URRY CAIN WASSERMAN MINORSKY REECE What kind of organism is this? 2016 Pearson Education, Inc Pearson Education, Inc.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "URRY CAIN WASSERMAN MINORSKY REECE What kind of organism is this? 2016 Pearson Education, Inc Pearson Education, Inc."

Transcription

1 2 MPELL IOLOGY IN FOUS URRY IN WSSERMN MINORSKY REEE What kind of organism is this? Phylogeny Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge, Simon Fraser University SEON EITION onvergent evolution of limbless bodies No limbs Eastern glass lizard Phylogeny of lizards and Snakes No limbs Eastern glass lizard Monitor lizard Monitor lizard Iguanas NESTRL Iguanas Legless lizard known as the eastern glass lizard LIZR (with limbs) No limbs Snakes Geckos NESTRL LIZR (with limbs) No limbs Snakes Geckos oth eastern glass lizard and snakes both evolved from different lineages of lizards with legs Investigating the Tree of Life Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species The discipline of systematics classifies organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships Systematists use fossil, molecular, and genetic data to infer evolutionary relationships oncept 2.: Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships Organisms share many characteristics because of common ancestry Taxonomy is the ordered division and naming of organisms inomial Nomenclature In the 8th century, arolus Linnaeus published a system of taxonomy based on resemblances Two key features of his system remain useful today: twopart names for species and hierarchical classification

2 inomial Nomenclature The two-part scientific name of a species is called a binomial The first part of the name is the genus The second part, called the specific epithet, is unique for each species within the genus The first letter of the genus is capitalized, and the entire species name is italicized oth parts together name the species (not the specific epithet alone) Linnaean classification. omain: acteria Species: Panthera pardus Genus: Panthera Family: Felidae Order: arnivora lass: Mammalia Phylum: hordata Kingdom: nimalia omain: rchaea omain: Eukarya Hierarchical lassification Linnaeus introduced a system for grouping species in increasingly broad categories The taxonomic groups from broad to narrow are domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species taxonomic unit at any level of hierarchy is called a taxon Ex. Panthera is a taxon at the genus level Linking lassification and Phylogeny Systematics is the study of biological diversity and the evolutionary relationships among organisms, both extinct and modern Systematists depict evolutionary relationships in branching phylogenetic trees Linnaean classification and phylogeny can differ from each other Systematists have proposed that classification be based entirely on evolutionary relationships onnection between classification & phylogeny is the most recent common ancestor of all members of the weasel (Mustelidae) and dog (anidae). 2 is the most recent common ancestor of coyotes and gray wolves. ranch point: where lineages diverge NESTRL LINEGE How to read a phylogenetic tree This branch point represents the common ancestor of taxa G. Taxon Taxon Taxon Taxon Taxon E Taxon F Taxon G This branch point forms a polytomy: an unresolved pattern of divergence. Sister taxa asal taxon 2

3 How to read a phylogenetic tree phylogenetic tree represents a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships Each branch point represents the divergence of two taxa from a common ancestor Sister taxa are groups that share an immediate common ancestor rooted tree includes a branch to represent the most recent common ancestor of all taxa in the tree basal taxon diverges early in the history of a group and originates near the common ancestor of the group How to read a phylogenetic tree polytomy is a branch from which more than two groups emerge rooted tree includes a branch to represent the most recent common ancestor of all taxa in the tree basal taxon diverges early in the history of a group and originates near the common ancestor of the group polytomy is a branch from which more than two groups emerge oncept heck This cladogram represents an imaginary group of organisms,,,, and E. common ancestor for species and E would be at which position number? oncept heck This cladogram represents an imaginary group of organisms,,,, and E. common ancestor for species and E would be at which position number? E E. What We an and annot Learn from Phylogenetic Trees Phylogenetic trees show patterns of descent, not phenotypic similarity Phylogenetic trees do not indicate when species evolved or how much change occurred in a lineage It should not be assumed that a taxon evolved from the taxon next to it Figure 2.6 Results What is the species identity of food being sold as whale meat? Minke (Southern Hemisphere) mtn Unknown mtn #a, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Minke (North tlantic) mtn Unknown mtn #9 Humpback mtn Unknown mtn #b lue mtn Unknown mtn #,, 2, 3 Fin mtn 3

4 pplying Phylogenies Phylogeny provides important information about similar characteristics in closely related species Phylogenetic trees based on N sequences can be used to infer species identities For example: phylogeny was used to identify the species of whale from which whale meat originated When anthrax spores were sent to a politicians and journalists in fall 2, researchers used phylogenetic trees based on N data to identify the strain of bacterium. Which of the trees shown below depicts a different evolutionary history for taxa -? () () () Which of the trees shown below depicts a different evolutionary history for taxa -? oncept 2.2: Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data To infer phylogeny, systematists gather information about morphologies, genes, and biochemistry of the relevant organisms The similarities used to infer phylogenies must result from shared ancestry () () () Morphological and Molecular Homologies Phenotypic and genetic similarities due to shared ancestry are called homologies Organisms with similar morphologies or N sequences are likely to be more closely related than organisms with different structures or sequences oncept heck phylogenetic tree is a:. hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a species.. guess about the evolutionary history of a species.. factual representation of the evolutionary history of a species. detailed timeline of a species evolutionary history. E. None of the above. 4

5 oncept heck phylogenetic tree is a:. hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a species.. guess about the evolutionary history of a species.. factual representation of the evolutionary history of a species. detailed timeline of a species evolutionary history. E. None of the above. Sorting Homology and nalogy Homology is phenotypic and genotypic similarity due to shared ancestry nalogy is similarity due to convergent evolution When two organisms from different evolutionary lineages experience similar environmental pressures, natural selection may result in convergent evolution Figure 2.7 onvergent evolution of analogous borrowing characteristics onvergent evolution occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar (analogous) adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages ustralian marsupial mole North merican eutherian mole istinguishing homology from analogy oth birds and bats have adaptations that allow them to fly. at s wing shows a greater similarity to a cat s forelimb than to a bird s wing. Fossil evidence shows that bat and bird wings arose independently from walking forelimbs of different ancestors. at and bird wings are homologous as forelimbs, but analogous as functional wings Evaluating Molecular Homologies Molecular homologies are determined based on the degree of similarity in nucleotide sequence between taxa Systematists use computer programs when analyzing comparable N segments from different organisms Figure 2.8-s T G G T 5

6 Figure 2.8-s2 T G G T Figure 2.8-s3 T G G T eletion T G G T eletion T G G T G T Insertion G T Insertion T G T 2 T G T G G T Figure 2.8-s4 T G G T eletion T G G T G T Insertion T G T 2 T G T G G T. Homologous N segments in species and 2 2. eletion and insertion mutations appear in both species 3. Two shaded regions do not align because of mutations 4. omputer programs adds gaps in sequence to align similar sequences. T G T 2 T G T G G T Figure 2.9 Shared bases in nucleotide sequences that are otherwise very dissimilar are called molecular homoplasies G G T G T T G G T T G G G T T T T G T G oncept 2.3: Shared characters are used to construct phylogenetic trees Once homologous characters have been identified, they can be used to infer a phylogeny ladistics ladistics classifies organisms by common descent clade is a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants lades can be nested within larger clades, but not all groupings of organisms qualify as clades 6

7 HRTERS (outgroup) Lamprey ass Turtle Leopard Monophyletic (single tribe) consists of the ancestral species and all its descendants Figure 2.-2 Paraphyletic (besides the tribe) consists of an ancestral species and some but not all of its descendants Figure 26.c Polyphyletic (besides the tribe) consist of various species with different ancestors ommon ancestor of even-toed ungulates Paraphyletic group Other even-toed ungulates Hippopotamuses etaceans Seals ears Polyphyletic group Other carnivores Shared ncestral and Shared erived haracters In comparison with its ancestor, an organism has both shared and different characteristics Using derived characters to infer phylogeny TX shared ancestral character is a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon ackbone in mammals shared derived character is an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade Hair in mammals When inferring evolutionary relationships, it is useful to know in which clade a shared derived character first appeared Vertebral column (backbone) Hinged jaws Four limbs mnion Hair (a) haracter table 7

8 HRTERS (outgroup) Lamprey ass Turtle Leopard Using derived characters to infer phylogeny Vertebral column Hinged jaws Four limbs (b) Phylogenetic tree mnion Hair (outgroup) Lamprey ass Turtle Leopard Figure 2.2 When inferring evolutionary relationships, it is useful to know in which clade a shared derived character first appeared Vertebral column (backbone) Hinged jaws Four limbs mnion Hair (a) haracter table TX Vertebral column Hinged jaws Four limbs mnion (b) Phylogenetic tree Hair (outgroup) Lamprey ass Turtle Leopard onsider the phylogeny below: n outgroup is a species or group of species that is closely related to the ingroup, the various species being studied The outgroup is a group that has diverged before the ingroup Systematists compare each ingroup species with the outgroup to differentiate between shared derived and shared ancestral characteristics Phylogenetic Tree Species M has green toes, and species L has red toes. If species H and K have green toes, what can we conclude about the evolution of red toes?. It occurred in the common ancestor of M, H, K, and L.. It occurred in the common ancestor of H, K, and L.. It occurred in the lineage leading to L after that lineage diverged from the common ancestor of H and K. Figure 2.3 Phylogenetic Trees with Proportional ranch Lengths In some trees, the length of a branch can reflect the number of genetic changes that have taken place in a particular N sequence in that lineage hicken Human Zebrafish rosophila Figure 2.4 ranch length can represent chronological time, and branching points can be determined from the fossil record rosophila Zebrafish hicken Human Mouse Mouse Millions of years ago Present 8

9 Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood Systematists can never be sure of finding the best tree in a large data set Maximum parsimony assumes that the tree that requires the fewest evolutionary events (appearances of shared derived characters) is the most likely The principle of maximum likelihood states that, given certain rules about how N changes over time, a tree can be found that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events Phylogenetic Trees as Hypotheses Phylogenetic bracketing allows us to predict that, features shared by two groups of closely related organisms are present in ancestors and all of its descendants For example, phylogenetic bracketing allows us to infer characteristics of dinosaurs based on shared characters in modern birds and crocodiles ommon ancestor of crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds Lizards and snakes rocodilians Ornithischian dinosaurs Saurischian dinosaurs other than birds irds irds and crocodiles share several features: four-chambered hearts, song, nest building, and egg brooding These characteristics likely evolved in a common ancestor and were shared by all of its descendants, including dinosaurs The fossil record supports nest building and brooding in dinosaurs oncept 2.5: New information continues to revise our understanding of evolutionary history Recently, systematists have gained insight into the very deepest branches of the tree of life through analysis of N sequence data Front limb Hind limb Eggs (a) Fossil remains of Oviraptor and eggs (b) rtist s reconstruction of the dinosaur s posture based on the fossil findings From Two Kingdoms to Three omains Early taxonomists classified all species as either plants or animals Later, five kingdoms were recognized: Monera (prokaryotes), Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and nimalia More recently, the three-domain system has been adopted: acteria, rchaea, and Eukarya The three-domain system is supported by data from many sequenced genomes The three domains of life OMMON NESTOR OF LL LIFE Euglenozoans Forams iatoms iliates Red algae Green algae Plants moebas Fungi nimals Nanoarchaeotes Euryarcheotes renarcheotes Proteobacteria (Mitochondria)* hlamydias Spirochetes Gram-positive bacteria yanobacteria (hloroplasts)* omain Eukarya omain rchaea omain acteria 9

10 The three-domain system highlights the importance of single-celled organisms in the history of life omains acteria and rchaea are single-celled prokaryotes omains Eukarya are single-celled or multicellular eukaryotes Only three lineages in the domain Eukarya are dominated by multicellular organisms, as kingdoms Plantae, Fungi, and nimalia The Important Role of Horizontal Gene Transfer The tree of life suggests that eukaryotes and archaea are more closely related to each other than to bacteria The tree of life is based largely on rrn genes, which have evolved slowly, allowing detection of homologies between distantly related organisms Other genes indicate different evolutionary relationships There have been substantial interchanges of genes between organisms in different domains Horizontal gene transfer is the movement of genes from one genome to another Horizontal gene transfer occurs by exchange of transposable elements and plasmids, viral infection, and fusion of organisms Horizontal gene transfer complicates efforts to build a tree of life Horizontal Gene Transfer tangled web of life ncestral cell populations Plantae Methanogens Thermophiles yanobacteria Proteobacteria omain Eukarya omain rchaea omain acteria You should now be able to:. efine Phylogeny, Taxonomy, Systematics, 2. Know the correct hierarchy of the Linnaean system of classification 3. Know the difference between homology and analogy 4. Know the importance of phylogenetic trees 5. efine lade, Monophyletic, Paraphyletic, and Polyphyletic 6. Know the modern classification system. What modern criterion is used for its construction?

Phylogeny CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS SECOND EDITION URRY CAIN WASSERMAN MINORSKY REECE

Phylogeny CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS SECOND EDITION URRY CAIN WASSERMAN MINORSKY REECE CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS URRY CAIN WASSERMAN MINORSKY REECE 20 Phylogeny Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge, Simon Fraser University SECOND EDITION Investigating the Evolutionary

More information

20 Phylogeny CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS. Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece. Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge

20 Phylogeny CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS. Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece. Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece 20 Phylogeny Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge Overview: Investigating the Evolutionary History of

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life /5/4 LETURE PRESENTTIONS For MPELL IOLOY, NINTH EITION Jane. Reece, Lisa. Urry, Michael L. ain, Steven. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert. Jackson hapter 6 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Overview: Investigating

More information

BIOLOGY. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson

BIOLOGY. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Concept 26.1: Phylogenies show

More information

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 1. Key Concepts Pertaining to Phylogeny 2. Determining Phylogenies 3. Evolutionary History Revealed in Genomes 1. Key Concepts Pertaining to Phylogeny PHYLOGENY

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

More information

8/23/2014. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

8/23/2014. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Objectives Explain the following characteristics of the Linnaean system of classification: a. binomial nomenclature b. hierarchical classification List the major

More information

Chapter 26. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. Lecture Presentations by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 26. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. Lecture Presentations by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Presentations by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Investigating the Tree of Life Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species or group of

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Biologists estimate that there are about 5 to 100 million species of organisms living on Earth today. Evidence from morphological, biochemical, and gene sequence

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Outline Overview: Investigating the Tree of Life Evolutionary biology is about both process and pattern. o The processes of evolution are natural selection

More information

Phylogeny & Systematics: The Tree of Life

Phylogeny & Systematics: The Tree of Life Phylogeny & Systematics: The Tree of Life An unexpected family tree. What are the evolutionary relationships among a human, a mushroom, and a tulip? Molecular systematics has revealed that despite appearances

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

PHYLOGENY & THE TREE OF LIFE

PHYLOGENY & THE TREE OF LIFE PHYLOGENY & THE TREE OF LIFE PREFACE In this powerpoint we learn how biologists distinguish and categorize the millions of species on earth. Early we looked at the process of evolution here we look at

More information

Phylogeny 9/8/2014. Evolutionary Relationships. Data Supporting Phylogeny. Chapter 26

Phylogeny 9/8/2014. Evolutionary Relationships. Data Supporting Phylogeny. Chapter 26 Phylogeny Chapter 26 Taxonomy Taxonomy: ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences Carolus Linnaeus developed binomial nomenclature,

More information

BIOLOGY. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson

BIOLOGY. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Investigating the Tree of Life

More information

Phylogeny Fig Overview: Inves8ga8ng the Tree of Life Phylogeny Systema8cs

Phylogeny Fig Overview: Inves8ga8ng the Tree of Life Phylogeny Systema8cs Ch. 26 Phylogeny BIOL 22 Fig. Fig.26 26 Overview: Inves8ga8ng the Tree of Life Phylogeny evoluonary history of a species or group of related species Systema8cs classifies organisms and determines their

More information

The History of Life on Earth

The History of Life on Earth LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 25 The History of Life on Earth

More information

UoN, CAS, DBSC BIOL102 lecture notes by: Dr. Mustafa A. Mansi. The Phylogenetic Systematics (Phylogeny and Systematics)

UoN, CAS, DBSC BIOL102 lecture notes by: Dr. Mustafa A. Mansi. The Phylogenetic Systematics (Phylogeny and Systematics) - Phylogeny? - Systematics? The Phylogenetic Systematics (Phylogeny and Systematics) - Phylogenetic systematics? Connection between phylogeny and classification. - Phylogenetic systematics informs the

More information

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter focus Shifting from the process of how evolution works to the pattern evolution produces over time. Phylogeny Phylon = tribe, geny = genesis or origin

More information

Ch. 26 Phylogeny BIOL 221

Ch. 26 Phylogeny BIOL 221 Ch. 26 Phylogeny BIOL 22 Fig. 26- Phylogeny Overview: Inves8ga8ng the Tree of Life evoluonary history of a species Systema8cs or group of related species classifies organisms and determines their evoluonary

More information

Macroevolution Part I: Phylogenies

Macroevolution Part I: Phylogenies Macroevolution Part I: Phylogenies Taxonomy Classification originated with Carolus Linnaeus in the 18 th century. Based on structural (outward and inward) similarities Hierarchal scheme, the largest most

More information

Taxonomy and Biodiversity

Taxonomy and Biodiversity Chapter 25/26 Taxonomy and Biodiversity Evolutionary biology The major goal of evolutionary biology is to reconstruct the history of life on earth Process: a- natural selection b- mechanisms that change

More information

CHAPTER 26 PHYLOGENY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Connecting Classification to Phylogeny

CHAPTER 26 PHYLOGENY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Connecting Classification to Phylogeny CHAPTER 26 PHYLOGENY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Connecting Classification to Phylogeny To trace phylogeny or the evolutionary history of life, biologists use evidence from paleontology, molecular data, comparative

More information

1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms.

1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. OBJECTIVE SHEET SYSTEMATICS AND CLASSIFICATION 1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. 2. Clarify the purpose behind systematics and phylogeny. 3. Identify the structures of a phylogenetic

More information

Phylogeny and Systematics

Phylogeny and Systematics Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systematics PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Modified by Maria Morlin racing phylogeny Phylogeny: he evolutionary

More information

KEY CONCEPTS OVERVIEW

KEY CONCEPTS OVERVIEW 0 Phylogeny Figure 0.1 What kind of organism is this? Figure 0.0 KEY CONCEPTS 0.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships 0. Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data 0.3 Shared

More information

Outline. Classification of Living Things

Outline. Classification of Living Things Outline Classification of Living Things Chapter 20 Mader: Biology 8th Ed. Taxonomy Binomial System Species Identification Classification Categories Phylogenetic Trees Tracing Phylogeny Cladistic Systematics

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Class: _ Date: _ Ch 17 Practice test 1. A segment of DNA that stores genetic information is called a(n) a. amino acid. b. gene. c. protein. d. intron. 2. In which of the following processes does change

More information

AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B. Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.

AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B. Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. Enduring Understanding 1.B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from

More information

Chapter 19: Taxonomy, Systematics, and Phylogeny

Chapter 19: Taxonomy, Systematics, and Phylogeny Chapter 19: Taxonomy, Systematics, and Phylogeny AP Curriculum Alignment Chapter 19 expands on the topics of phylogenies and cladograms, which are important to Big Idea 1. In order for students to understand

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life KEY CONC EPTS 26.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships 26.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data 26.3 Shared characters are used to construct

More information

PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS

PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS AP BIOLOGY EVOLUTION/HEREDITY UNIT Unit 1 Part 11 Chapter 26 Activity #15 NAME DATE PERIOD PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS PHYLOGENY Evolutionary history of species or group of related species SYSTEMATICS Study

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life EVOLUTON K E Y C O N C E P T S Figure 26.1 What is this organism? 26.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships 26.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and

More information

Fig. 26.7a. Biodiversity. 1. Course Outline Outcomes Instructors Text Grading. 2. Course Syllabus. Fig. 26.7b Table

Fig. 26.7a. Biodiversity. 1. Course Outline Outcomes Instructors Text Grading. 2. Course Syllabus. Fig. 26.7b Table Fig. 26.7a Biodiversity 1. Course Outline Outcomes Instructors Text Grading 2. Course Syllabus Fig. 26.7b Table 26.2-1 1 Table 26.2-2 Outline: Systematics and the Phylogenetic Revolution I. Naming and

More information

Concept Modern Taxonomy reflects evolutionary history.

Concept Modern Taxonomy reflects evolutionary history. Concept 15.4 Modern Taxonomy reflects evolutionary history. What is Taxonomy: identification, naming, and classification of species. Common Names: can cause confusion - May refer to several species (ex.

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life EVOLUTON KEY CONCEPTS Figure 26. What is this organism? 26. Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships 26.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular

More information

Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY!

Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY! Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY Chapter 1 KEY FIGURES: 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 VOCABULARY: Adaptation: a trait that increases the fitness Cells: a developed, system bound with a thin outer layer made of

More information

Visualizing Phylogenetic Relationships

Visualizing Phylogenetic Relationships Visualizing Phylogenetic Relationships Figure 26.5 Instructors: Additional questions related to this Visualizing Figure can be assigned in MasteringBiology. A phylogenetic tree visually represents a hypothesis

More information

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS. Chapter 18

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS. Chapter 18 CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS Chapter 18 How many species are there? About 1.8 million species have been given scientific names Nearly 2/3 of which are insects 99% of all known animal species are smaller

More information

Classification and Phylogeny

Classification and Phylogeny Classification and Phylogeny The diversity of life is great. To communicate about it, there must be a scheme for organization. There are many species that would be difficult to organize without a scheme

More information

Need for systematics. Applications of systematics. Linnaeus plus Darwin. Approaches in systematics. Principles of cladistics

Need for systematics. Applications of systematics. Linnaeus plus Darwin. Approaches in systematics. Principles of cladistics Topics Need for systematics Applications of systematics Linnaeus plus Darwin Approaches in systematics Principles of cladistics Systematics pp. 474-475. Systematics - Study of diversity and evolutionary

More information

2 Big Challenges of Classification

2 Big Challenges of Classification Classification Classification Classify to group things together based on similarities Why Classify? To make organisms/items easier to identify To make organisms/items easier to compare Allows us to predict

More information

Classification, Phylogeny yand Evolutionary History

Classification, Phylogeny yand Evolutionary History Classification, Phylogeny yand Evolutionary History The diversity of life is great. To communicate about it, there must be a scheme for organization. There are many species that would be difficult to organize

More information

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogenies Show Evolutionary Relationships

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogenies Show Evolutionary Relationships Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life You Must Know The taxonomic categories and how they indicate relatedness. How systematics is used to develop phylogenetic trees. How to construct a phylogenetic

More information

CLASSIFICATION. Why Classify? 2/18/2013. History of Taxonomy Biodiversity: variety of organisms at all levels from populations to ecosystems.

CLASSIFICATION. Why Classify? 2/18/2013. History of Taxonomy Biodiversity: variety of organisms at all levels from populations to ecosystems. Why Classify? Classification has been around ever since people paid attention to organisms. CLASSIFICATION One primeval system was based on harmful and non-harmful organisms. Life is easier when we organize

More information

Classification and Phylogeny

Classification and Phylogeny Classification and Phylogeny The diversity it of life is great. To communicate about it, there must be a scheme for organization. There are many species that would be difficult to organize without a scheme

More information

AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B. Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.

AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B. Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. Enduring Understanding 1.B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from

More information

Lecture 11 Friday, October 21, 2011

Lecture 11 Friday, October 21, 2011 Lecture 11 Friday, October 21, 2011 Phylogenetic tree (phylogeny) Darwin and classification: In the Origin, Darwin said that descent from a common ancestral species could explain why the Linnaean system

More information

Lecture V Phylogeny and Systematics Dr. Kopeny

Lecture V Phylogeny and Systematics Dr. Kopeny Delivered 1/30 and 2/1 Lecture V Phylogeny and Systematics Dr. Kopeny Lecture V How to Determine Evolutionary Relationships: Concepts in Phylogeny and Systematics Textbook Reading: pp 425-433, 435-437

More information

AP Biology. Cladistics

AP Biology. Cladistics Cladistics Kingdom Summary Review slide Review slide Classification Old 5 Kingdom system Eukaryote Monera, Protists, Plants, Fungi, Animals New 3 Domain system reflects a greater understanding of evolution

More information

The practice of naming and classifying organisms is called taxonomy.

The practice of naming and classifying organisms is called taxonomy. Chapter 18 Key Idea: Biologists use taxonomic systems to organize their knowledge of organisms. These systems attempt to provide consistent ways to name and categorize organisms. The practice of naming

More information

How should we organize the diversity of animal life?

How should we organize the diversity of animal life? How should we organize the diversity of animal life? The difference between Taxonomy Linneaus, and Cladistics Darwin What are phylogenies? How do we read them? How do we estimate them? Classification (Taxonomy)

More information

ELE4120 Bioinformatics Tutorial 8

ELE4120 Bioinformatics Tutorial 8 ELE4120 ioinformatics Tutorial 8 ontent lassifying Organisms Systematics and Speciation Taxonomy and phylogenetics Phenetics versus cladistics Phylogenetic trees iological classification Goal: To develop

More information

SECTION 17-1 REVIEW BIODIVERSITY. VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms.

SECTION 17-1 REVIEW BIODIVERSITY. VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms. SECTION 17-1 REVIEW BIODIVERSITY VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms. 1. taxonomy, taxon 2. kingdom, species 3. phylum, division 4. species name, species

More information

Organizing Life on Earth

Organizing Life on Earth Organizing Life on Earth Inquire: Organizing Life on Earth Overview Scientists continually obtain new information that helps to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth. Each group of organisms

More information

Biology 1B Evolution Lecture 2 (February 26, 2010) Natural Selection, Phylogenies

Biology 1B Evolution Lecture 2 (February 26, 2010) Natural Selection, Phylogenies 1 Natural Selection (Darwin-Wallace): There are three conditions for natural selection: 1. Variation: Individuals within a population have different characteristics/traits (or phenotypes). 2. Inheritance:

More information

The Classification of Plants and Other Organisms. Chapter 18

The Classification of Plants and Other Organisms. Chapter 18 The Classification of Plants and Other Organisms Chapter 18 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1 Define taxonomy Explain why the assignment of a scientific name to each species is important for biologists KEY TERMS TAXONOMY

More information

Classification. copyright cmassengale

Classification. copyright cmassengale Classification 1 Species of Organisms There are 13 billion known species of organisms This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!! New organisms are still being found and identified 2 What is

More information

Origins of Life. Fundamental Properties of Life. Conditions on Early Earth. Evolution of Cells. The Tree of Life

Origins of Life. Fundamental Properties of Life. Conditions on Early Earth. Evolution of Cells. The Tree of Life The Tree of Life Chapter 26 Origins of Life The Earth formed as a hot mass of molten rock about 4.5 billion years ago (BYA) -As it cooled, chemically-rich oceans were formed from water condensation Life

More information

Classification Practice Test

Classification Practice Test Classification Practice Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. An organism may have different

More information

9/19/2012. Chapter 17 Organizing Life s Diversity. Early Systems of Classification

9/19/2012. Chapter 17 Organizing Life s Diversity. Early Systems of Classification Section 1: The History of Classification Section 2: Modern Classification Section 3: Domains and Kingdoms Click on a lesson name to select. Early Systems of Classification Biologists use a system of classification

More information

CLASSIFICATION NOTES

CLASSIFICATION NOTES CLASSIFICATION NOTES Classification Classification = arrangement of living things into groups according to their observed similarities. Important because it allows us to be able to study life easier Living

More information

The Tree of Life. Chapter 17

The Tree of Life. Chapter 17 The Tree of Life Chapter 17 1 17.1 Taxonomy The science of naming and classifying organisms 2000 years ago Aristotle Grouped plants and animals Based on structural similarities Greeks and Romans included

More information

9.3 Classification. Lesson Objectives. Vocabulary. Introduction. Linnaean Classification

9.3 Classification. Lesson Objectives. Vocabulary. Introduction. Linnaean Classification 9.3 Classification Lesson Objectives Outline the Linnaean classification, and define binomial nomenclature. Describe phylogenetic classification, and explain how it differs from Linnaean classification.

More information

Evolution and Taxonomy Laboratory

Evolution and Taxonomy Laboratory Evolution and Taxonomy Laboratory 1 Introduction Evolution refers to the process by which forms of life have changed through time by what is described as descent with modification. Evolution explains the

More information

Phylogenies & Classifying species (AKA Cladistics & Taxonomy) What are phylogenies & cladograms? How do we read them? How do we estimate them?

Phylogenies & Classifying species (AKA Cladistics & Taxonomy) What are phylogenies & cladograms? How do we read them? How do we estimate them? Phylogenies & Classifying species (AKA Cladistics & Taxonomy) What are phylogenies & cladograms? How do we read them? How do we estimate them? Carolus Linneaus:Systema Naturae (1735) Swedish botanist &

More information

Autotrophs capture the light energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy they use for food.

Autotrophs capture the light energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy they use for food. Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell Autotrophs capture the light energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy they use for food. Heterotrophs must get energy by eating autotrophs or other heterotrophs.

More information

Chapter 19 Organizing Information About Species: Taxonomy and Cladistics

Chapter 19 Organizing Information About Species: Taxonomy and Cladistics Chapter 19 Organizing Information About Species: Taxonomy and Cladistics An unexpected family tree. What are the evolutionary relationships among a human, a mushroom, and a tulip? Molecular systematics

More information

Biologists use a system of classification to organize information about the diversity of living things.

Biologists use a system of classification to organize information about the diversity of living things. Section 1: Biologists use a system of classification to organize information about the diversity of living things. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are

More information

How Biological Diversity Evolves

How Biological Diversity Evolves CHAPTER 14 How Biological Diversity Evolves PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell,

More information

Chapter 17A. Table of Contents. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms

Chapter 17A. Table of Contents. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Classification of Organisms Table of Contents Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Classification Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification

More information

Chapter 18: Classification

Chapter 18: Classification Chapter 18: Classification Dichotomous Key A way to identify unknown organisms Contains major characteristics of groups of organisms Pairs of CONTRASTING descriptions 4. After each description key either

More information

Phylogenetic Analysis

Phylogenetic Analysis Phylogenetic Analysis Aristotle Through classification, one might discover the essence and purpose of species. Nelson & Platnick (1981) Systematics and Biogeography Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist (1700s)

More information

Phylogenetic Analysis

Phylogenetic Analysis Phylogenetic Analysis Aristotle Through classification, one might discover the essence and purpose of species. Nelson & Platnick (1981) Systematics and Biogeography Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist (1700s)

More information

Phylogenetic Analysis

Phylogenetic Analysis Phylogenetic Analysis Aristotle Through classification, one might discover the essence and purpose of species. Nelson & Platnick (1981) Systematics and Biogeography Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist (1700s)

More information

The Tree of Life. Phylogeny

The Tree of Life. Phylogeny The Tree of Life Phylogeny Phylogenetics Phylogenetic trees illustrate the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms, or among a family of related nucleic acid or protein sequences Each branch

More information

CH. 18 Classification

CH. 18 Classification CH. 18 Classification Name:_ 1. Biologists use a classification system to group organisms in part because organisms a. are going extinct. b. are very numerous and diverse. c. are too much alike. d. share

More information

Chapter 18 Systematics: Seeking Order Amidst Diversity

Chapter 18 Systematics: Seeking Order Amidst Diversity Chapter 18 Systematics: Seeking Order Amidst Diversity Bird Diversity in Indonesia Chapter 18 At a Glance 18.1 How Are Organisms Named and Classified? 18.2 What Are the Domains of Life? 18.1 How Are Organisms

More information

Unit 8 Classification

Unit 8 Classification Unit 8 Classification Chapter 18: Classification www.pearsonrealize.com 18.1 Finding Order in Diversity (510) 18.2 Modern Evolutionary Classification (516) 18.3 Building the Tree of Life (523) Name: Teacher:

More information

Classification Chapter 18

Classification Chapter 18 Classification Chapter 18 The domain system Prokaryotic domains Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryotes Are in the domain Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Earliest organisms Prokaryotes Eukoryotes Figure 15.10B

More information

Chapter 17. Organizing Life's Diversity

Chapter 17. Organizing Life's Diversity Chapter 17 Organizing Life's Diversity Key Concepts: Chapter 17 1. List the six kingdoms. 2. Our current system of classification was originally based on structures; scientists now base classification

More information

1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. 2. Define scientific name and the binomial system of nomenclature.

1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. 2. Define scientific name and the binomial system of nomenclature. OBJECTIVE SHEET TAXONOMY 1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. 2. Define scientific name and the binomial system of nomenclature. 3. Name and describe the general characteristics

More information

Background: Why Is Taxonomy Important?

Background: Why Is Taxonomy Important? Background: Why Is Taxonomy Important? Taxonomy is the system of classifying, or organizing, living organisms into a system based on their similarities and differences. Imagine you are a scientist who

More information

Section 18-1 Finding Order in Diversity

Section 18-1 Finding Order in Diversity Name Class Date Section 18-1 Finding Order in Diversity (pages 447-450) Key Concepts How are living things organized for study? What is binomial nomenclature? What is Linnaeus s system of classification?

More information

Unit 5: Taxonomy. KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities.

Unit 5: Taxonomy. KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. Linnaeus developed the scientific naming system still used today. Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. White

More information

Chapter 17. Table of Contents. Objectives. Taxonomy. Classifying Organisms. Section 1 Biodiversity. Section 2 Systematics

Chapter 17. Table of Contents. Objectives. Taxonomy. Classifying Organisms. Section 1 Biodiversity. Section 2 Systematics Classification Table of Contents Objectives Relatebiodiversity to biological classification. Explainwhy naturalists replaced Aristotle s classification system. Identifythe main criterion that Linnaeus

More information

Test: Classification of Living Things

Test: Classification of Living Things : Classification of Living Things Date: Name: Class: Word Bank: Biodiversity Classification Taxonomy Binomial Nomenclature Phylogeny Cladistics Cladogram Specific Epithet Use the word bank above to match

More information

PHYLOGENY WHAT IS EVOLUTION? 1/22/2018. Change must occur in a population via allele

PHYLOGENY WHAT IS EVOLUTION? 1/22/2018. Change must occur in a population via allele PHYLOGENY EXERCISE 1 AND 2 WHAT IS EVOLUTION? The theory that all living organisms on earth are related and have a common ancestor. These organism have changed over time and are continuing to change. Changes

More information

Classification Systems. - Taxonomy

Classification Systems. - Taxonomy Classification Systems - Taxonomy Why Classify? 2.5 million kinds of organisms Not complete- 20 million organisms estimated Must divide into manageable groups To work with the diversity of life we need

More information

Chapters 25 and 26. Searching for Homology. Phylogeny

Chapters 25 and 26. Searching for Homology. Phylogeny Chapters 25 and 26 The Origin of Life as we know it. Phylogeny traces evolutionary history of taxa Systematics- analyzes relationships (modern and past) of organisms Figure 25.1 A gallery of fossils The

More information

Objectives. Classification. Activity. Scientists classify millions of species

Objectives. Classification. Activity. Scientists classify millions of species Objectives Classification Notes 8.1 Summarize classification Describe the evidence used to classify organisms. List the seven levels of classification. Describe and list the six kingdoms of living organisms

More information

Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total)

Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) Chapter 22 Descent

More information

Microbial Taxonomy and the Evolution of Diversity

Microbial Taxonomy and the Evolution of Diversity 19 Microbial Taxonomy and the Evolution of Diversity Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Taxonomy Introduction to Microbial Taxonomy

More information

chapter 18 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

chapter 18 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. chapter 18 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. One goal of scientists is to assign every organism a universally accepted name according to

More information

Organizing Life s Diversity

Organizing Life s Diversity 17 Organizing Life s Diversity section 2 Modern Classification Classification systems have changed over time as information has increased. What You ll Learn species concepts methods to reveal phylogeny

More information

Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote

Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote DIVERSITY OF LIVING THINGS Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote 1. Test Monday 2. Lab Report Rough Draft (typed) due Wednesday 3. Lab Report Due Friday Oct 7th 4. Letter to MP due Tuesday Oct 11 th CAROLUS LINNAEUS

More information

Learning Outcome B1 13/10/2012. Student Achievement Indicators. Taxonomy: Scientific Classification. Student Achievement Indicators

Learning Outcome B1 13/10/2012. Student Achievement Indicators. Taxonomy: Scientific Classification. Student Achievement Indicators Classification of Living Organisms Learning Outcome B1 Learning Outcome B1 Apply the Kingdom System of classification to study the diversity of organisms. Student Achievement Indicators Students who have

More information