Unit 2 Exam: Rocks & Minerals

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1 Name: Date: 1. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the 2001 edition of the Earth Science Reference Tables, the map and cross section below, and your knowledge of Earth science. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers (layers of rock formed from the evaporation of seawater) under the surface bedrock. The cross section shows the generalized structure of the area in which the evaporite layers are found in New York State. Each of these evaporite rocks is normally formed by A. chemical processes B. cooling of lava C. decreased heat and pressure D. melting of magma 2. Which sequence of change in rock type occurs as shale is subjected to increasing heat and pressure? A. shale schist phyllite slate gneiss B. shale slate phyllite schist gneiss C. shale gneiss phyllite slate schist D. shale gneiss phyllite schist slate page 1

2 3. The accompanying diagram shows four rock samples. Which sample best shows the physical properties normally associated with regional metamorphism? A. A B. B C. C D. D 4. When granite melts and then solidifies, it becomes A. a sedimentary rock B. an igneous rock C. a metamorphic rock D. sediments 5. Which process could lead directly to the formation of pumice rock? A. precipitation of minerals from evaporating seawater B. metamorphism of unmelted rock material C. deposition of quartz sand D. explosive eruption of lava from a volcano page 2

3 6. In which set are the rock drawings labeled with their correct rock types? A. B. C. D. 7. Obsidian s glassy texture indicates that it formed A. slowly, deep below Earth s surface B. slowly, on Earth s surface C. quickly, deep below Earth s surface D. quickly, on Earth s surface page 3

4 8. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below, which represents a rock composed of cemented pebbles and sand. This rock should be classified as A. an intrusive igneous rock B. an extrusive igneous rock C. a bioclastic sedimentary rock D. a clastic sedimentary rock 9. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the Earth Science Reference Tables, the cross section below, and your knowledge of Earth science. Letters A through J represent rock units. An uncomformity is shown at letter X. A fault is shown at letter Y. Rock I was formed deep underground and is composed of 70% pyroxene, 15% plagioclase, 10% olivine, and 5% hornblende. Rock I is classified as A. granite B. gabbro C. rhyolite D. basalt page 4

5 10. The graph below represents the percentage of each mineral found in a sample of rock C. Which mineral is most likely represented by the letter X in the graph? A. potassium feldspar B. plagioclase feldspar C. quartz D. biotite 11. Which sedimentary rock may have both a chemical origin and an organic origin? A. limestone B. rock gypsum C. rock salt D. shale 12. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the Earth Science Reference Tables, the table below, and your knowledge of Earth science. The table provides information about the crystal sizes and the mineral compositions of four igneous rocks, A, B, C, and D. Rock B most likely is A. conglomerate B. schist C. obsidian D. peridotite page 5

6 13. A rock is composed of several large, rounded pebbles and sand grains cemented together. Which inference about the rock is best supported by this description? A. The rock is older than the pebbles. B. The rock is igneous. C. The rock is sedimentary. D. The rock resulted from evaporation of seawater. 14. Which property of a mineral most directly results from the internal arrangements of its atoms? A. volume B. color C. crystal shape D. streak 15. The internal atomic structure of a mineral most likely determines the mineral s A. color, streak, and age B. origin, exposure, and fracture C. size, location, and luster D. hardness, cleavage, and crystal shape 16. Which home-building material is made mostly from the mineral gypsum? A. plastic pipes B. window glass C. drywall panels D. iron nails 17. Biotite mica and muscovite mica have different chemical compositions. Compared to the magma from which biotite mica forms, the magma from which muscovite mica forms is usually A. more mafic and less dense B. more mafic and more dense C. more felsic and less dense D. more felsic and more dense page 6

7 18. Which minerals contain the two most abundant elements by mass in Earth s crust? A. fluorite and calcite B. magnetite and pyrite C. amphibole and quartz D. galena and sulfur 19. Which mineral property is illustrated by the peeling of muscovite mica into thin, flat sheets? A. luster B. streak C. hardness D. cleavage 20. Which property of the mineral diamond allows diamond powder to be used to shape gems for jewelry? A. crystal shape B. cleavage C. luster D. hardness 21. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the Properties of Common Minerals chart in the Earth Science Reference Tables. Which mineral leaves a green-black powder when rubbed against an unglazed porcelain plate? A. galena B. graphite C. hematite D. pyrite 22. A human fingernail has a hardness of approximately 2.5. Which two minerals are softer than a human fingernail? A. calcite and halite B. sulfur and fluorite C. graphite and talc D. pyrite and magnetite page 7

8 23. The photograph below shows the intergrown crystals of a pegmatite rock. (Actual size) Which characteristic provides the best evidence that this pegmatite solidified deep underground? A. low density B. light color C. felsic composition D. very coarse texture 24. The mineral graphite is often used as A. a lubricant B. an abrasive C. a source of iron D. a cementing material page 8

9 25. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below below, which represents a part of the rock cycle. The igneous rock, granite, and the characteristics of sedimentary rock X and metamorphic rock Y are shown. Identify sedimentary rock X. 26. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram and information below. The diagram shows a cross section of a portion of Earth s crust that has undergone geological processes. Overturning of rock layers has not occurred. Point A represents one location of metamorphic rock. State the name of the rock, formed by contact metamorphism, located at A. page 9

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