# Here solar flares happen as tongues of fire which can flare up thousands of kilometres above the sun s surface.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Here solar flares happen as tongues of fire which can flare up thousands of kilometres above the sun s surface."

## Transcription

1 Unit 1 Earth and Sun Relationship of the Sun to the Earth Outcomes Understand that the Sun radiates energy in all directions in the solar system. Examine that the Earth rotates on its axis (imaginary line) with a tilt of 23½ o once a day while it revolves around the Sun. Recognise that the tilt of the Earth does not change. Illustrate by means of a diagram of the tilt of the Earth. Explain how solar energy reaches the Earth with different intensities in different parts of the Earth causing seasons. Understand the reasons for seasons. (Solar Energy and the Earth s Seasons ) The Sun and Solar Energy The Sun in our Solar System is a star. The Sun is very large compared to the Earth about 420 times bigger. It consists of several layers and a core and is like a huge exploding hydrogen bomb. At the core of the sun the Solar flare image captured from a NASA video taken at the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory ( temperature is about o C degrees Celsius and on the surface 5700 o C. The suns energy from the interior bubbles to its outer layers. Here solar flares happen as tongues of fire which can flare up thousands of kilometres above the sun s surface. The solar energy is released as light and heat radiation into all directions of the solar system. It can reach the Earth in only about 8 minutes even though the Sun is so far away from the Earth! Did you know? The Sun s distance from the Earth is km. 1

2 Unit 1 Earth and Sun Earth s Axis, Rotation and its Yearly Orbit around the Sun The Earth has an imaginary line going through the centre of the Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole. This line is slanted or tilted. It is around this line called an axis that the Earth spins or rotates daily. The rotation is from west to east. (Anticlockwise) See picture 2. Earth s direction of rotation from West to East Picture 2 The rotation once in 24 hours, gives us day and night. When the Sun s rays fall on the one side of the Earth it is day-time but the other half has night-time. Day and Night Picture 3 Have a look at the line drawn through the Earth in the day and night picture 3. The imaginary line is tilted which means it is not straight up or vertical. Draw a vertical line onto a circle. and we can see how far the tilted line is from the vertical line. This is called an angle of 23½ o. The Earth is tilted at 23½ o as it rotates daily on its axis and orbits the Sun in a year. The orbit is almost a circle. 2

3 Unit 1 Earth and Sun Label the progression of 2D circles with the help of a globe of the Earth and the Word Bank. ( A w o r d m a y b e u s e d m o r e t h a n o n c e i f n e c e s s a r y ) A two dimensional (2D) representation of the Earth. WORDBANK 1 Equator Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere 2 Tropic of Capricorn Tropic of Cancer Vertical line 3 Tilt of 23½ o Latitude Longitude

4 Unit 1 Earth and Sun The Earth with axis and equator The Earth without equator With a picture showing the Earth s axis and tilt we are able to investigate if the intensity of the energy from the Sun will reach the Earth in equal amounts. What does the word intensity mean? (In connection with sun light falling during different seasons) In the cells below, what do you notice about the shading? With computers, TV screens and cameras we talk of pixels. It has to do with the clarity of a picture. The more pixels there are per unit area, the clearer a picture will be, it will not look fuzzy In science when we talk about intensity in connection with the Sun s light falling onto the Earth. The intensity of solar energy reaching the Earth changes as it orbits the Sun during the year. Intensity here means the amount of Solar energy falling per unit area. Questions 1. Draw dots into each cell 1-3 to match the shading of each one. 2. Count the number of dots you have drawn in each cell 1-3 and write it underneath each cell. 3. Measure the area of each cell 1-3. (Length x breadth equals the area.) 4. Work out the intensity by dividing the area by the number of dots. 5. Compare 1-3 and state which one has the highest number of dots per unit area.( Intensity) 4

5 Unit 1 Earth and Sun The Earth in Four Positions in Orbit around the Sun in the Southern Hemisphere in 2D. B A C D Activity No. What to do: 1. Using a pencil draw a dotted line to show the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn on 2. Using a ruler draw a line from the middle horizontal rays of the Sun to both Tropics in A & C. 3. Using a ruler to draw a line from the middle vertical rays of the Sun to the equators. Choose from B & D. - Remember that one side will face the Sun and the other side will face away 4. Label which has summer in December. Choose from A,B,C,D. 5. Label which has winter in Europe.Chose from A,B,C,D. 6. Label which has spring in the Southern Hemisphere. Choose from B & D. 7. Label which has spring in the Northern Hemisphere. Choose from B & D. 8. Connect A,B,C & D with a line to show the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. Remember that the diagrammatic representation is not drawn to scale. 5

6 Unit 1 Earth and Sun Activity No A 2D representation to show the Earth in four positions in its Orbit around the Sun Activity No A hands on 3D representation of the 2D diagram of the Seasons What you need: 1. A piece of A3 paper polystyrene balls (ping pong balls or the small balls from deodorant roll-on bottles). 3 4 wooden skewers. 4 A piece of candle with wick 5-6 cm in length or a small torch. 5 A felt tipped pen. 6 Cardboard from boxes to make a dark space. 6

7 Unit 1 Earth and Sun What to do: 1. This activity should be done in a dark place. Arrange desks or a big cardboard box into position to make a darker space. 2. Use 4 the polystyrene balls to put the wooden skewers into the right position to show the tilt of 23½ o. 3. Label the 4 polystyrene balls with the Equator, Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. 4. On an A3 paper arrange the polystyrene balls into a position as in the diagrams above. 5. Place a torch or a candle into the position of the Sun 6. Light the candle or switch on the torch when ready. (In a darkish position). 7. Carefully watch which parts of the polystyrene balls are lit by the light and which are in dark. 8. Does this match the 2D representation? If not, check that your arrangement is set up correctly. If it still does not match the 2D ask for help. From 2D to 3D we should be able to understand that the length of days in summer and winter in the southern hemisphere depend on: The Sun s rays falling onto different parts of the Earth in its yearly orbit around the Sun. The axis of the Earth tilted at 23½ o. Explain why the equator is warmer than the poles? It involves the atmosphere. The atmosphere absorbs, reflects and scatters sunlight; the more atmosphere a ray of sunlight must go through to get to the ground, the less energy will make it all the way to the ground Does solar energy go through the same thickness of atmosphere to reach the equator as it would to reach the poles? Explain using a diagram When it is summer in London what season does Botswana experience? Winter What is the length of day and night at the equator? At the equator, day and night last exactly 12 hours each. The Earth s axis and orbit around the Sun causes seasonal variations in? Day and night length, temperature, height of noon day Sun. 7

8 Unit 1 Earth and Sun Activity? The Shape of Earth's Orbital Path Month January March June July September December Average Earth Sun Distance 147,000,000 km 149,000,000 km 153,000,000 km 153,000,000 km 150,000,000 km 148,000,000 km The table above provides Earth's average distance from the sun during selected months of the year: Answer the questions to interpret the table of data. 1. When is Earth closest to the sun? 2. When is Earth farthest from the sun 3. Can the distance between Earth and the sun account for the seasons? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. 8

9 Unit 1 Earth and Sun The intensity solar energy reaching a particular place on Earth depends on the angle at which the Sun s rays hits this place. If solar energy falls over one kilometre (1km) at a 90 o angle and at a 30 o angle, the shallower angle covers twice as much area with the same amount of solar energy. The solar energy spread over a larger area is when the Sun is closer to the horizon. The same amount of solar energy over a larger area will be less intense/ weaker than over a smaller area where it will be more concentrated. See diagram. Effect of the angle on the area that receives an incoming beam of radiation. 9

10 Unit 1 Earth and Sun How is life dependent on solar energy? 1. All our life consisting of plants, animals and human beings depend on this energy. 2. Other processes like climate/weather are caused by energy being moved around. 3. Solar power is an important energy source for us. 4. Solar storms may cause disruptions in communications via satellite. SUN The Sun is the most important factor in sustaining life solar energy solar energy LIGHT HEAT SOLAR POWER Plants rely directly on the Sun s energy to undergo photosynthesis to distribute nutrients. In turn plants give off oxygen to support animal and human life and to provide food. Most life on Earth has to survive within a certain temperature range. Weather is a result of energy moving The dependence on the Sun extends beyond biological needs. A variety of recent technologies demand for energy to meet the world s needs relies on the Sun but yet may also disrupt technologies with solar storms. All life is interconnected via a food chain involving herbivores, carnivores and human beings. 10

11 Gravity, Moon s Path around the Earth, Effect on Ocean & Spring Tides Understand and visualise that if there was no force acting on the Moon, it would be travelling in a straight line Recognise that because there is a force of attraction toward the Earth, the Moon falls from a straight line into a curve or orbit Effect of gravity on tides of the sea Explain gravity between two objects, Earth and Moon Influence of Moon on the Earth by means of affecting the oceans shoreline Examine how the tides affect the shoreline ecosystems of the Gravity: Why do we need it and why is it so important? When a child jumps around why does it not float off into space but is brought back to the ground? Gravity is part of our daily lives of which we are not constantly aware. It keeps our food on plates, coffee in its cups and it stops us from floating off into space. It also keeps the Earth orbiting around the Sun, water on the Earth and the atmosphere like a blanket covering the Earth. Gravity is a pulling force between two objects. Everything is affected by gravity everywhere. Gravity can be felt on Earth, Moon and stars as well as space. More about Gravity: The Relationship between the Earth and Moon In picture 1, the Earth pulls the Moon and the Moon pulls the Earth. Gravity can be a pulling together force. On Earth human beings feel gravity as a pulling down force towards the Earths centre see picture 2. In a sphere all points are equally drawn to the centre of a large mass. Mass is how much stuff or matter a body has. There is also a force pulling the Earth towards us. The pulling force of the Earth on a body is the weight of the body. A man standing on the Moon would feel only 1/6 of the Earths pulling force because the Moon is smaller than the Earth and therefore has less mass. 12

12 Picture 1 Gravity is a pulling together force Picture 2 Gravity as a pull down force Picture 3 Picture 1 combined with Picture 2 showing the Earth with plants, animals and human beings being pulled to the Earths centre whilst at the same time being subjected to the pulling together force between the Moon and the Earth.This is happening as the Moon is orbiting the Earth. 12

13 The Moon s Orbit If the cannon fires the ball at exactly the right speed, the ball will follow a circular path called orbit. The ball will travel around the Earth, always falling towards the centre of the Earth, but never reaching the ground. In this case, the cannon ball is being put into circular orbit around the Earth. The Moon travels in such an orbit too. Earth The picture shows a canon firing a cannon ball into the Earth s orbit Moon in orbit around the Earth As we know, all living and non-living things have weight. The force of gravity on each body depends on: how much mass each body has. (How big an object is) how far apart each body is, this is called that the distance between two objects. The closer the bodies are, the stronger the gravity will be and the further they are apart the weaker the gravity is. 12

14 Activity 1 Consider picture 4 showing a mouse and an elephant and answer the questions: Picture 4 a. Which one of the two animals will feel a stronger pull towards the Earths centre? b. What is the reason for your answer in (a)? 13

15 The Moon which orbits the Earth has a smaller mass than the Earth. A man of 50kg standing on the Moon and another man of also 50 kg standing on the Earth is shown in the picture below. Activity 2: Consider the picture and answer questions below: 1. Compare the man standing on the Moon with the man standing on the Earth, both 50kg. Which one will show the greater pull of gravity? The Earth 2. Give a reason for your answer in 1.The pull of gravity depends on how much mass there is in a body. 3. What will the weight be of the man who stands on the Moon? 50x1/6 = 47kg or 470N 4. Draw a diagram to show what we mean by us experiencing a pull down on the Earth. Earth 14

16 Activity 3 All objects have a force (gravity) that attracts them towards each other. Picture 6 shows how the Moon orbits the Earth. Demonstrate this by taking a small ball on a string and swinging it above the head as in picture 7. Answer the questions that follow below. picture 6 picture 7 Questions 1 In picture 7, what represents the Earth and Moon? The boy Earth, ball=moon 2 As the boy swings the ball around, is there anything that he will feel? 3 What about the ball, does it also feel something? 4 What is the name of the force which pulls the Moon towards the Earth? 5 In picture 6, what keeps the Moon from falling down, if this gravity is so strong? 15

17 The Connection between the Moon, Earth and an Intertidal Zone A shoreline is where the ocean and seas meet the land. It can be sandy or rocky but it is a sudden change. Tides are the regular daily rise and fall of the sea water along the oceans shores. There are usually two high and two low tides in 24 hours (1day & 1 night) Tides vary in height from day to day. An Intertidal Zone along the shoreline is the part which you can see between high tides and low tides. Long ago people noticed that the tidal cycle had something to do with the phases of the Moon. What causes Tides? Did you know? The Sun is about 1700 times bigger than the Moon and about 420 times bigger than the Earth! Tides are caused by the gravitational forces between the Moon, Earth and Sun when they are in certain positions. Because the Sun is so very far away, the Moon s forces will have a greater influence on tides than the Sun which you can see in picture 8. This picture shows a representation of the distances between the Earth and Moon, as well as the distance between the Earth and the Sun. Picture no.8. Note: This is not drawn to scale. Picture 8 16

18 Tides and the Moon There are usually two high and two low tides in 24 hours. Because the tides are regular, they can be predicted with the knowledge of the phases of the Moon. This is why cities along the coast publish tide time tables and the fishing industry is able to plan its fishing work accordingly. A sample of a tide time table for one week is on the next page. What kind of information is contained in the table? Activity 4 A keen fisherman wanted to increase his catch of fish. He used to go fishing at whatever time suited him until he got to hear about fishing by moon phase. He decided to do some research and discovered that moon phase fishing works. It is not as complicated as he had thought. The best fishing times are when the fish are feeding at dawn and dusk. The moon has an effect on a variety of factors involving fish one of them being the live fodder they which they feed on. So, without prior knowledge of setting and rising times, two of the best fishing times will be missed every day. Adapted from: 17

19 DURBAN TIDE TABLE for Week 7-13 April 2013 Adapted from: NEW SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR Sunrise 06:10 Sunset 17:45 Sunrise 06:10 Sunset 17:44 Sunrise 06:11 Sunset 17:43 Sunrise 06:11 Sunset 17:42 Sunrise 06:12 Sunset 17:40 Sunrise 06:13 Sunset 17:39 Sunrise 06:13 Sunset 17:38 LUNAR LUNAR LUNAR LUNAR LUNAR LUNAR LUNAR Moonrise Moonset 15:49 Moonrise 04:10 Moonset 16:25 Moonrise 05:08 Moonset 17:01 Moonrise 06:05 Moonset 17:38 Moonrise 00:17 Moonset 12:41 Underfoot 01:04 Overhead 13:28 Underfoot 01:52 Overhead 14:16 TIDE TIMES TIDE TIMES TIDE TIMES TIDE TIMES TIDE TIMES TIDE TIMES TIDE TIMES High tide 01:57 Low tide 08:10 High tide 14:17 Low tide 20:23 High tide 02:35 Low tide 08:46 High tide 14:52 Low tide 20:57 High tide 03:08 Low tide 09:18 High tide 15:23 Low tide 21:28 High tide 03:38 Low tide 09:48 High tide 15:54 Low tide 21:58 High tide04:07 Low tide10:17 High tide16:22 Low tide16:22 High tide 04:35 Low tide 10:45 High tide 16:50 Low tide 22:55 High tide 5:03 Low tide 11:12 High tide 7:18 Low tide 23:23 Answer the questions with the help of the DURBAN TIDE TABLE: 1 Who benefits the most from the information listed in this table? 2 Why is the LUNAR information on this table? 3 What can be noticed about the sunrise times from the 8 th -12 th April? 4 What about the sunset times from the 8 th - 12 th April? 5 At what time is moon rise and moon set on the 9 th April 2013? 6 On the 10 th of April in the Durban Tide calendar, why is the word New under the date 10? 7 Which day from the 7 th -13 th April would the fisher man choose to get the biggest catch of fish? Give reasons 8 What is the date of the next Full Moon? 9 How many high tides and low tides are 24 hours? 18

20 Height Unit 2 Earth and Moon Activity 5 Draw a bar graph with the data provided 2 Sep 3 Sept High Tide High Tide Low Tide Low Tide 4.2m 3.8m 0.5m 0.6m 4.1m 3.5m m Date Other graph showing 2 tides per 24 hrs 19

21 Spring Tides When the Earth, Moon and Sun are lined up as in the picture 8, the forces of gravity cause very high and low tides. You can see this better in picture 9 which is also not drawn to scale. This happens during Full and New Moon when the gravitational forces are combined. The bulge in picture 9 is bigger towards the side facing the Sun. The bulge facing the opposite side is a bit less. This is because of the distance of the Earth s diameter makes the distance between the Earth and Sun a bit more and therefore the force of combined gravity a little less. Questions about Spring Tides 1. Look at the diagram and explain why the side of the Earth facing the sun has a bigger bulge than the opposite side 2. Can the gravity on the Moon be the same as on the Earth? Explain your reasoning. 20

22 Ecosystems between high and low water levels. Marine plants and animals that live in the intertidal zone form a unique ecosystem which is sustained between the high and low tides. Scientists have divided this intertidal into zones depending on the time each part is exposed to the air: From splash, high, mid and low tide zones. Certain plants and animals are found only in a specific habitat and zone. They are called Indicator Organisms and are used to tell which zone is being looked at. Waves (forces) The ability of a marine plant or animal to withstand the force of crashing waves plays a part in where they settle. However the ebb and flow of the tides sets an important pattern for marine life along a shoreline. During storms a wave can hit the shore with the force of a car going at 90miles/hour. To protect themselves from being smashed by waves or torn from rocks, plants and animals here hold down, lie flat, bend with the waves or hide. 21

23 Snails and Chitons have a strong muscular foot. Sea Stars have thousands of tiny tube feet with suction cup ends. Mussels anchor themselves by gluing threads to the rocks; Sea Weeds have strong root like holdfasts that cling to the rocks. Body Structure Body structure and shape help some marine life/plants and animals survive the crushing waves. The Chinese-hat shape of limpets, Barnacles and flat shape of Chitons and Abalone offer little resistance to the water rushing past. Snails, Crabs, Barnacles and Mussels have strong shells to protect them. Anemones are flexible and bend rather than break. Seaweeds are also flexible, smooth and strong. Marine animals are able to hide under seaweeds or in rock crevices. Crabs and delicate Brittle Stars hide under rocks or in Mussel beds and Kelp holdfasts. Air exposure Air exposure as a result of falling tides exposes marine life to air temperatures varying from high to low temperatures. Marine life is vulnerable to getting dried out. Some animals have good coping mechanisms, namely: Snails are able to withdraw into their shells and some may secrete a mucous seal. Mussels close their shells tightly to keep water inside and anemones grow in masses so that less body surface is exposed to air. Animals also tend to hide under rocks to avoid drying out. Seaweed can dry out but rehydrate when the tide returns. Because the moon is much closer to Earth than the sun, the moon exerts a much stronger gravitational pull. 22

24 Organism Location (zone) Habitat (crevice, tide pool, rock) Barnacle Splash & high tide zones The Barnacle cements itself to a hard surface. It has a hard shell with two plates that it can pull shut to protect itself from drying out. Rock Louse Splash zone The Rock Louse looks like a cockroach. It needs the spray from the waves to keep its gills wet but cannot survive under water because it breathes air. High Tide Zone This crab is so flat so that it can hide in rock crevices Crab Anemone Mid to low tide zones The Giant Green Anenome can pull itself in to avoid drying out and to evade predators. It gets its green colour from an algae that lives in it and helps it to thrive Sea Star Mid-tide zone & other zones Ocre Sea Star has hundreds of tiny tube feet to hang onto rocks and to pry open mussels. 23

25 Organism Location (zone) Habitat (crevice, tide pool, rock) Kelp Crab Low Intertidal Zone Kelp Crab has a long slender body designed to hang onto kelp Purple Sea Urchin Nudibranch Mollusc California Mussel 24

### Full Moon. Phases of the Moon

Phases of the Moon The Moon takes 29.5 days to orbit Earth. This is a lunar month. The gravity of the Earth keeps the Moon in orbit. The Moon does not produce light. We see the Moon because it reflects

### Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earth s Motion Lesson 2 Earth s Moon Lesson 3 Eclipses and Tides Chapter Wrap-Up. Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earth s Motion Lesson 2 Earth s Moon Lesson 3 Eclipses and Tides Chapter Wrap-Up Jason Reed/Photodisc/Getty Images What natural phenomena do the motions of Earth and the Moon

### Earth s Motion. Lesson Outline LESSON 1. A. Earth and the Sun 1. The diameter is more than 100 times greater than

Lesson Outline Earth s Motion LESSON 1 A. Earth and the Sun 1. The diameter is more than 100 times greater than Earth s diameter. a. In the Sun, atoms combine during, producing huge amounts of energy.

### Patterns on Earth 4.8C

Have you ever made shadow puppets? If you put your hand between a flashlight and a wall, you will make a shadow. You might have made a rabbit shape or some other animal shape with your hands. Your hand

### Patterns of Change on Earth

TEKS collect and analyze data to identify sequences and predict patterns of change in shadows, tides, seasons, and the observable appearance of the Moon over time Patterns of Change on Earth Patterns and

### Solar System Glossary. The point in an object s elliptical orbit farthest from the body it is orbiting

Solar System Glossary Apogee Atmosphere Asteroid Axis Autumn Barred spiral The point in an object s elliptical orbit farthest from the body it is orbiting The air that surrounds Earth and other planets

### Chapter: The Earth-Moon-Sun System

Chapter 7 Table of Contents Chapter: The Earth-Moon-Sun System Section 1: Earth in Space Section 2: Time and Seasons Section 3: Earth s Moon 1 Earth in Space Earth s Size and Shape Ancient Measurements

### 1/3/12. Chapter: The Earth-Moon-Sun System. Ancient Measurements. Earth s Size and Shape. Ancient Measurements. Ancient Measurements

// Table of Contents Chapter: The Earth-Moon-Sun System Section : Chapter 7 Section : Section : Earth s Size and Shape Ancient Measurements First, no matter where you are on Earth, objects fall straight

### Science Space Lessons 1-5 Notes

Science Space Lessons 1-5 Notes The Planets in order from the Sun are: Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune To help us remember, we use the sentence: My Very Excited Mother Just Served

### Reasons for the seasons - Rebecca Kaplan

Reasons for the seasons - Rebecca Kaplan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dd_8jm5ptlk https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/sunearth.html https://www.time.gov/ https://www.space.com/33790-harvest-moon-guide.html

### Geography Class 6 Chapters 3 and

CHAPTER 3 MOTIONS OF THE EARTH The Earth is always travelling in Space. That makes each person on Earth, a Space Traveller. No one feels the movement of the Earth because humans are too tiny when compared

### Earth Moon Motions A B1

Earth Moon Motions A B1 1. The Coriolis effect provides evidence that Earth (1) rotates on its axis (2) revolves around the Sun (3) undergoes cyclic tidal changes (4) has a slightly eccentric orbit 9.

### A. the spinning of Earth on its axis B. the path of the Sun around Earth

stronomy 1 Packet Write answers on your own paper 1. The Sun appears to move across the sky each day. What causes this?. the spinning of Earth on its axis. the path of the Sun around Earth. the production

### Rotation and Revolution

On Earth, each day begins at sunrise and ends at sunset. You see the Sun come up or rise in the morning and go down or set at night. When we use these phrases, what do you think they imply about the way

### This clementine orange is an oblate spheroid. Earth is more rounded than this clementine, but it is still an oblate spheroid.

On Earth, each day begins at sunrise and ends at sunset. You see the Sun come up or rise in the morning and go down or set at night. When we use these phrases, what do you think they imply about the way

### The Earth, Moon, and Sky. Lecture 5 1/31/2017

The Earth, Moon, and Sky Lecture 5 1/31/2017 From Last Time: Stable Orbits The type of orbit depends on the initial speed of the object Stable orbits are either circular or elliptical. Too slow and gravity

### Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2013 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2013 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

### Define umbra and penumbra. Then label the umbra and the penumbra on the diagram below. Umbra: Penumbra: Light source

Lesson 3 Eclipses and Tides LA.8.2.2.3, SC.8.E.5.9, SC.8.N.1.1 Skim or scan the heading, boldfaced words, and pictures in the lesson. Identify or predict three facts you will learn from the lesson. Discuss

### Time, Seasons, and Tides

Time, Seasons, and Tides Celestial Sphere Imagine the sky as a great, hollow, sphere surrounding the Earth. The stars are attached to this sphere--- some bigger and brighter than others--- which rotates

### MOTIONS OF THE EARTH. Figure 3.1 : Inclination of the Earth s axis and the orbital plane. Figure 3.2 : Day and Night on the Earth due to rotation

3 Let s Do Take a ball to represent the earth and a lighted candle to represent the sun. Mark a point on the ball to represent a town X. Place the ball in such a way that the town X is in darkness. Now

### The Sun-Earth-Moon System

CHAPTER 20 The un-earth-moon ystem LEO 1 Earth s Motion What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree

### The Earth is a Rotating Sphere

The Earth is a Rotating Sphere The Shape of the Earth Earth s Rotation ( and relative movement of the Sun and Moon) The Geographic Grid Map Projections Global Time The Earth s Revolution around the Sun

### Earth is rotating on its own axis

Earth is rotating on its own axis 1 rotation every day (24 hours) Earth is rotating counterclockwise if you are looking at its North pole from other space. Earth is rotating clockwise if you are looking

### The Sun-Earth-Moon System

chapter 311 section 1 Earth The Sun-Earth-Moon System Before You Read What do you already know about Earth s shape, its size, and how it moves? Write what you know on the lines below. What You ll Learn

### C) the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky D) The duration of insolation will increase and the temperature will increase.

1. Which event is a direct result of Earth's revolution? A) the apparent deflection of winds B) the changing of the Moon phases C) the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky D) the

### Earth rotates on a tilted axis and orbits the Sun.

Page of 7 KY CONCPT arth rotates on a tilted axis and orbits the Sun. BFOR, you learned Stars seem to rise, cross the sky, and set because arth turns The Sun is very large and far from arth arth orbits

### 1. The diagram below represents Earth and the Moon as viewed from above the North Pole. Points A, B, C, and D are locations on Earth's surface.

1. The diagram below represents Earth and the Moon as viewed from above the North Pole. Points A, B, C, and D are locations on Earth's surface. 2. The graph below shows the change in tide heights of the

### UNIT 3: EARTH S MOTIONS

UNIT 3: EARTH S MOTIONS After Unit 3 you should be able to: o Differentiate between rotation and revolution of the Earth o Apply the rates of rotation and revolution to basic problems o Recall the evidence

### 1st Grade. Slide 1 / 90. Slide 2 / 90. Slide 3 / 90. The Sun, Moon, Earth and Stars. Table of Contents The Sun.

Slide 1 / 90 Slide 2 / 90 1st Grade The Sun, Moon, Earth and Stars 2015-11-20 www.njctl.org Table of Contents Slide 3 / 90 Click on the topic to go to that section The Sun The Moon The Stars The Seasons

### EARTHS SHAPE AND POLARIS PRACTICE 2017

1. In the diagram below, letters A through D represent the locations of four observers on the Earth's surface. Each observer has the same mass. 3. Which diagram most accurately shows the cross-sectional

### 4. What verb is used to describe Earth s

Name: Date: 1 Read the text and then answer the questions. No matter where on Earth you live, you have day and night. That happens because of a movement of Earth called rotation. Earth rotates, or turns,

### The Earth-Moon-Sun System

chapter 7 The Earth-Moon-Sun System section 2 Time and Seasons What You ll Learn how to calculate time and date in different time zones how to distinguish rotation and revolution what causes seasons Before

### Practice Seasons Moon Quiz

1. Which diagram represents the tilt of Earth's axis relative to the Sun's rays on December 15? A) B) C) D) 2. The diagram below represents Earth in space on the first day of a season. 5. Base your answer

### Planet Earth. Part 2

Planet Earth Part 2 Sun, Earth and Moon Motions The Solar System revolves around the Milky Way galaxy center. The Sun rotates on its own axis. Earth revolves around the Sun (1 year) and rotates on its

### Earth Motions Packet 14

Earth Motions Packet 14 Your Name Group Members Score Minutes Standard 4 Key Idea 1 Performance Indicator 1.1 Explain complex phenomena, such as tides, variations in day length, solar insolation, apparent

### Go to Click on the first animation: The north pole, observed from space

IDS 102 The Seasons on a Planet like Earth As the Earth travels around the Sun, it moves in a giant circle 300 million kilometers across. (Well, it is actually a giant ellipse but the shape is so close

### Earth in Space. The Sun-Earth-Moon System

in Space The --Moon System What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with the statement or a D if

### astronomy A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were

### 4 th Grade: Sun, Moon, and Earth Unit Assessment Study Guide

Name: Teacher: Test Date: 4 th Grade: Sun, Moon, and Earth Unit Assessment Study Guide Vocabulary: Solar System: A group of objects that revolve around a single star. Sun: The central (and only) star in

### ASTRONOMY. Chapter 4 EARTH, MOON, AND SKY PowerPoint Image Slideshow

ASTRONOMY Chapter 4 EARTH, MOON, AND SKY PowerPoint Image Slideshow FIGURE 4.1 Southern Summer. As captured with a fish-eye lens aboard the Atlantis Space Shuttle on December 9, 1993, Earth hangs above

### Name Homeroom. Science Quiz Day/Night, Sun s Energy, Seasons September 24, 2012

Name Homeroom Science Quiz Day/Night, Sun s Energy, Seasons September 24, 2012 1. The winter solstice occurs on either December 21 or 22, depending on the year. Which of the following statements best explains

### Chapter 4 Earth, Moon, and Sky 107

Chapter 4 Earth, Moon, and Sky 107 planetariums around the world. Figure 4.4 Foucault s Pendulum. As Earth turns, the plane of oscillation of the Foucault pendulum shifts gradually so that over the course

### Astronomy Review. Use the following four pictures to answer questions 1-4.

Astronomy Review Use the following four pictures to answer questions 1-4. 1. Put an X through the pictures that are NOT possible. 2. Circle the picture that could be a lunar eclipse. 3. Triangle the picture

### Types of intertidal communities

Between the tides Marine ecosystems 1 Intertidal Delimited by the highest high tide and the lowest low tides marks The best studied and best-understood by humans Relatively easy to sample compared to other

### SC.8.E.5.9. Summer and Winter Gizmo

8 th Grade Science Quarter 1 Recovery Packet SC.8.E.5.9 DAYS/YEARS/SEASONS Go to www.explorelearning.com and search for the Summer and Winter Gizmo. Answer the following questions: Gizmo Warm-up Summer

### Tilted Earth Lab Why Do We Have Seasons?

Name Class Tilted Earth Lab Why Do We Have Seasons? Purpose: In this investigation, you are going to figure out how the axis (or tilt) of the Earth, combined with the revolution (orbit) of Earth around

### The Earth and its representation

GEOGRAPHY UNIT 1 The Earth and its representation THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND THE EARTH THE SOLAR SYSTEM The solar system is a planetary system. Is a group of astronomical objects who surround a star, in this

### Tools of Astronomy Tools of Astronomy

Tools of Astronomy Tools of Astronomy The light that comes to Earth from distant objects is the best tool that astronomers can use to learn about the universe. In most cases, there is no other way to study

### Astronomy Practice Test

Name: ate: 1. In laska, there are fewer hours of daylight in the winter than in the summer. Which statement best explains why this difference occurs?. The Sun burns hotter in the summer.. The Sun moves

### GRADE 7 NATURAL SCIENCES TERM 4 PLANET EARTH AND BEYOND

GRADE 7 NATURAL SCIENCES TERM 4 PLANET EARTH AND BEYOND TOPIC 1 UNIT 1 THE SUN EARTH S AXIS EARTH S SEASONS DIRECT AND OBLIQUE RAYS OF THE SUN TOPIC 2 UNIT 2 SOLSTICE AND EQUINOX TOPIC 3 UNIT 3 GRAVITY

### Earth, Sun, and Stars

Earth, Sun, and Stars Daily Patterns Earth Spins Earth is always moving, even though you don t feel it. One way Earth moves is by spinning around an imaginary line. One end of the line would come out of

### L.O: THE ANGLE OF INSOLATION ANGLE INSOLATION: THE ANGLE SUNLIGHT HITS THE EARTH

L.O: THE ANGLE OF INSOLATION ANGLE INSOLATION: THE ANGLE SUNLIGHT HITS THE EARTH 1. The graph below shows air temperatures on a clear summer day from 7 a.m. to 12 noon at two locations, one in Florida

### Name: Earth and Space Assessment Study Guide. Assessment Date : Term Rotation Revolution

Name: Earth and Space Assessment Study Guide Assessment Date : Earth s Rotation and Revolution Term Rotation Revolution Brief Definition Earth s Time to Complete One complete spin on an axis 24 hours (or

### Discovering the Universe for Yourself (Chapter 2) Years, Seasons, and Months: The Motions of Sun, Earth, and Moon

Discovering the Universe for Yourself (Chapter 2) Years, Seasons, and Months: The Motions of Sun, Earth, and Moon Based on Chapter 2 This material will be useful for understanding Chapters 3 and 4 on The

### Astronomy 101 Lab: Seasons

Name: Astronomy 101 Lab: Seasons Pre-Lab Assignment: In class, we've talked about the cause of the seasons. In this lab, you will use globes to study the relative positions of Earth and the Sun during

### The Motion of the Earth, Moon and Sun 3

CONTENTS The Motion of the Earth, Moon and Sun 3 Phases of the Moon 5 Moon Observations 6 Modelling the Phases of the Moon 11 Using the Model to understand phases 12 Phases of Other Objects 14 Understanding

### CHAPTER 2 Strand 1: Structure and Motion within the Solar System

CHAPTER 2 Strand 1: Structure and Motion within the Solar System Chapter Outline 2.1 EARTH, MOON, AND SUN SYSTEM (6.1.1) 2.2 GRAVITY AND INERTIA (6.1.2) 2.3 SCALE OF SOLAR SYSTEM (6.1.3) 2.4 REFERENCES

### THE EARTH AND ITS REPRESENTATION

UNIT 7 THE EARTH AND ITS REPRESENTATION TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 THE EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM... 2 2 THE EARTH S MOVEMENTS... 2 2.1 Rotation.... 2 2.2 The revolution of the Earth: seasons of the year....

### Day, Night, Year, and Seasons

Welcome Astronomers to the Sun, Moon, and Earth! The relationship between the Sun, Moon, and Earth is very important to the existence of life on Earth. Our quest is to find out how their relationships

### The Sun-Earth-Moon System. Learning Guide. Visit for Online Learning Resources. Copyright NewPath Learning

The Sun-Earth-Moon System Learning Guide Visit www.newpathlearning.com for Online Learning Resources. Copyright NewPath Learning Table of Contents Lesson 1 - How the Earth Moves... 2 Lesson 2 - Seasons

### 3. This room is located in a building in New York State. On which side of the building is the window located? (1) north (3) east (2) south (4) west

1. The planetary winds in Earth s Northern Hemisphere generally curve to the right due to Earth s (1) orbit around the Sun (2) spin on its axis (3) magnetic field (4) force of gravity Base your answers

### Which graph best shows the relationship between intensity of insolation and position on the Earth's surface? A) B) C) D)

1. The hottest climates on Earth are located near the Equator because this region A) is usually closest to the Sun B) reflects the greatest amount of insolation C) receives the most hours of daylight D)

### SAMPLE First Midterm Exam

Astronomy 1000 Dr C. Barnbaum SAMPLE First Midterm Exam Note: This is a sample exam. It is NOT the exam you will take. I give out sample exams so that you will have an understanding of the depth of knowledge

### 2nd Grade Changing of Earth

Slide 1 / 133 Slide 2 / 133 2nd Grade Changing of Earth 2015-11-23 www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 133 Table of Contents: Changing of Earth Earth and Moon Cycles Weather Cycles The Rock Cycle Defined Events Gradual

### Page 1. Name:

Name: 1) What is the primary reason New York State is warmer in July than in February? A) The altitude of the noon Sun is greater in February. B) The insolation in New York is greater in July. C) The Earth

### What causes the tides in the ocean?

What causes the tides in the ocean? By NASA and NOAA, adapted by Newsela staff on 02.09.17 Word Count 686 Level 830L Flying gulls on Morro Strand State Beach, California, at low tide. Morro Rock is seen

### 2nd Grade. Earth and Moon Cycles. Slide 1 / 133 Slide 2 / 133. Slide 3 / 133. Slide 4 / 133. Slide 5 / 133. Slide 6 / 133.

Slide 1 / 133 Slide 2 / 133 2nd Grade Changing of Earth 2015-11-23 www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 133 Slide 4 / 133 Table of Contents: Changing of Earth Earth and Moon Cycles Click on the topic to go to that

### (1) Over the course of a day, the sun angle at any particular place varies. Why?

(1) Over the course of a day, the sun angle at any particular place varies. Why? (Note: Although all responses below are true statements, only one of them actually explains the observation!) (A)The sun

### 1. The diagram below shows Earth, four different positions of the Moon, and the direction of incoming sunlight.

G8 Semester I MCAS Pre-Test Please answer on Scantron Card; not on this test form Standard: 9 - Describe lunar and solar eclipses, the observed moon phases, and tides. Relate them to the relative positions

### Practice Exam #3. Part 1: The Circumpolar Constellations

Practice Exam #3 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Some Comments on the Real Exam This exam covers all material related to astronomy.

### 1. Which continents are experiencing daytime? 2. Which continents are experiencing nighttime?

Name: Section: Astronomy 101: Seasons Lab Objective: When you have completed this lab, you will be able to describe the seasons of the year and explain the reasons for those seasons. Answer the questions

### SUBJECT : GEOGRAPHY ROTATION AND REVOLUTION This paper consists of 5 printed pages.

SUBJECT : GEOGRAPHY ROTATION AND REVOLUTION 2017-2018 This paper consists of 5 printed pages. 1. Name the motions of the earth. A. They are Rotation and Revolution. 2. What is Rotation? A. Rotation is

### The Ecliptic on the Celestial. Sphere. The Celestial Sphere. Astronomy 210. Section 1 MWF Astronomy Building. celestial equator are not

Astronomy 210 Section 1 MWF 1500-1550 134 Astronomy Building This Class (Lecture 3): Lunar Phases Check Planetarium Schedule Next Class: HW1 Due Friday! Early Cosmology Music: We only Come out at Night

Passwords ScienceVocabulary F To the Student Mitosis. Apogee. Ion. Sometimes it seems that scientists speak a language all their own. Passwords: Science Vocabulary will help you learn the words you need

### Earth in Space. Guide for Reading How does Earth move in space? What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth?

Earth in Space How does Earth move in space? What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth? The study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space is called astronomy. Ancient astronomers studied the movements

### Temperature Changes OBJECTIVES PREPARATION SCHEDULE MATERIALS. The students. For each student. For each team of two. For the class

activity 3 Temperature Changes OBJECTIVES Students observe changes in air temperature and discover the role of the Sun in heating Earth. The students measure and record outdoor air temperature at three

### A) M D) The Moon s distance from Earth varies in a cyclic manner.

Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the diagram below, which shows Earth in orbit around the Sun, and the Moon in orbit around Earth. M 1, M 2, M 3, and M 4 indicate positions of the Moon in its

### The SMILE Program August Teachers Workshop, 2004 Tracking Tides Tracking the Tides

Tracking the Tides Tides are the periodic rise and fall of the ocean waters. They are caused by the gravitational pulls of the moon and (to a lesser extent) sun, as well as the rotation of the Earth. The

### Lesson IV. TOPEX/Poseidon Measuring Currents from Space

Lesson IV. TOPEX/Poseidon Measuring Currents from Space The goal of this unit is to explain in detail the various measurements taken by the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. Keywords: ocean topography, geoid,

### Intensity of Light and Heat. The second reason that scientists prefer the word intensity is Well, see for yourself.

IDS 102 Intensity of Light and Heat When talking about a light source, most people are more comfortable with the word brightness than they are with the word intensity. Scientists generally prefer the word

### GLOBE : LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES

2 Figure 2.1 : Globe Let s Do Take a big round potato or a ball. Pierce a knitting needle through it. The needle resembles the axis shown in a globe. You can now move the potato or the ball around this

### Seasons. What causes the seasons?

Questions: Seasons What causes the seasons? How do we mark the progression of the seasons? What is the seasonal motion of the sun in the sky? What could cause the seasonal motion of the sun to change over

### 5 - Seasons. Figure 1 shows two pictures of the Sun taken six months apart with the same camera, at the same time of the day, from the same location.

ASTR 110L 5 - Seasons Purpose: To plot the distance of the Earth from the Sun over one year and to use the celestial sphere to understand the cause of the seasons. What do you think? Write answers to questions

### Earth & Space. Learning Target:

Earth & Space Learning Target: Most of the cycles and patterns of motion between the Earth and sun are predictable. You understand this when you know: 1) 1 Revolution of the Earth takes approximately 365

### Climate versus Weather

Climate versus Weather What is climate? Climate is the average weather usually taken over a 30-year time period for a particular region and time period. Climate is not the same as weather, but rather,

### 1. The pictures below show the Sun at midday. Write winter, spring or summer under the correct picture.

Test 2 1. The pictures below show the Sun at midday. Write winter, spring or summer under the correct picture. 2. Look carefully at the phases of the Moon. Number them (1 to 4) in the order that you would

### Name Period Chapter 12 &13 Study Guide

Name Period Chapter 12 &13 Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When are tides highest? a. during the moon s first quarter phase

### Exploration Phase What are the differences between these pictures?

Light Power and seasons Exploration Phase What are the differences between these pictures? 1 Lab Activity: Lab Activity Obtain a Styrofoam ball. This will represent the earth. Stick a push pin into the

### 01) The Sun s rays strike the surface of the Earth at 90 degrees at the on December 22.

Package Title: Testbank Course Title: Introducing Physical Geography 6e Chapter Number: 01 Question Type: Multiple Choice 01) The Sun s rays strike the surface of the Earth at 90 degrees at the on December

### L ESSON P LAN:DETERMINING THE E FFECT OF D ISTANCE (PART 1) AND I NCLINATION (PART 2)

L ESSON P LAN:DETERMINING THE E FFECT OF D ISTANCE (PART 1) AND I NCLINATION (PART 2) In the activity at the heart of this lesson, the students will measure the effect of distance and inclination on the

### SPI Use data to draw conclusions about the major components of the universe.

SPI 0607.6.1 - Use data to draw conclusions about the major components of the universe. o Stars are huge, hot, brilliant balls of gas trillions of kilometers away. A Galaxy is a collection of billions

### For most observers on Earth, the sun rises in the eastern

632 CHAPTER 25: EARTH, SUN, AND SEASONS WHAT IS THE SUN S APPARENT PATH ACROSS THE SKY? For most observers on Earth, the sun rises in the eastern part of the sky. The sun reaches its greatest angular altitude

### Which table correctly shows the dates on which the apparent paths of the Sun were observed? A) B) C) D)

1. The diagram below represents the horizon and the Sun's apparent paths, A, B, and C, on three different dates, as viewed from the same location in New York State. Which table correctly shows the dates

### Name Regents Review Packet #2 Date

Name Regents Review Packet #2 Date Base your answers to questions 1 through 5 on diagram below, which represents the Sun s apparent paths and the solar noon positions for an observer at 42 N latitude on

### 1. Determine the length of time between the two high tides shown for May 13.

Name Roy G Biv Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the diagrams and tables below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Each diagram represents the Moon's orbital position and each table lists

### Practice Questions: Seasons #1

1. Seasonal changes on Earth are primarily caused by the A) parallelism of the Sun's axis as the Sun revolves around Earth B) changes in distance between Earth and the Sun C) elliptical shape of Earth's

### drinking straw, protractor, string, and rock. observer on Earth. Sun across the sky on March 21 as seen by an

1. The diagram below represents some constellations and one position of Earth in its orbit around the Sun. These constellations are visible to an observer on Earth at different times of the year. When