Life of a Star. Pillars of Creation

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1 Life of a Star

2 Life of a Star Pillars of Creation

3 Life of a Star Pillars of Creation Stars form from massive clouds of gas that primarily consist of hydrogen.

4 Life of a Star Gravity causes gas to contract and increase in temperature. (Gravitational contraction)

5 Life of a Star This is known as a protostar. A protostar has not started nuclear fusion yet.

6 Life of a Star Eventually nuclear fusion begins in the core.

7 Life of a Star

8 Life of a Star Stars can be born with masses from.08m to 150M.

9 Life of a Star Stars that are only converting hydrogen to helium are called main sequence stars.

10 Life of a Star Hertzsprung-Russell diagram plots luminosity of a star versus its surface temperature. (HR diagram)

11 Life of a Star

12 Life of a Low Mass Star Our Sun is a low mass star.

13 Life of a Low Mass Star

14 Life of a Low Mass Star A low mass star will stay on the main sequence for about 10 billion years until it stops burning hydrogen in its core.

15 Life of a Low Mass Star The star will fill up its core with helium and stop nuclear fusion.

16 Life of a Low Mass Star Gravity will contract the star and cause the hydrogen around the helium core to start nuclear fusion.

17 Life of a Low Mass Star The nuclear fusion in the shell around the core will force the star to expand. (Red Giant)

18 Life of a Low Mass Star The star will stay like this for a few hundred million years.

19 Life of a Low Mass Star More helium is created and forced into the core, heating it up. Eventually helium will start nuclear fusion (helium flash).

20 Life of a Low Mass Star Helium to Carbon nuclear fusion. 3 helium nuclei are fused into 1 carbon which releases energy.

21 Life of a Low Mass Star The star stabilizes, shrinks back down, and becomes more yellow.

22 Life of a Low Mass Star The star will stay like this for 100 million years.

23 Life of a Low Mass Star Eventually the star will fill its core up with carbon and nuclear fusion in the core will stop.

24 Life of a Low Mass Star Gravity will contract the star and cause the helium around the carbon core to start nuclear fusion.

25 Life of a Low Mass Star The nuclear fusion in both shells around the core will force the star to expand even more than before. (Red Giant)

26 Life of a Low Mass Star The star will stay like this for 1 million years.

27 Life of a Low Mass Star Eventually nuclear fusion will stop all together and the outer layers of the star will be carried away by the solar wind.

28 Life of a Low Mass Star The outer layers float away and are called planetary nebula.

29 Life of a Low Mass Star planetary nebula the glowing cloud of gas ejected from a low-mass star at the end of its life.

30 Life of a Low Mass Star planetary nebula the glowing cloud of gas ejected from a low-mass star at the end of its life.

31 Life of a Low Mass Star planetary nebula the glowing cloud of gas ejected from a low-mass star at the end of its life.

32 Life of a Low Mass Star planetary nebula the glowing cloud of gas ejected from a low-mass star at the end of its life.

33 Life of a Low Mass Star planetary nebula the glowing cloud of gas ejected from a low-mass star at the end of its life.

34 Life of a Low Mass Star Only the small core of the star is left which shines from the left over heat. (White dwarf)

35 Life of a Low Mass Star White dwarf -- The hot, compact corpses of low-mass stars, typically with a mass similar to the Sun compressed to a volume the size of the Earth.

36 Life of a Low Mass Star White dwarf -- The hot, compact corpses of low-mass stars, typically with a mass similar to the Sun compressed to a volume the size of the Earth.

37 Life of a Low Mass Star

38 Life of a Low Mass Star

39 Life of a Low Mass Star Low mass star life cycle.

40 Life of a High Mass Star

41 Life of a High Mass Star A massive star will have a hotter core which will increase the nuclear fusion rate, thus a shorter life span.

42 Life of a High Mass Star A high mass star may live for only 10 to 100 million years.

43 Life of a High Mass Star High mass stars enter the main sequence in this area. While on the main sequence, stars fuse hydrogen to helium.

44 Life of a High Mass Star CNO Nuclear Fusion Cycle

45 Life of a High Mass Star CNO Nuclear Fusion Cycle

46 Life of a High Mass Star CNO Nuclear Fusion Cycle

47 Life of a High Mass Star CNO Nuclear Fusion Cycle

48 Life of a High Mass Star CNO Nuclear Fusion Cycle

49 Life of a High Mass Star CNO Nuclear Fusion Cycle

50 Life of a High Mass Star CNO Nuclear Fusion Cycle

51 Proton-proton Nuclear Fusion (Low mass stars) Life of a High Mass Star CNO Nuclear Fusion Cycle CNO Nuclear Fusion (High mass stars)

52 Proton-proton Nuclear Fusion (Low mass stars) Life of a High Mass Star CNO Nuclear Fusion Cycle CNO Nuclear Fusion (High mass stars)

53 Proton-proton Nuclear Fusion (Low mass stars) Life of a High Mass Star CNO Nuclear Fusion Cycle CNO Nuclear Fusion (High mass stars) Produces more energy

54 Life of a High Mass Star A high mass star will exhaust its hydrogen fuel and begin nuclear fusion in a shell around the core expanding into a Supergiant.

55 Life of a High Mass Star Eventually nuclear fusion will begin in the core, fusing helium to carbon, and the star will stabilize.

56 Life of a High Mass Star This process happens many times as the star begins nuclear fusion with heavier elements.

57 Life of a High Mass Star The star continues the fusion process until it reaches iron (Fe), which the star cannot fuse into heavier elements.

58 Life of a High Mass Star Fusion in the core stops, but the outer shells continue fusion, depositing more iron in the core.

59 Life of a High Mass Star The extreme pressure on the iron core pushes the core electrons into the protons, creating neutrons, shrinking the core.

60 Life of a High Mass Star Empty space is created around the tiny core. The outside layers rush towards the center of the star and collide. Theoretically, the collision in the core causes a massive explosion called a supernova.

61 Life of a High Mass Star Theoretically, the collision in the core causes a massive explosion called a supernova.

62 Life of a High Mass Star Supernova can be as bright as 10 billion Suns.

63 Life of a High Mass Star Supernova can be as bright as 10 billion Suns.

64 Life of a High Mass Star Supernova can be as bright as 10 billion Suns.

65 Life of a High Mass Star Either a neutron star or a black hole will be left behind.

66 Life of a High Mass Star Neutron star -- The compact corpse of a high-mass star left over after a supernova; typically 1M with a radius of a few kilometers.

67 Life of a High Mass Star Neutron star -- The compact corpse of a high-mass star left over after a supernova; typically 1M with a radius of a few kilometers. Earth White dwarf

68 Life of a High Mass Star Neutron star -- The compact corpse of a high-mass star left over after a supernova; typically 1M with a radius of a few kilometers.

69 Life of a High Mass Star If the star has enough mass, it will leave a black hole instead of a neutron star.

70 Life of a High Mass Star Black hole a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping.

71 Life of a High Mass Star Black hole a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping.

72 Life of a High Mass Star Black hole a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping.

73 Life of a High Mass Star How can we see black holes if no light can escape?

74 Life of a High Mass Star How can we see black holes if no light can escape?

75 Life of a High Mass Star How can we see black holes if no light can escape?

76 Life of a High Mass Star How can we see black holes if no light can escape?

77 Life of a High Mass Star

78 Life of a High Mass Star

79 Life of a Low Mass Star High-mass star life cycle.

80 Life of a Low Mass Star

81

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