CHAPTER 1: MINERALS: DEFINITION, PROPERTIES AND OCCURRENCES. Sarah Lambart

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1 CHAPTER 1: MINERALS: DEFINITION, PROPERTIES AND OCCURRENCES Sarah Lambart

2 CONTENT OF CHAPTER 1 Goal: learn how to describe and classify minerals 3 elements of classification: chemistry, structure and environment Outline: Occurrences of minerals Classification of minerals Physical properties of minerals

3 Definitions: A mineral is always (1) inorganic, (2) naturally occurring, (3) with a structure and a composition that give it defined macroscopic properties. A mineral is most of the time a (1) crystal and (2) a solid. A crystal is a homogeneous chemical compound with a regular and periodic arrangement of atoms. These arrangements present symmetries. A crystal is not always a mineral. It can be synthetic or organic (e.g., proteins)

4 MINERAL OCCURRENCES AND ENVIRONMENTS Igneous Half dome, Yosemite (granite) Sedimentary Montaña de Oro State Beach (shales) Metamorphic Sequoia National Forest California (marble, schist and gneiss)

5 COMMON MINERALS & MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Metamorphic Omphacite (amphibole) Jadeite (pyroxene) Epidote, chlorite Sedimentary Carbonates (calcite, dolomite, ) Salts (halite) Gypsum Igneous: Olivine + pyroxenes Plagioclases + pyroxenes

6 ADDITIONAL SLIDE Minerals in igneous rock Acid (SiO 2 >63 wt. %) Rock names Rhyolite, granite (intrusive, extrusive) Common minerals Quartz, alkali feldspar (plagioclase, hornblende, micas) Intermediate (52<SiO 2 <63 wt. %) Andesite, dacite, diorite, tonalite, Sodic plagioclase (hornblende, biotite, quartz, pyroxene). Basic (45<SiO 2 <52 wt. %) Basalt, gabbro, pyroxenites pyroxene, plagioclase, (Olivine, iron oxide, titanium oxide, quartz, amphibole, micas) Ultrabasic (SiO 2 <45 wt. %) Peridotite, kimberlite Olivine, pyroxene (plagioclase garnet, amphibole, spinel, micas)

7 ADDITIONAL SLIDE Minerals in sedimentary rocks Clastic sedimentary rocks Conglomerates and breccias (>2mm) Sandstones (0.06-2mm) Mudrocks (<0.06mm) quartz, gold, diamond, apatite, calcite, and clays Chemical sedimentary rocks Siliceous rocks (silex) Evaporite Limestone, dolostone Organic sedimentary rocks Carbonate rocks (guano, coal) calcite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and sylvite, borate minerals phosphates, graphite, calcite, fossils

8 ADDITIONAL SLIDE Minerals in metamorphic rocks Basic rock (basalt, gabbro) Clay-rich sedimentary rock (shale, mudstone) Limestone Metabasite Metapelite Marble Amphiboles +epidote for LMG +plagioclase for HMG Muscovite + Quartz +chlorite, biotite garnet for LMG +sillimanite, opx, cordierite for HMG Calcite or dolomite +micas, quartz, clay, pyrite

9 CLASSIFICATION AND NAMING >4000 mineral species Classification: based on the dominant anion

10 Sulfates: with SO 4 2- Phosphates: with PO 4 3-, (or AsO 4 3-,VO 4 3- ) Borates: with BO 3 2- (or BO 4 5- ) Gypsum (CaSO 4 2H 2 O). Apatite Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH) Borax Na 2 B III 2 BIV 2 O 5 (OH) 4 8H 2 O Oxide: Cation + oxygen Hydroxides: with OH - Carbonates & nitrates : with CO 3 2- (or NO 3- ) hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) Ex.: magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) Brucite Mg(OH) 2 Ex.: gibbsite Al(OH) 3 Calcite CaCO 3 Ex.: Nitratite NaNO 3

11 Native: no anion Sulfide: with S 2-, (or As, Te) Halides: contained halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) Gold (Au) Ex.: Pt, Ag, Cu, C(graphite or diamond) pyrite(fes 2 ) Ex.: galena (PbS 2 ), sphalerite (ZnS) table-salt (NaCl) Ex.: Fluorite (CaF 2 ) Silicates: with SiO 4 4-

12 SILICATES Orthosilicates Olivine (Fe,Mg)2SiO4 Ex.: pyrope Mg3Al2Si3O12 Chain silicates Amphibole Sorosilicates Epidote Ca2Al2FeO(OH)SiO4 Si2O7 Sheet silicates Muscovite Cyclosilicates Tourmaline Framework silicates (or tectosilicates) Quartz SiO2 Ex.: Feldspar NaAlSi3O8

13 DIAGNOSTIC PROPERTIES - Habit - Morphology - Transparency - Luster - Color - Streak - Tenacity - Cleavage and fractures - Density - Hardness - Others

14 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Habit Euhedral Subhedral Anhedral Tabular/platy Prismatic, acidular, fibrous Morphologies: Granular

15 Transparency Transparent (quartz) Luster Translucent (garnet) opaque (lapis-lazuli) Metallic (pyrite) Submetallic (rutile) Adamantine (diamond) Resinous (amber) Vitreous (amethyst quartz) Earthy (desert flower)

16 ADDITIONAL SLIDE Luster examples

17 Color Streak Smithsonian collection (D.C.) Tenacity Credits: depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/ geology/core332/minerals.htm Definition: the ability of a mineral to deform plastically under stress: Brittle > Sectile > Ductile

18 Cleavage Definition: Cleavage = plane of weakness. Fracture Conchoidal fractures (obsidian) Density (or specific gravity) Most silicates have a density between 2.6 and 3.5 g/cm 3

19 Hardness Mohs scale Moh s scale 1 Talc 2 Gypsum 3 Calcite 4 Fluorite 5 Apatite 6 Orthoclase 7 Quartz 8 Topaz 9 Corundum 10 Diamond Fingernail: 2.5 Copper penny: 3 Window glass: 5.5 Steel nail: 6.5

20 Other properties Taste Magnetism: magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 )> ilmenite (FeTiO 3 ) > pyrolusite (MnO 2 ) Acid-test: Calcite Fluorescence (Fluorite (CaF 2 ), calcite (CaCO 3 ), nepheline) Radioactivity (uraninite (UO 2 ), thorite (ThSiO 4 ), carnotite) Pleochroism Electrical conductivity

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