# Curriculum Interpretation Electricity and Magnetism. Lee Wai Kit

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1 Curriculum Interpretation Electricity and Magnetism Lee Wai Kit

2 Electricity and Magnetism 4.1 Electrostatics 4.2 Circuits and domestic electricity 4.3 Electromagnetism

3 4.1 Electrostatics electric charges E-field electric potential

4 Electric Charge Student should able to examine the evidence for two kinds of charges in nature realise the attraction and repulsion between charges Gold leaf electroscope could be used as an instrument to demonstrate repulsion and attraction between like/unlike charges. Concept of conductor and insulator is required

5 Electric Charge Student should able to interpret charging in terms of electron transfer solve problems involving forces between point charges Charging by sharing and induction is required Quantitative treatment of Coulomb s law required Addition of forces* due to the interaction of point charges by Coulomb s law is required

6 Electric Field Student should able to describe the electric field around a point charge and between parallel charged plates represent an electric field using field lines explain how charges interact via an electric field Experiments involving shuttle ball and foil strip could be used to demonstrate electric force and field Point action is not required Charge distribution on a metal sphere and parallel plates is required Charge distribution on an irregular shaped metal surface is not required

7 Electric Field Student should able to define electric field strength at a point as the force per unit charge on a positive test charge placed at that point solve problems involving electric field strength around a point charge and between parallel charged plates Field strength E considered as force per unit charge Calculate resultant force of a moving charged particle in a electric field is required Analogy with Gravitational field is not required

8 Electric Potential Student should able to use the convention that the electric potential energy at infinity is zero define the electric potential at a point as the electric potential energy per unit charge of a positive test charge placed at that point state the electric potential around a point charge V = Q/4πεr and solve related problems L Experiment to demonstrate lines of equal potential is encouraged Flame probe is not required Electrical potential of any earthed points is assigned to be at zero potential (simple circuits) Quantitative treatment of electric potential and electric field strength around point charges and parallel plate is required

9 Electric Potential Student should able to derive for parallel plates and solve related problems E =V/d relate electric field strength to the negative gradient of potential Relate electric potential and electric field strength by the negative potential gradient * * Mathematics skills slope and gradient Compulsory Part in Math 12. Equations of straight lines and circles slope of a straight line

10 Circuit and Domestic electricity Electric current Electrical energy and e.m.f. Resistance Series and parallel circuits Simple circuits Electrical power Domestic electricity

11 Electric current Student should able to define electric current as the rate of flow of electric charges state the convention for the direction of electric current treatment as HKCEE definition of the unit for current, ampere as one coulomb per second SI unit of current in Ampere (A) is required

12 Electrical energy and electromotive force describe the energy transformations in electric circuits define the potential difference (p.d.) between two points in a circuit as the electric potential energy converted to other forms per unit charge passing between the points outside the source define the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of a source as the energy imparted by the source per unit charge passing through it Same treatment as HKCEE

13 resistance define resistance R =V/I describe the variation of current with applied p.d. in metal wires, electrolytes, filament lamps and diodes realise Ohm s law as a special case of resistance behaviour determine the factors affecting the resistance of a wire and define its resistivityρ=ra/ l describe the effect of temperature on resistance of metals and semiconductors Demonstration of the variation of current with applied p.d. in various conductors and circuit elements (metals, a filament bulb, electrolyte, thermistors and diodes) is encouraged

14 Series and parallel circuit compare series and parallel circuits in terms of p.d. across the components of each circuit and the current through them derive the resistance combinations in series and parallel R = R 1 + R for resistors connected in series 1/R =1/R 1 + 1/R for resistors connected in parallel Quantitative problem involving simple parallel and series circuits is required The concept of the conservation of charge and energy of a closed circuit is required

15 Simple circuit measure I, V and R in simple circuits assign the electrical potential of any earthed points as zero compare the e.m.f. of a source and the terminal voltage across the source experimentally and relate the difference to the internal resistance of the source solve problems involving simple circuits Digital multimeters could be used to measure current (A), voltage (V) and resistance ( ). The structure of ammeter and voltmeter, and operation principles is not required Loading effect of ammeter and voltmeter on measurement is required Potentiometer used as a potential divider is required as an application Problem to convert an ammeter by using a shunt or a multiplier is not required Concept of internal resistance of a power supply (e.g. battery) is required

16 Electrical power Student should able to examine the heating effect when a current passes through a conductor apply P = VI to solve problems Calculate the power rating and maximum possible current of an appliance is required Applying V=IR and P=VI to solve numerical problem is required

17 Domestic electricity determine the power rating of electrical appliances use kilowatt-hour (kwh) as a unit of electrical energy calculate the costs of running various electrical appliances understand household wiring and discuss safety aspects of domestic electricity determine the operating current for electrical appliances discuss the choice of power cables and fuses for electrical appliances based on the power rating Same treatment as HKCEE Understanding of household wiring and discussing of safety aspects (e.g. live / neutral / earth wires) is required Function of earth wire to prevent electric shock is required Fuse and circuit breaker could be used as a safety device and detailed structure is not required

18 Domestic electricity determine the operating current for electrical appliances discuss the choice of power cables and fuses for electrical appliances based on the power rating Calculation of the running cost of electric appliances is required Ring circuit in domestic electricity is required

19 Electromagnetism magnetic force and field magnetic effect of current Current carrying conductor in magnetic field Hall effect electromagnetic induction a.c. transformer

20 magnetic force and B field realise the attraction and repulsion between magnetic poles examine the magnetic field in the region around a magnet describe the behaviour of a compass in a magnetic field represent magnetic field using field lines Plotting compass, hall probe, current balance, search coil (and CRO) could be used to examine magnetic field

21 magnetic effect of current realise the existence of a magnetic field due to moving charges or electric currents examine the magnetic field patterns associated with currents through a long straight wire, a circular coil and a long solenoid Use Tesla (T) as a unit of magnetic flux density B

22 magnetic effect of current apply B =μ o I/2πr and B = μ o NI/ l to represent the magnetic fields around a long straight wire, and inside a long solenoid carrying current, and solve related problems examine the factors affecting the strength of an electromagnet Numerical problem involving magnetic fields around a straight wire, and inside a long solenoid carrying current is required Derivation of the equations B =μ o I/2πr and B = μ o NI/ l by ampere s law is not required

23 Current carrying conductor in magnetic field examine the existence of a force on a currentcarrying conductor in a magnetic field and determine the relative directions of force, field and current determine the factors affecting the force on a straight current-carrying wire in a magnetic field and represent the force by F = BIl sinθ Quantitative treatment of the force between currents in long straight parallel conductors is required Define ampere in terms of force between currents in long straight parallel wires is required Turning moment* (torque) of a current carry coil in magnetic field is required Current balance is required

24 Current carrying conductor in magnetic field define ampere in terms of the force between currents in long straight parallel wires determine the turning effect on a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field describe the structure of a simple d.c. motor and how it works solve problems involving current-carrying conductors in a magnetic field Principles of design/structure and operation of a moving coil galvanometer is not required Calculate resultant force of a moving charged particle in a magnetic field is required Relative directions of force, field and current is required * Moment of a force is introduced in the Compulsory Part - Force and Motion

25 Hall effect derive the relation I = navq between electron drift velocity and current represent the force on a moving charge in a magnetic field by F = BQv sinθ derive Hall voltage V H = BI / nqt examine magnetic fields using a Hall probe apply I = navq, F= BQv sinθ and V H = BI / nqt to solve problems Calculate drift velocity of electron as a charge carrier is required Relative directions of force, field and velocity is required Both positive and negative charge carriers are required Calculate resultant F of a moving charged particle in a magnetic field is required Numerical problem on V H is required Motion of a charged particle (circular motion) in a magnetic field is required

26 Electromagnetic induction examine induced e.m.f. resulting from a moving conductor in a steady magnetic field or a stationary conductor in a changing magnetic field apply Lenz s law to determine the direction of induced e.m.f./current define magnetic flux Φ= BA cos θ Define weber (Wb) as a unit of magnetic flux which is given by Φ = BA Use CRO as a meter/detector in practical work is encouraged. The detailed structure of CRO is not required Induction cooking is an example of practical uses of eddy currents

27 Electromagnetic induction interpret magnetic field B as magnetic flux density State Faraday's Law as ε=- ΔΦ/Δt and apply it to calculate the average induced e.m.f. examine magnetic fields using a search coil describe the structures of simple d.c. and a.c. generators and how they work discuss the occurrence and practical uses of eddy currents Numerical problem on the application of Faraday s law is required

28 a.c. distinguish between direct currents (d.c.) and alternating currents (a.c.) define r.m.s. of an alternating current as the steady d.c. which converts electric potential energy to other forms in a given pure resistance at the same rate as that of the a.c. relate the r.m.s. and peak values of an a.c. Mathematic skill Compulsory Part in Math -13. More about Trigonometry 13.1 understand the functions sine, cosine and tangent, and their graphs and properties, including maximum and minimum values and periodicity

29 Transformer describe the structure of a simple transformer and how it works relate the voltage ratio to turn ratio by Vp/ Vs = Np / Ns and apply it solve problems examine methods for improving the efficiency of a transformer Same treatment as HKCEE Ohmic loss and eddy current loss is required

30 High voltage transmission of electrical energy discuss the advantages of transmission of electrical energy with a.c. at high voltages describe various stages of stepping up and down of the voltage in a grid system for power transmission Same treatment as HKCEE

31 The end

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