about the same distance from Earth, so scientists can study clusters to determine absolute magnitude

13 The Sun is a mediumsized star near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of stars The Sun is many thousands of times closer to the Earth than any other star It is the Sun s closeness, NOT its brightness that enables us to see it so well. Our Star, the Sun

14 Size comparison When you compare the Sun in relation to other known stars, it isn t that impressive However, the Sun is an important star to us!

15 Properties of the Sun Basic properties of the Sun: Medium sized star (but top 10% in our system) Nuclear fusion converts hydrogen to helium producing energy in all stars The sun is many thousands of times closer to the Earth than any other star The Sun exerts a large force of gravity on planet Earth because it is so massive and that is what keeps the other planets in orbit around it too.

16 Video on the Sun Click video to watch

17 2 nd video (if time)

18 Life Cycles of Stars Life of a Star- Life history of a star depends on its mass All stars begin life when gas and dust in a nebula contract to form a protostar.

19 Small star path: Small Star (~1 solar mass) = nebula protostar (begins to release energy) main sequence star (begins to run out of fuel) red giant (helium core runs out) - planetary nebula white dwarf (runs out of energy) black dwarf Note planetary nebula is one of the stages of a star s life cycle (don t confuse it with the starting nebula). A planetary nebula is a ring-shaped nebula formed by an expanding shell of gas around an aging star.

20 Massive Star Path: Massive Star (~10 solar masses) = nebula protostar (begins to release energy) main sequence star (begins to run out of fuel) red supergiant (helium core collapses) - supernova If the core survives it becomes a neutron star (core of solar masses) or a black hole (core greater than 3 solar masses)

21 Just practiced taking notes effectively ATL Skills: Will now use: The activity - Research: Make connections between various sources of information

22 Exploration Activity: Life Cycle of Stars Student page: Links to use on Unit 6

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