1 evelopment 129, (2002) rinted in reat Britain he ompany of Biologists imited he bric à brac locus consists of two paralogous genes encoding BB/OZ domain proteins and acts as a homeotic and morphogenetic regulator of imaginal development in rosophila Jeanouis ouderc 1, *,, orothea odt 2, *,, usan Zollman 3, *, Jiong hen 3, ichelle i 2, tanley iong 4, arah. ramton 3, sabelle ahutbarnola 1 and rank. aski 3, 1 U 384, aboratoire de Biochimie, 28 place enri unant, lermonterrand, edex, rance 2 epartment of Zoology, University of oronto, 25 arbord treet, oronto, Ontario 5 35, anada 3 epartment of olecular, ell, and evelopmental Biology and olecular Biology nstitute, University of alifornia at os ngeles, os ngeles, 90095, U 4 epartment of Biological ciences, University of lberta, dmonton, lberta 6 29, anada *hese authors contributed equally to this work uthors for correspondence ( and ccepted 15 ebruary 2002 U he bric à brac (bab) locus acts as a homeotic and morphogenetic regulator in the development of ovaries, appendages and the abdomen. t consists of two structurally and functionally related genes, bab1 and bab2, each of which encodes a single nuclear protein. Bab1 and Bab2 have two conserved domains in common, a BB/OZ domain and a sq domain, a motif that characterizes a subfamily of BB/OZ domain proteins in rosophila. he tissue distribution of Bab1 and Bab2 overlaps, with Bab1 being expressed in a subpattern of Bab2. nalysis of a series of mutations indicates that the two bab genes have synergistic, distinct and redundant functions during imaginal development. nterestingly, several reproductionrelated traits that are sexually dimorphic or show diversity among rosophila species are highly sensitive to changes in the bab gene dose, suggesting that alterations in bab activity may contribute to evolutionary modification of sexrelated morphology. ey words: bric à brac, Ovaries, egs, bdomen, econdary sexual traits, nteroposterior and proximodistal patterning, BB/OZ domain, sq domain, rosophila OUO s every newcomer to a fly laboratory learns, the easiest way to distinguish between rosophila melanogaster (m) females and males is to look for the sexspecific pigmentation pattern of the posterior abdomen, the malespecific sex combs on the forelegs and/or the genital structures. hese morphological features not only constitute sexually dimorphic traits but show considerable interspecific variation among members of the m species group and subgroup, and some of these features also show intraspecific variation. oncerning sex combs, variation is observed in the number of tarsal segments that display sex combs, their number per segment, and the number of sex comb bristles (Bock and heeler, 1972; rue et al., 1997; uzhdin and eiwitch, 2000; acdonald and oldstein, 1999). n m males, a sex comb is only found on the most proximal or first tarsal segment (1), and consists of a single row of approximately ten sex comb bristles. nother sexually dimorphic trait in m is the pigmentation of the tergites of the posterior abdomen. hereas an alternating darklight stripe pattern is characteristic of all abdominal tergites in females, the posteriormost two tergites in males are darkly pigmented throughout. exually dimorphic abdominal pigmentation is not characteristic for all rosophila species, however (opp et al., 2000), and a large diversity in abdominal pigmentation is seen within the genus rosophila (shburner, 1989; ollocher et al., 2000; isses and antos, 1997). ven within the m species subgroup, in which the abdominal pigmentation pattern is rather homogeneous, a newly discovered species,. santomea lacks any abdominal pigmentation (achaise et al., 2000). n addition, considerable intraspecific variation in the pigmentation of posterior tergites in females has been described for different wildtype populations of m (obertson et al., 1977; isses and antos, 1997). ogether, these findings indicate a rapid phylogenetic divergence of sex comb and abdominal pigmentation patterns. he genetic and developmental mechanisms that allow for fast evolutionary modifications of characteristics that are connected to reproduction/mating (secondary sexual traits) and may be involved in speciation are largely unknown. strong modifier locus of abdominal pigmentation in wildtype populations of m was mapped to the distal arm of the third chromosome, and is called fap (female abdominal pattern) (obertson and iviera, 1972; obertson et al., 1977). fap is
2 2420 J.. ouderc and others very likely to correspond to the bab locus that maps to the same chromosomal position, and was recently shown to be involved in the regulation of abdominal pigmentation and morphology (opp et al., 2000). he correlation between the expression pattern of bab and the abdominal pigmentation pattern in species of the m species group suggests that divergence in the regulation of bab expression may have contributed to the variation of abdominal pigmentation in this species group (opp et al., 2000). he bab locus is also a homeotic regulator of the sex comb pattern (odt et al., 1993). utations in bab cause a transformation of the bristle pattern in the tarsal segments, leading to the appearance of ectopic sex combs in distal tarsal segments. he graded requirement and graded expression pattern of bab along the proximodistal axis of the tarsus suggest that the concentration of Bab specifies the identity of the bristle pattern in tarsal segments in a dosedependent manner. oreover, bab plays a second role in leg development, which appears to be independent of its function in the specification of the bristle pattern. bab mutations cause a failure in joint formation, resulting in the fusion of tarsal and antennal segments (odt et al., 1993). he phenotype of bab mutants shows that this locus is also an important morphogenetic regulator of ovarian development. uring ovarian development, bab mediates the formation of the terminal filaments, stacks of cells that are required for the formation of ovarioles (ing, 1970; odt and aski, 1995; ahutbarnola et al., 1995) and contribute to the regulation of germline and follicle stem cell divisions during oogenesis (in and pradling, 1993; orbes et al., 1996). e show that the bab locus is composed of two paralogous genes, bab1 and bab2. he corresponding proteins Bab1 and Bab2 belong to a subfamily of BB/OZ domain (BB domain)containing nuclear proteins that have a sqdomain but no Znfinger motif. lthough partially redundant in function, our data indicate that both genes are required for normal development. bab2 appears to play a predominant role in ovarian and particularly in leg development, which points to a functional divergence of the two Bab genes. O lies he bab alleles bab 1, bab, bab 72, bab, bab 24, bab 128 and f(3)bab are described elsewhere (odt et al., 1993). bab 07 was isolated in a elementmediated excision mutagenesis that was conducted for bab 128 (=[ry +, lacz]128) similar to that described for bab (odt et al., 1993). he mutations bab 3, bab 4, bab 5 and bab 6 were isolated in an mutagenesis using an ri e mutant background similar to that described by odt et al. (odt et al., 1993). ethal hits on the chromosomes that carried the bab mutations were removed using an ecd st red e ca chromosome for recombination. he deficiencies f(3)pa1 (611;6112) and f(3)pa2 (611;614) are γray induced. he allele bab 1 was a gift from. Burtis. 6B, b and genetic markers are described elsewhere (indsley and Zimm, 1992). Oregon was used as a wildtype stock. lies used for phenotypic analysis of the abdomen were free of genetic markers that affect the body color, such as y or e. n flies that carry the bab 1, bab 5 and bab allele, respectively, the e marker was replaced by an e + allele using an Oregon chromosome for recombination. uticles of abdomina and legs were mounted in oyer s medium (shburner, 1989). lies were raised at 25 if not indicated otherwise. olecular analysis of the bab locus enomic from the bab line was used to clone a aq fragment adjacent of the lacz insertion site by inverse (odt et al., 1993). his fragment was used to establish a genomic walk of 140 kb of that covers both bab genes, using genomic lambda phage (aniatis et al., 1978) and cosmid libraries (amkun et al., 1992). he orientation of the bab walk and the molecular breakpoints of deficiencies were defined by chromosome in situ hybridization using genomic probes. he structures of the bab1 gene and transcript were deduced from genomic sequence in combination with an analysis. he 5 and 3 ends of the terminal exons were identified by analysis using poly + from third instar larvae. Overlapping fragments were used to reconstruct a complete bab1 c (J252082). he BB domain identified previously (Zollman et al., 1994) was shown to be part of bab2. equence and outhern blot analysis, using bab2 genomic and cs led to the determination of the structure of the bab2 gene and transcript (J252173). lose to fulllength bab2 cs were isolated from an 8 to 12hourold embryo library (provided by. Brown). he longest bab2 c isolated, 5.1 kb in size and named c2, corresponds to the predicted bab2 transcript, except that it retains the 70 bp intron 3. his intron is not present in a second c (c4) analyzed, nor was it found when m from embryos and adult ovaries was analyzed by using primers that flank the intron, suggesting that the retention of intron 3 in c2 is an anomaly, and the 70 bp intron is normally removed by splicing. or orthern blot analysis, total was prepared from third instar larvae with the hot phenolchloroform technique (almiter, 1974), and oly + was selected via oligod. ew cs of the tkr gene were isolated from a 0 to 24hourold embryonic c library (alazzolo et al., 1990). eneration of Ubab2 and Ubab1 transgenic flies he bab2 c2 and c4, both of which contain the entire open reading frame of bab2 (5 and 3 untranslated regions are incomplete in c4) were subcloned into the pu vector (Brand and errimon, 1993). ore than 20 independent transgenic lines were established for each construct. Ubab2 c2 and c4 transgenic lines produced comparable mutant phenotypes. sp70 al4 driver line, carrying the [al4sp70.b] construct on the second chromosome (Brand et al., 1994), was used for ubiquitous expression of bab2. o generate a Ubab1 transgene, a bab1 minigene was constructed as follows. 2.7 kb stal genomic fragment, starting at a st site 6 bp upstream of the and ending at a al site 422 bp after the 5 splice site of intron 1, and a 4.5 kb Bam genomic fragment that contains all of the other exons from bab1, starting 146 bp upstream the 3 splice site of exon 1 and ending 273 bp after the end of the bab1 c, were fused via bluntended al and Bam sites and cloned into the pu vector. ive independent transgenic lines were established. roduction of polyclonal antibab2 antibodies 1.3 kb Bam fragment (called 1.3B), which encodes amino acids 126 to 558 of Bab2, and a 1.6 kb Xma fragment (called 1.6X; amino acids 470 to 1014 of Bab2) were subcloned into the px1 and px3x protein expression vectors (harmaciamersham), respectively. usion protein 1.3B was soluble and extracted as described by odt et al. (odt et al., 1993). usion protein 1.6X was insoluble, and was purified from inclusion bodies using urea (risshammer and agai, 1995). he fusion proteins were used for immunization of rats at ocono abbit arm and aboratories. he Bab2 antibodies 6 and 7 are directed against the 1.3Bpeptide that includes the BB domain of Bab2. o test whether these antibodies are specific for Bab2, their ability to recognize the BB
3 he bric à brac locus 2421 domain of Bab2 and Bab1 was tested by immunoblot analysis (data not shown). Both antibodies, diluted 1:4000 recognized the BB domain of Bab2 (0.1 µg of protein; a gift of. rivé) but did not recognize the BB domain of Bab1 (0.5 µg of protein). s the BB domain is the only conserved domain between Bab1 and Bab2 in this peptide, we believe that the 6 and 7 antibodies are Bab2specific. he Bab2 antibody 10 is directed against the 1.6X peptide that includes the Bab with the sq motif (ig. 2) he Bab2 specificity of this antibody was demonstrated indirectly by showing that the 10 antibody does not recognize a protein in bab2 mutant tissues that are homozygous for bab 1 (data not shown). mmunoblotting and tissue staining maginal discs and brains were dissected from white prepupae in phosphatebuffered saline (B), p7, transferred to 2 aemmli buffer (ambrook et al., 1989) on ice and homogenized. rotein samples containing tissues from two prepupae were boiled for 5 minutes and loaded onto a 6% polyacrylamide gel (20 µl/lane). o identify the Bab proteins on western blots, αbab26 (1:20,000) and 7 (1:30,000) were used as primary antibodies, and αrat conjugated antibodies (1:1000; Jackson aboratories) and the solution (harmaciamersham) were used for signal detection. β ubulin was detected with mb7 (1:250; B). issection of larval tissues, tissue in situ hybridization and immunostaining were done as described by odt et al. (odt et al., 1993), with some modifications. or in situ hybridization, the first fixation was in 10% formaldehyde in B for 20 minutes, and hybridization took place at 50 for 48 hours. or immunostaining, larval tissues were fixed in 5% formaldehyde in B for 10 minutes. rimary antibodies were αbab1r2 (1:1000) (odt et al., 1993) and αbab27 or 10 (1:4000). αrat secondary antibodies were Biotinconjugated (1:400; Jackson aboratories). U he bab locus consists of two structurally related genes bab was originally identified by the bab allele, a element insertion mutation that maps to polytene band 6112 (odt et al., 1993). n open reading frame (O) adjacent to the bab insertion identified a BB domain, a domain found primarily but not exclusively in Znfinger containing transcription factors (ollins et al., 2001). n addition to bab, a second gene encoding a BB domain (called BB) was identified at 6112 and found to have an expression pattern similar to bab (Zollman et al., 1994). e show that bab and BB constitute a gene complex. or clarity, the gene previously called bab will be renamed bab1, and BB will be renamed bab2. he bab locus or bab will refer to both genes together. he structure of the bab locus is shown in ig. 1, and the structure of the Bab1 and Bab2 proteins is shown in ig. 2. he bab1 and bab2 genes have the same orientation and show several structural similarities (ig. 1), suggesting that they are the result of a chromosomal duplication. bab1 and bab2 span approximately 60 kb and 25 kb of genomic, respectively. he insertion point of bab is located in intron 1 of bab1, 236 bp downstream of the 5 splice site. Both genes have four introns, three of which are at homologous positions in the coding region. equence analysis of the bab1 and bab2 transcript predicts proteins of 967 and 1067 amino acids, respectively (ig. 2). Bab1 and Bab2 have two evolutionarily conserved domains in common. Outside of these domains he bric à brac locus. enomic ap kb λ 8 os 1 os 32 os 3 proximal λ 3 os 3 λ 2B1 λ 1 bab 128 bab bab 30 os 5B1 3' 5' transposon 412 os 71 distal 5 bab2 transcription unit 3 5 bab1 transcription unit 3 f(3)pa2 611;614 f(3)pa1 611;611 B. bab1 and bab2 transcription units ntron 2 >20kb ntron 1 >50kb ntron 1 ntron 4 ntron 3 ntron 3 ntron 2 ntron 4 bab2 xon 1 xon 2 xon 3 xon 4 xon 5 bab1 xon 1 xon 2 xon 3 xon 4 xon 5 BB Bab BB Bab 1 kb ig. 1. he bab locus consists of two genes. () olecular map with the center line representing the genomic. ot () and co sites (vertical lines) and the element insertion sites of bab 128, bab and bab 30 are indicated. he bab insertion point is defined as 0 on the map, the entire locus covers approximately 130 kb of. he positions of the cosmid and lambda fragments of the genomic walk are shown at the top. 412 transposable element is located in intron 1 of bab1. t the bottom are two overlapping deficiencies that each have one breakpoint within the bab locus. hite regions represent deleted sequences, black regions represent still present, and the deletion breakpoints are within the dashed regions. (B) tructure of the bab1 and bab2 transcripts. Untranslated regions (open boxes), exons (black boxes) and positions and sizes of introns are shown. he BB domain and Babencoding regions are also indicated.
4 2422 Bab1 and Bab2 show only low sequence similarity to each other and no significant similarity to other proteins. BB domain, a conserved domain of 115 amino acids, is found in the terminal region of both proteins (ig. 2). n contrast to most known BB domaincontaining proteins that are transcriptional regulators, the BB domains of Bab1 and Bab2 J.. ouderc and others Bab1 Bab Bab1 Bab rotein structure B. BB domain BB domain Bab /rich Bab1 Bab % 78% Bab onserved omain (Bab). sq domain. ln and is rich domain Bab1 Bab1 Bab1 [aa ] Bab1 Bab2 Bab2 Bab2 Bab2 [aa ] Bab1 554 Bab2 639 kr 783 sq1 722 sq2 776 sq3 831 sq4 883 consensus iefke 445 hook motif 26% 27% aa identity ig. 2. Bab1 and Bab2 have a BB domain, a sqdomain and an hooklike motif. () equence similarity between Bab1 and Bab2 is restricted to the terminal BB domain and the terminal Bab. equence identity is indicated in percent. (B) lignment of the BB domains of Bab1 and Bab2. () lignment of the Babs of Bab1 and Bab2. sq domain (underlined) and an hooklike motif are contained within the Bab. he Babs of Bab1 and Bab2 are encoded by three exons (black triangles indicate exon boundaries). () omparison of the sq domains of Bab1, Bab2, kr and iefke, and the four sq domains of the sq protein. esidues conserved in all the domains are highlighted in black, less conserved residues are highlighted in gray. () lutamine (, gln) and histidine (, his) rich domains of Bab1 and Bab2.
5 he bric à brac locus 2423 do not start within the first few amino acids of the predicted proteins but at amino acids 90 and 195, respectively. he Bab1 and Bab2 BB domains are the most closely conserved domains within the BB family (ig. 2B) (Zollman et al., 1994). n contrast to many other known BB domaincontaining proteins that are transcription factors, neither Bab1 nor Bab2 contains a Znfinger motif. owever, these proteins have a second domain in common that we call Bab for Babconserved domain (ig. 2). n both proteins, this domain is encoded by three exons with the splice sites at homologous positions. he Bab contains two known motifs, a sq domain and an hook like motif. he sq domain can mediate binding, and is named after pipsqueak (psq), another BB domainencoding gene (eber et al., 1995; orowitz and Berg, 1996; ehmann et al., 1998). he sq domain, which is 48 amino acids in length, is 97% identical between Bab1 and Bab2, and is the region of highest similarity within the Bab (ig. 2). sq domain has also been identified in the kr protein (aller et al., 1987) and in iefke (15812) (chwendemann et al., 2001). iefke also has a BB domain. he previously published sequence of kr lacks a BB domain, however newly isolated cs for the tkr gene show that it contains the BB domain (ccession umber J252174), which we previously found to map to the same chromosomal location and to display the same expression pattern as tkr (Zollman et al., 1994). herefore, all five genes known to encode proteins with a sq domain in rosophila also have a BB domain (ig. 2). he terminal region of the Bab contains an hooklike motif (ig. 2). t has the invariant peptide core motif flanked on either side by other positively charged amino acids but does not correspond to any known hook variant identified so far. hook motifs have been shown to mediate binding to the minor groove of stretches of rich (eeves and issen, 1990). hether the hooklike motif in Bab1 and Bab2 is involved in binding remains to be investigated. Both Bab proteins also have a short motif that is very rich in glutamine and histidine residues (ig. 2), which could aid transactivation (ourey and jian, 1988; erber et al., 1994). he domain architecture of Bab1 and Bab2, together with their nuclear localization (odt et al., 1993; odt and aski, 1995), suggest that these proteins function as transcriptional regulators. bab1 and bab2 have overlapping expression patterns uring embryogenesis, bab2 is zygotically expressed in a complex pattern that has been described previously (Zollman et al., 1994), whereas bab1 is not expressed at a detectable level. bab seems to have no essential function during embryonic development as even mutants that lack both bab genes are not embryonic lethal. uring postembryonic stages, bab2 is expressed in a broader range of tissues than bab1 and generally shows a higher level of expression. n larval and prepupal ovaries, bab1 transcript and protein are only detected in cells that form the terminal filaments (ig. 3B,, ig. 4). he expression of bab2 is more complex (ig. 3, ig. 4). t early to mid third larval instar, prominent bab2 expression is seen in the developing terminal filaments and in a cell population that we ig. 3. omparison of the bab1 and bab2 m distribution patterns in ovaries of white prepupae () and leg imaginal discs of late 3rd instar larvae (,). () lateral view (anterior is upwards) showing high levels of bab2 expression in terminal filaments (arrow) and lower levels in the apical cells (large arrowhead) and the swarm cells (small arrowhead). (B) ateral view, and () top view showing the specific expression of bab1 in the terminal filaments. () bab2 and () bab1 show a similar expression in the primordium of tarsal segments 14 in leg imaginal discs. 4.2 kb genomic fragment of bab1 that includes the first exon and a fulllength c of bab2 were used as probes for tissue in situ hybridization. named swarm cells. warm cells migrate from anterior to posterior past the cluster of germ cells during third larval instar (ig. 4,B). hey produce the basal stalks, a pupalspecific tissue, and may also contribute to tissues of the adult ovary (.. and.., unpublished). he highest level of bab2 expression in the swarm cells is seen during their migration. bab2 is also expressed in the apical cells of the larval ovary. fter terminal filaments have formed, apical cells migrate between the terminal filaments posteriorly and form the outer sheaths of the egg tubes. he level of expression in these cells increases during the third larval instar and is highest at the time the cells begin their posterior migration (ig. 4). bab2 expression is also seen in the interstitial cells that intermingle with the germ cells. bab mutant ovaries not only display defects in terminal filament formation but also in other cell populations of the ovary, such as the apical cells and the basal stalk primordium (odt and aski, 1995). f the development of these cell populations depends on the presence of terminal filaments, then the observed defects in these cell populations could be a secondary effect of bab mutations. lternatively, bab may be directly required for the development of these cell populations as the apical cells and swarm cells express bab2. bab1 and bab2 transcripts are expressed in a similar pattern in the tarsal primordium of leg imaginal discs (ig. 3,) and in a subdistal region of the antennal disc (data not shown) (odt et al., 1993). imilar to the protein distribution of Bab1 (ig. 4J) (odt et al., 1993), Bab2 protein is expressed in a graded manner in the tarsal primordium, with the concentration of Bab2 highest in tarsal segments 3 and 4, lower in 2 and even lower in 1 (ig. 4,). owever, the differences in the level of expression between the tarsal segments are not as pronounced as with Bab1. Both Bab proteins are enriched in
6 2424 J.. ouderc and others the ridges compared to the furrows of the tarsal folds. n contrast to Bab1, Bab2 expression is not restricted to 14 but is also found in the proximal region of 5 (ig. 4), in the peripodial membrane, and in the periphery of the leg imaginal disc that gives rise to thorax structures (ig. 4). o morphological defects have been observed in derivatives of leg imaginal discs outside the tarsus. Both bab genes are expressed in the female and male genital discs. he genital discs give rise to the internal and external structures of the genitalia, the 8 and 9 tergites and the anal plates (Bryant, 1978; asares et al., 1997). he strongest expression of Bab proteins in the female genital disc is found in the primordium of the vaginal plates and the 8 tergite (ig. 4), structures that are affected in bab mutants. n the male genital disc, bab expression is mainly seen in a region of the male genital primordium (ig. 4). n addition, in the central nervous system (), Bab1 and Bab2 are distributed in a similar pattern. babexpressing cells are found in the central brain hemispheres and the thoracic ganglia of late 3rd instar larvae and prepupae (ig. 4). n bab mutants, no gross morphological defects were observed in histological sections of the prepupal, and it remains uncertain whether bab has a function in the brain. n summary, the expression pattern of bab1 during imaginal development can be described as a subpattern of the bab2 expression pattern. n tissues that require bab function for development, bab1 and bab2 are usually coexpressed. olecular analysis of bab mutations reveals the functional importance of both bab genes o determine the roles of bab1 and bab2 in mediating bab function, we conducted a molecular and phenotypic analysis of mutations in the bab locus. he element insertion of bab maps close to the 5 end of the first intron of bab1 (ig. 1). bab does not affect the transcription of bab2 but results in the loss of the bab1 5.4 kb transcript and the appearance of an abundant 2.6 kb transcript (ig. 5). his shorter bab1 transcript is detected in bab heterozygotes and homozygotes, and is detected only with probes located upstream of the insertion. haracterization of the 3 end of this 2.6 kb m by 3 showed that this transcript is a hybrid of the first bab1 exon and a region of the [ry +, lacz] construct. he 5 splice site of the bab1 transcript that normally functions to splice out the large first intron of bab1 and the 3 splice site of the l(3)12 gene, contained in the [ry +, lacz] construct just upstream of the rosy gene (utton and hovnick, 1991), are spliced together. his demonstrates that the [ry +, lacz] insertion causes aberrant splicing and transcription termination of the bab1 transcript. similar event has been reported for a lacz allele of the psq gene (orowitz and Berg, 1995). he 2.6 kb truncated bab1 transcript is more abundant than the 5.4 kb (ig. 5) suggesting that it might be more stable than the wildtype transcript. ranslation of this transcript would produce a protein that contains the BB domain of Bab1 but not the Bab. Bab1specific antibody directed to a domain of the ig. 4. omparison of the Bab1 and Bab2 expression patterns in imaginal primordia. () arlymid and (B) midlate instar larval ovary (lateral view), showing high levels of Bab2 expression in the developing terminal filaments (arrow) and migrating swarm cells (small arrowhead), and low levels of expression in apical cells (large arrowhead) and other somatic cells. () Ovary at puparium formation (frontal view): the level of Bab2 expression remains high in the terminal filaments (arrow), and has increased in the apical cells that migrate posteriorly between the terminal filaments (arrowhead) and decreased in the posteriorly located swarm cells. () Ovary at puparium formation: Bab1 is seen only in the nuclei of terminal filament cells. () n the prepupal, Bab1expressing cells are found in a peripheral layer of the central brain hemispheres and the thoracic ganglia. () n a late 3rd instar female genital disc, and () in a male disc, strongest Bab2 staining is seen in the female genital primordium and the male genital primordium (arrows). (J) n leg imaginal discs, both Bab proteins are found in a graded distribution in the tarsal primordium with the highest level of expression seen in 4 and 3, lower in 2 and lowest in the distal region of 1 (numbers indicate tarsal segment primordia). n contrast to Bab1 (J), Bab2 is also found in the proximal region of 5 (,), in the peripodial membrane (arrowhead in ), and in the disc periphery (arrow in ). nterior is upwards in,,; distal is towards the left in J. Bab2 is detected with Bab27 () or Bab210 antibodies (), and Bab1 with the Bab1r2 antibody (,,J). Bab1 protein that is encoded by the truncated transcript, however, did not detect any protein in bab homozygous flies (data not shown). hese results suggest that the bab element insertion severely disrupts or abolishes the function of the bab1 gene. evertheless, bab homozygous flies display ovary defects of only intermediate strength and reveal no leg defects (able 1) (odt et al., 1993; ahutbarnola et al., 1995). his indicates that a loss of bab1 does not produce a bab null mutant phenotype and suggests that a second gene is involved in bab function. his hypothesis is corroborated by the analysis of another element insertion, bab 128 (odt et al., 1993) that maps 57
7 he bric à brac locus 2425 interferes with the transcription of bab1, reducing Bab1 to undetectable levels. By contrast, flies that are heterozygous for strong bab mutations, such as bab 72, or deletions of the bab locus, such as f(3)pa1, have reduced but clearly detectable levels of Bab1 (data not shown), and nevertheless show leg defects in addition to defects in abdominal pigmentation (able 1). aken together, analysis of the mutations bab and bab 128 strongly suggests that bab1 is not the only gene involved in bab function. hat bab2 is involved in bab function was confirmed by a protein analysis of bab mutants. he wildtype Bab2 protein is detected in immunoblots as a band of approximately 145 ka using different antibab2 antibodies that recognize either the or terminal region of Bab2 (ig. 5B, data not shown). n analysis of bab mutants revealed that the alleles bab 1, bab 4 and bab 5 affect the Bab2 protein (ig. 5B). n a homozygous bab 1 mutant, Bab2 protein is reduced to barely detectable levels. bab 4 and bab 5 mutants produce truncated Bab2 proteins. By contrast, Bab1 expression appears normal in these three mutants, shown by tissue immunostaining as the antibab1 antibody does not produce a signal in immunoblots (able 1). o change in the size of Bab2 and the expression level of either Bab1 or Bab2 were detected in bab 3 and bab 6 mutants. bab 1, bab 4, and bab 5 mutants display developmental defects in ovaries, legs and the abdomen (able 1), demonstrating that the bab2 gene plays an essential role in development and that it is functionally related to bab1. ig. 5. olecular analysis of bab mutations. () oly + (10 µg) from 3rd instar larvae that were wild type (+/+), bab /+ or bab /bab were each hybridized with bab1 and bab2specific riboprobes. Both, bab1 and bab2 encode a 5.4 kb transcript. etection of the bab1 wildtype signal required 4 days of film exposure, whereas the much stronger bab2 signal was detected after only 12 hours. he bab insertion causes a truncation of the bab1 m, yielding a 2.6 kb transcript, but does not affect the bab2 transcript. (B) Bab2 has a molecular weight of approximately 145 ka. bab 1 causes a strong reduction of Bab2, and bab 4 and bab 5 cause a truncation of Bab2. (,) Bab2 is not detected in f(3)pa1/f(3)pa2 or bab 07 /bab 07 mutants, and reduced levels of Bab2 are found in bab 72 homozygotes. bab 128 () and bab 3 mutants (B) produce a Bab2 protein of normal size. Bab2 protein was detected using Bab26 (B,) or Bab27 antibodies (), which recognize the terminal region of Bab2. bp from the 5 end of the bab1 transcript. Only one phenotypic trait of bab mutants, an abdominal pigmentation defect in females is associated with this insertion. Because homozygous bab 128 flies have no ovary or leg defects, it was surprising to find that Bab1 protein is not detectable in bab 128 mutant tissues (data not shown). strong reduction in the amount of bab1 transcript, as seen by in situ hybridization and blot analysis (data not shown), indicates that the bab 128 insertion he bab null phenotype requires a lack of both bab1 and bab2 activity he strongest bab mutations previously published have both a strong ovary and leg phenotype (odt et al., 1993; odt and aski, 1995). urther analysis of two of these mutations, bab and bab 72, revealed that they affect the expression of both bab1 and bab2. hey each lack detectable amounts of Bab1 and have reduced levels of Bab2 (ig. 5). he mutant phenotypes caused by bab or bab 72 are slightly enhanced in trans to a large deletion (f(3)bab ), indicating that these mutations are not null for the bab locus (odt et al., 1993). dditional bab alleles were isolated and studied to find one that completely lacks bab activity. wo deletions, f(3)pa1 and f(3)pa2, that were isolated based on a dominant female pigmentation defect (en Burtis, personal communication), extend into the bab locus from opposite sides, each having a breakpoint in the bab locus (ig. 1). f(3)pa2 deletes bab2 completely, and deletes the 5 region of bab1, including the BB domain. f(3)pa1 deletes bab1, and has a breakpoint in the second intron of bab2, deleting everything downstream of the BB domain. n f(3)pa1/f(3)pa2 transheterozygotes and in flies homozygous for the mutation bab 07, neither Bab1 nor Bab2 are detected (ig. 5,). he phenotype of these genotypes is stronger than that of previously described mutations (able 1). s these flies lack both bab1 and bab2 function, this phenotype corresponds to the null phenotype of the bab locus. he bab locus regulates the development of ovaries, limbs and the abdomen o further analyze the function of the two bab genes, we studied the phenotypic series of bab mutations and the bab null
8 2426 J.. ouderc and others able 1. haracterization of bab mutations bab gene Bab1 protein Bab2 protein affected by issue issue estern ecessive ecessive bab alleles utagen the mutation immunostaining immunostaining blot analysis ovary phenotype leg phenotype bab [ry +,lacz] insert* bab1 + + bab bab excision* bab1, bab2 + educed bab 72 bab excision* bab1, bab2 + educed bab 128 [lrb] insertion* bab1 + + bab 07 bab 128 excision bab1, bab2 (null) (null) bab 1 * bab2 + ery reduced bab 3 n.d bab 4 bab2 + + runcated bab 5 bab2 + + runcated bab 6 n.d pa1/pa2 γray bab1, bab2 (null) (null) issue immunostainings: +, protein present;, protein not detectable in larval and prepupal ovaries, imaginal discs and. estern blot analysis: +, protein of normal size at a concentration similar to wild type; educed, reduced concentration of a normalsized protein;, not detectable; runcated, change in protein size. henotypes:, phenotypically wild type;, very weak;, weak;, intermediate;, strong;, very strong bab mutant phenotype; n.d., not determined at the molecular level. pa1/pa2 = f(3)pa1/f(3)pa2; the phenotype of bab 1 homozygotes has changed slightly in our stock and is now stronger than reported by *odt et al. (1993). mutant phenotype. bab null mutants are semiviable. hey develop into pharate adults but often have difficulties in eclosing from the pupal case, which may be a result of their leg defects. bab null mutants display defects in ovaries, tarsal segments, antennae, abdominal segments and female genital disc derivatives. Ovarian defects Based on the phenotypic series of bab alleles of varying strength, we define four phenotypic classes of bab mutant adult ovaries (ig. 6). (1) emales with a weak bab mutant ovary phenotype are fertile but have ovaries that are somewhat smaller than wildtype ovaries, slightly irregular, and rounded at the anterior end, owing to defects in terminal filament formation (ig. 6B). he ovarioles contain normallooking follicles and mature oocytes. (2) emale flies with an intermediate bab mutant ovary phenotype are semisterile to sterile. he ovaries have a very irregular shape and are substantially smaller than wildtype ovaries (ig. 6,). hey contain a reduced number of ovarioles that are abnormally oriented with the germaria often not located at the anterior end but inside the ovary (ahut Barnola et al., 1995). (3) emales with a strong bab mutant ovary phenotype do not lay eggs. he ovaries are very small and contain only one to two ovarioles of very abnormal structure and orientation (ig. 6,) (odt and aski, 1995). Only very few and defective follicles are found in these ovarioles. (4) n bab null mutants, the ovaries are even smaller and no developing follicles have been observed. eg defects he bab mutant leg phenotype that involves all three leg pairs in both females and males has two characteristics: (1) a fusion of tarsal segments, characterized by a shortening of tarsal segments and a loss of tarsal joints; and (2) a transformation of the bristle pattern of distal tarsal segments toward the bristle pattern of the first tarsal segment (ig. 7) (odt et al., 1993). ost sensitive to a fusion are tarsal segments 5 and 4 (ig. 7,). he stronger the bab mutation, the further proximal the fusion extends. n bab null mutants, 5 to 2 are frequently fused into a single segment (ig. 7). ensitivity to a transformation of the bristle pattern of tarsal segments decreases from proximal to distal, involving only 2 in weak bab mutants and 24 in strong bab mutants (ig. 7) (odt et al., 1993). his can best be seen using the prominent sex comb bristles of the prothoracic legs of males as a marker (ig. 7,), and the transverse bristle rows of the pro and metathoracic legs of both sexes (ig. 7). n a bab null mutant, the bristle pattern of 24 is transformed; however, the sex combs are often eliminated, owing to the shortening and fusing of the tarsal segments (ig. 7). thickening of the distal tarsal segments seen in bab mutant legs ig. 6. henotypic series of bab mutant adult ovaries. orphology of () a wildtype ovary, and (B) bab mutant ovaries of increasing phenotypic strength, showing changes in size and shape of the female reproductive organ because of a decreasing number of ovarioles and developing follicles. enotypes: (B) bab 5 /bab 6, () bab 5 /bab 72, () bab 1 /bab 4, () bab 72 /bab 1 and () bab 72 /bab 72. (,B) single ovary, () a pair of ovaries of 2 to 3dayold females. ll panels are at the same magnification, and anterior is upwards.
9 he bric à brac locus 2427 is an additional indication that the distal tarsal segments are transformed towards the identity of the first tarsal segment, which in wild type is much thicker than the distal tarsal segments (ig. 7,B,). bab lossoffunction defects in the abdomen ildtype females have eight tergites formed by abdominal segments 18 (ig. 8), whereas wildtype males have seven tergites corresponding to (ig. 8) (Jürgens and artenstein, 1993). n females, the tergites of 16 each show a darkly pigmented posterior and lightly pigmented anterior band. he two tergite plates of 7 are variably pigmented and 8 has a light coloration. he tergites of 14 in males are similarly pigmented as in females, whereas the tergites of are darkly pigmented throughout. bab null mutants display a change in the pigmentation pattern of both sexes. thorough dark pigmentation is found in 38/9 and is seen with low penetrance also in 2 (ig. 8,,). ctopic dark pigmentation in 2 and 3 is usually patchy and restricted to the anterior margin (ig. 8,). he phenotypic series of bab mutants shows that the sensitivity towards a change in pigmentation decreases from posterior to anterior, with 6 being more sensitive than 5, and 5 more sensitive than more anterior segments (ig. 8B). n weak bab mutants, a change in pigmentation is therefore seen only in females. n summary, this indicates that loss of bab function leads to a transformation of the pigmentation from a female to a malelike pattern as well as from an anterior to a posteriorlike pattern. he bab locus regulates the pattern and amount of pigmentation in all abdominal segments (except for 1), and suppresses dark pigmentation in the anterior region of abdominal segments in both sexes with the exception of in males. xcept for a change in the pigmentation pattern, the morphology of 25 appears to be normal in both sexes of bab null mutants. owever, the posterior segments 68 show additional morphological abnormalities, most of which are restricted to females. he trichome pattern of 6 is affected in both sexes. n bab null mutants, trichomes are not restricted to the anterior and lateral margin of the 6 tergite as in wild type, but are found at a low density throughout the tergite, similar to the normal trichome pattern of 5 (data not shown). his suggests a posteriortoanterior transformation of the trichome pattern. urthermore, the 6 tergite of bab mutant females is broader (anteroposterior) than the more anterior tergites (ig. 8, doublearrow) in contrast to wild type (ig. 8), which together with the heavy pigmentation gives this tergite a malelike appearance. n contrast to 16, in which the two primordia of each tergite fuse into a single plate, the 7 tergite consists of two loosely connected triangular plates in wildtype females that show small slightly twisted bristles and often two to three larger bristles (ig. 8). n bab null mutants, the 7 plates are ig. 7. bab specifies tarsal segment morphology. he tarsal region of the prothoracic leg of a male fly is shown in,,,, and the metathoracic leg in B,,,. () ildtype prothoracic leg showing a sex comb and transverse bristle rows only on 1. (B) ildtype metathoracic leg showing transverse bristle rows on 1 and 2. (,) bab 72 /bab 72 mutants (strong hypomorphic) show sex comb bristles and transverse bristle rows on 13, and a fusion between 5 and 4. () f(3)pa1/f(3)pa2 mutants show the bab null phenotype. arsal segments are strongly shortened and thickened. lthough the bristle pattern of 24 is transformed, the ectopic sex combs on 2 and 3 are smaller than in a hypomorphic mutant () or are missing altogether (), and the 1 sex comb is smaller than in wild type (). arsal fusion extends further proximally, often leading to a fusion of 5 to 2 (,). inks and abnormal bristle arrangements () or loss of distal segments are frequently seen in metathoracic tarsi. n all panels, distal is towards the left; numbers 15 mark 15; arrows indicate sex combs; arrowheads indicate transverse bristle rows; an angled line points to tarsal segments that are fused rather than connected by joints. fused into a continuous plate, are considerably broader (anteroposterior) than in wild type, and display an increased number of large bristles (ig. 8). hese morphological changes suggest a transformation of 7 towards a more anterior segment fate. urthermore, instead of the small pale bristles, which are characteristic of an 8 tergite in wildtype females, larger pigmented and slightly twisted bristles are found in a bab mutant 8 tergite (data not shown). uch bristles are similar to those normally found in 7 of females or in 9 of males, again suggesting homeotic transformations. n addition, the two rows of thorn bristles seen on the vaginal plates of wildtype females (ig. 8) are replaced in bab mutants by a different type of bristles, which are longer and twisted (ig. 8J,). bab mutants also display defects in the sternites of the abdominal segments. hape, pigmentation, and bristle pattern of the 6 and 7 sternites in females are different from wild type and show similarities to the 6 sternite in males (ig. 8 ). Both sternites are more strongly pigmented, and the number
10 2428 J.. ouderc and others of bristles is considerably decreased compared with wild type. aken together, the alterations in the shape and the bristle and trichome patterns of posterior segments indicate that loss of bab function causes posteriortoanterior transformations of some abdominal features (opposite to the change of the pigmentation pattern), and also transformations from a female to a malelike morphology. bab gainoffunction defects in the abdomen Ubiquitous overexpression of a Ubab2 transgene under control of sp70al4 causes reduced viability, a general reduction in the pigmentation of the cuticle and bristles, and defective macrochaetae when flies are raised at a constant temperature of 25. n the abdomen of both sexes, the posterior dark pigmentation of 6 is reduced or missing, and little of the dark pigmentation is left in 5 and 4 (ig. 8). ergites anterior to 4 are less affected than the posterior tergites. n both, bab lossand gainoffunction experiments, pigmentation in posterior segments is more strongly affected than in anterior segments, indicating a graded requirement for bab along the anteroposterior axis. imilar phenotypic effects were observed in bab1 overexpression experiments (data not shown). ogether, our loss and gainoffunction studies show that the bab locus is a suppressor of dark cuticle pigmentation in the fly. hen flies, carrying Ubab2 under the control of sp70al4, were shifted to 32 during the late 3rd instar/pupal stages, they showed a splittergite phenotype in addition to the loss of pigmentation (ig. 8). ere, the tergite primordia of all abdominal segments do not fuse, a trait normally only found in 7. he splittergite phenotype is also seen when Ubab2 expression is driven by a bab1al4 transgene (.., unpublished transgenic line), and is therefore likely not an artifact of the heat shock but a consequence of bab2 overexpression. hese data suggest that bab plays a role in tergite morphogenesis and is required to prevent a fusion of the 7 tergite primordia. he functional relationship between Bab1 and Bab2: synergistic and distinct effects o analyze the relative functions of bab1 and bab2, and to look for possible interactions, we compared the phenotypic effects of bab mutations in ovaries and legs, and studied their complementation behavior. his study involved mutations that affect bab1 (bab and bab 128 ), bab2 (bab 1, bab 4, and bab 5 ), bab1 and bab2 (bab and bab 72 ), or are null for bab1 and bab2 (bab 07 and deletions of the bab locus), and some molecularly uncharacterized bab alleles. ll five alleles (bab series of alleles) were isolated based on dominant leg defects. bab 1 is the strongest allele, causing a strong recessive phenotype in ovaries and legs; bab 4 and bab 5 produce an intermediate, and bab 6 and bab 3 a weak recessive phenotype in those organs (ables 13, ig. ig. 8. bab controls the morphology of abdominal segments. emale tergite pigmentation in wild type () and in lossoffunction bab mutants of increasing phenotypic strength: (B) bab 128 / bab 128 () bab l / bab l and () bab 07 /f(3)pa2, a null mutant. ctopic dark pigmentation in the anterior portion of the tergites is indicated by asterisks. () n a f(3)pa1/f(3)pa2 female, the two tergite plates of 7 are fused (arrowhead) and enlarged, and contain more bristles in comparison with wild type (). n addition, the 6 tergite is enlarged (double arrow in,). () ildtype and () f(3)pa1/f(3)pa2 male abdomina, showing ectopic pigmentation in bab mutant tergites. entral view of the abdomen of () wildtype, (J) f(3)pa1/f(3)pa2 and () bab 07 /f(3)pa2 females, and a () wildtype male showing features of the 6 and 7 sternites, and the female vaginal plates (arrows in,). () Ubiquitous overexpression of bab2 causes a loss of pigmentation. sp70 al4/+;ubab2 66/3 /+ female () and male fly (), raised at 25, lack dark pigmentation in 6. he loss of pigmentation is stronger in posterior than more anterior abdominal segments. () n a sp70al4/+;ubab2 66/3 /+ female fly, raised at 18 until late 3rd instar and at 32 during the pupal stage, the tergite primordia have not fused. (O) sp70al4/+;ubab2 513 /+ male fly, raised at 25, shows reduced pigmentation in 5 and 6. n all panels, anterior is upwards and segment identity is indicated by numbers. 6). he phenotype seen in flies transheterozygous for any two of the alleles is intermediate in strength to the phenotypes displayed by the homozygotes, indicating that the phenotypic effect of the alleles is additive (ables 13). he alleles in trans to the strongest allele bab 1 produce a mutant phenotypic series that is comparable with, but less severe than, each allele in trans to a deletion of the bab locus (ables
11 he bric à brac locus 2429 able 2. omplementation analysis of bab mutations based on ovary morphology f(3)bab bab 1 bab bab ild type bab 128 (+) bab 3 < (+) + (+) bab 6 + < bab 4 < bab 5 < bab 1 < < bab < < bab 72 < bab 07 > n.d. > n.d. f(3)bab n.d. chromosomal aberration, f(3)bab, that deletes bab1 and bab2, a mutation in bab2 (bab 1 ), a mutation in bab1 (bab ), and a mutation that affects bab1 and bab2 (bab ) were tested in trans to several mutations of the bab locus. Ovary phenotypes: +, phenotypically wild type; (+), very subtle structural defects;, weak;, intermediate;, strong (see text for the definition of these phenotypes); < and > indicate a weaker or stronger expression, respectively, of these phenotypic classes;, lethal; n.d., not determined. 2, 3). s bab 3 and bab 6 do not complement bab 1 but complement bab they should represent bab2 mutations like the other alleles (able 2). herefore, all bab alleles isolated on the basis of a dominant mutant leg phenotype are mutations in bab2. ll bab alleles that were isolated as excision derivatives of bab (the bab alleles) show noncomplementation in trans to each other or in trans to a deletion of the bab locus, and display a normal phenotypic series (ables 2, 3). he bab alleles that cause a strong mutant phenotype, such as bab 72 and bab, not only reduce the expression level of bab1, but also of bab2. utations in bab that affect bab1 but have no detectable effect on the expression of bab2, such as bab and bab 128, have a considerably weaker mutant phenotype. o bab mutation has been identified that affects only bab1 and causes strong mutant defects in ovaries and/or legs. herefore, we propose that bab2 plays a predominant role in exerting bab function in ovarian and particularly in leg development. e also compared the effects of bab1 and bab2 mutations on abdominal pigmentation. utations in either bab gene cause dominant and more pronounced recessive pigmentation defects. emales homozygous for the strong bab2 allele bab 1 display an uniformly dark pigmentation of tergites in 5 and 6, and females homozygous for the intermediate allele bab 5 show uniformly dark pigmentation in 6 and partial ectopic pigmentation in 5 (data not shown). By contrast, bab1 mutant females that are homozygous for bab or bab 128 show ectopic dark pigmentation in the tergites of 6 and 7 (ig. 8B). hese observations suggest that there is an overlapping and differential requirement for bab1 and bab2 in abdominal segments. o gain a better understanding of the relationship of the two bab genes, mutations in bab1 and bab2 were tested for complementation. artial noncomplementation is observed between bab1 and bab2 alleles in ovaries (able 2) and legs (able 3). irst, flies carrying a bab1 and a bab2 mutation in trans display a mutant ovary phenotype, although it is weaker than the one observed in flies homozygous for either the bab1 or the bab2 mutation. his may be caused by an interaction of these alleles with the wildtype copy of bab1 and/or bab2, as flies heterozygous for a deletion of the bab locus do not have ovary defects. econd, although bab1 mutations produce neither dominant nor recessive leg defects in a background that is wildtype for bab2, flies carrying a bab1 mutation in trans to a bab2 mutation show leg defects that are stronger than the dominant leg defects caused by the bab2 mutation in trans to a wildtype chromosome. his suggest that bab1 is functionally active although not essential in leg development. Our complementation data point to functional dependency between mutations in bab1 and bab2, the nature of which remains to be explored. n summary, our genetic analysis of the bab locus indicates that bab1 and bab2 are partially but not fully redundant in function, and that both bab genes are required for normal bab function. able 3. omplementation analysis of bab mutations based on leg morphology ild type pa2 pa1 ild type pa2 10 pa1 lasses 010 designate the severity of the bab mutant leg phenotype, with 0 being phenotypically wild type and 10 corresponding to the bab null phenotype. lasses 16 correspond to the maximal number of sex comb bristles on 2 found on 10% of the legs. lass 7: sex comb on 2 and 3 and a partial fusion of segments 5 and 4 (5^4) or no sex comb on 3 but a complete 5^4 fusion. lass 8: sex combs on 23 and a 4^5 fusion. lass 9: sex combs on 24 and a 5^4^3 fusion. lass 10: most severe leg phenotype, showing a 5^2 fusion, and a severe shortening of tarsal segments. he bristle pattern of 24 is transformed towards the bristle pattern of 1; however, ectopic sex combs are often missing from 24 and reduced in 1. f(3)pa1 causes generally a stronger mutant phenotype in combination with hypomorphic mutations of the bab locus than other bab null mutations. his could be due to a modifier of bab function that is uncovered by the deletion, or alternatively could be due to a dominant negative effect caused by an undetectable level of expression of the bab2 BB domain (compare ig.1). pa1, f(3)pa1; pa2, f(3)pa2. Other designations indicate bab alleles., lethal,, not determined.
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Interactive Biology Multimedia Courseware Mendel's Principles of Heredity Copyright 1998 CyberEd Inc. Mendel's Principles of Heredity TEACHING OBJECTIVES The following subject areas are illustrated throughout
Solutions to Even-Numbered Exercises to accompany An Introduction to Population Genetics: Theory and Applications Rasmus Nielsen Montgomery Slatkin CHAPTER 1 1.2 The expected homozygosity, given allele
Localized surface activity of torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase, specifies terminal body pattern m Drosophila Jordi Casanova and Gary Struhl Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Neurobiology and
Sequence lignment (chapter ) he biological problem lobal alignment Local alignment Multiple alignment Background: comparative genomics Basic question in biology: what properties are shared among organisms?
Chapter 27: Evolutionary Genetics Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand what the term species means to biology. 2. Recognize the various patterns
Ectoderm Germ Layer Frog Fate Map Frog Fate Map Role of Organizer Chages in Late Frog Embryos Organizer forms three distinct regions Notochord formation in chick Beta-catenin localization How does beta-catenin
www.lessonplansinc.com Topic: Dinosaur Evolution Project Summary: Students pretend to evolve two dinosaurs using genetics and watch how the dinosaurs adapt to an environmental change. This is a very comprehensive
CHAPTER 3 1 Mendel and His Peas SECTION Heredity BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is heredity? How did Gregor Mendel study heredity? National
CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST G R A D E Released Test Questions Science 10 Introduction - Life Science The following released test questions are taken from the Life Science Standards Test. This test is one
Modeling Genetic Variation in Gametes PSI AP Biology Name: Objective Students will model the processes of gamete formation that increase genetic variation: independent assortment, crossing-over, and fertilization.
List the five conditions that can disturb genetic equilibrium in a population.(10) The five conditions are non-random mating, small population size, immigration or emigration, mutations, and natural selection.
Hidden Markov Models Hidden Markov models (HMM) were developed in the early part of the 1970 s and at that time mostly applied in the area of computerized speech recognition. They are first described in
LSM5194 Morphogens in biological development: Drosophila example Lecture 29 The concept of morphogen gradients The concept of morphogens was proposed by L. Wolpert as a part of the positional information
N, hromosomes, and Genes 1 You have most likely already learned about deoxyribonucleic acid (N), chromosomes, and genes. You have learned that all three of these substances have something to do with heredity
6. In corn three unlinked dominant genes are necessary for aleurone color. The genotypes B-D-B- are colored. If any of these loci is homozygous recessive the aleurone will be colorless. What is the expected
Online Resources APP controls the formation of PI(3,5)P 2 vesicles through its binding of the PIKfyve complex. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences Heather Currinn, Benjamin Guscott, Zita Balklava, Alice
1/6/2010 MENDEL AND MODELS!!! GENETIC TERMINOLOGY!!! Essential to the mastery of genetics is a thorough knowledge and understanding of the vocabulary of this science. New terms will be introduced and defined
Developmental Biology Biology 4361 The Anatomical Tradition 2009 A hen is only an egg s way of making a new egg. Samuel Butler, 1885 The Anatomical Tradition - Overview What is developmental biology? How
1. (10 pts) Draw or describe the fate map of a late blastula stage sea urchin embryo. Draw or describe the corresponding fate map of the pluteus stage larva. Describe the sequence of gastrulation events
+ Mendelian Genetics Introduction to the principles of Mendelian Genetics + What is Genetics? n It is the study of patterns of inheritance and variations in organisms. n Genes control each trait of a living
Structure, Volume 22 Supplemental Information The Mitochondrial Fission Receptor MiD51 Requires ADP as a Cofactor Oliver C. Losón, Raymond Liu, Michael E. Rome, Shuxia Meng, Jens T. Kaiser, Shu-ou Shan,
Natural Selection For natural selection to produce a change in the composition of a population there must be phenotypic variation heritability of variation differential reproductive success of different
Name 8 Cell Cycle and Meiosis Test Date Study Guide You must know: The structure of the replicated chromosome. The stages of mitosis. The role of kinases and cyclin in the regulation of the cell cycle.
What is (an) adaptation? 1 A trait, or integrated set of traits, that increases the fitness of an organism. The process of improving the fit of phenotype to environment through natural selection What is
Lecture 7 Mutation and genetic variation Thymidine dimer Natural selection at a single locus 2. Purifying selection a form of selection acting to eliminate harmful (deleterious) alleles from natural populations.
Review 1. Control of.... gene expression is crucial for formation of cell type and position 2. Cell type.. determination (decision) precedes differentiation (final function/fate) 3. Cells become different
1 Biology 317 - Principles of Ecology Oct. 20 and 27, 2011 Natural Selection on Gall Flies of Goldenrod Introduction The determination of how natural selection acts in contemporary populations constitutes
EVOLUTION change in populations over time HISTORY ideas that shaped the current theory James Hutton (1785) proposes that Earth is shaped by geological forces that took place over extremely long periods
Gibbs Sampling Methods for Multiple Sequence Alignment Scott C. Schmidler 1 Jun S. Liu 2 1 Section on Medical Informatics and 2 Department of Statistics Stanford University 11/17/99 1 Outline Statistical
Virtual Student Guide http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/index.html AP Biology Laboratory 3 Mitosis & Meiosis Introduction For organisms to grow and reproduce, cells must divide. Mitosis
Review sheet for Mendelian genetics through human evolution WARNING: I have tried to be complete, but I may have missed something. You are responsible for all the material discussed in class. This is only
UNIT V Chapter 11 Evolution of Populations UNIT 4: EVOLUTION Chapter 11: The Evolution of Populations I. Genetic Variation Within Populations (11.1) A. Genetic variation in a population increases the chance
Chapter 11 Introduction to Genetics Section 11 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel (pages 263 266) What is the principle of dominance? What happens during segregation? Gregor Mendel s Peas (pages 263 264) 1. The
10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics section 1 Meiosis Before You Read Think about the traits that make people unique. Some people are tall, while others are short. People can have brown, blue, or green
Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe