# Renewable Energy Systems

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1 Renewable Energy Systems 2 Buchla, Kissell, Floyd

2 Chapter Outline Electrical Fundamentals 2 Buchla, Kissell, Floyd 2-1 ENERGY, CHARGE, AND VOLTAGE 2-2 ELECTRICAL CURRENT 2-3 RESISTANCE AND OHM'S LAW 2-4 POWER AND WATT'S LAW 2-5 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS 2-6 CONDUCTORS, INSULATORS, AND SEMICONDUCTORS 2-7 MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES 2-8 CAPACITORS, INDUCTORS, AND TRANSFORMERS 2-9 PROTECTIVE DEVICES 2-10 BASIC ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS

3 2-1 Energy, Charge and Voltage Work is done when a force is applied over a distance. To do work, you must have both force and distance. d F The work to move the box was done against friction and is the product of force, F, and distance, d. You can also do work in lifting the box; in this case the work would be the force exerted against gravity multiplied by the height, h, it is lifted. 3

4 tonisalado/fotolia 2-1 Energy, Charge and Voltage Energy is the ability or capacity for doing work; it comes in three major forms; potential, kinetic, and rest. Potential energy is stored energy. An example is the water stored behind a dam because it can do work. The equation for gravitational potential energy is W PE = mgh Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. An example is the motion of wind or water. The equation for kinetic energy is W KE = ½ mv 2. Rest energy is the equivalent energy of mass as expressed by E = mc 2.

5 2-1 Energy, Charge and Voltage Energy is measured in units of the joule. A joule is a small amount of energy; it is the work done in lifting a 1 newton (n) weight (about 3.6 oz) 1 meter (m). 1 n How much energy is expended in lifting an 8000 n piano a height of 0.5 m? 1 m The energy is the product of the force and distance. In this case, the distance moved is the height, h. W = Fh = (8000 n)(0.5 m) = 4000 J.

6 2-1 Energy, Charge and Voltage The basic unit of electrical charge is the coulomb, symbolized by the letter Q. Voltage, symbolized by V, is defined as energy per unit charge. The volt is the unit of voltage symbolized by V. The formula for voltage is V = W/Q where W = energy in joules and Q = charge in coulombs. a) Battery (b) Graph of voltage versus time (c) Symbol 6

7 2-1 Energy, Charge and Voltage AC is alternating current and follows a sinusoidal pattern. In North America, the utility frequency, f, is 60 Hz, meaning there are 60 cycles in one second. In many countries, the frequency is 50 Hz. The period, T is 1/f. T What is the period if f = 60 Hz? T = 1/f = 1/60 Hz = 16.7 ms 7

8 2-2 Electrical Current Current is symbolized by I and its unit is the ampere (A). Conventional current is based on the assumption that charge moved from positive to negative by definition. Electron flow is just opposite to this definition and is negative to positive. Either can be used, but it is important in some cases to know which is referred to. The basic formula for current is I = Q/t, where Q is the charge in coulombs and t is the time in seconds.

9 2-2 Electrical Current AC can be compared to dc by their equivalent heating value (power). If the ac is specified as rms current or rms voltage, the result is equivalent to a direct current or direct voltage. AC voltage of 1 V rms DC voltage of 1 V Note that the peak is 1.41 times higher than the rms value for the ac waveform. 9

10 2-3 Resistance and Ohm s Law Resistance is the opposition to current. Except for superconductors, all materials have resistance. Fixed resistors are components that have resistance that cannot be altered: Fixed resistor Symbol Variable resistors are components with resistance that can be altered: Variable resistor Symbol

11 2-3 Resistance and Ohm s Law Wire size and resistance is related to the current carrying capacity of wires. What is resistance of 15 km of 1/0 wire? R = W/km. (0.323 W/km)(15 km) = 4.9 W Wire size AWG Current capacity copper wire (amps) Resistance per 1000 feet (ohms) Resistance per km (ohms) / / / /

12 2-3 Resistance and Ohm s Law Ohm s law is the most important law in electronics. It indicates the relationship between voltage, current and resistance. Three forms are illustrated: To solve for current, To solve for voltage, V = IR To solve for resistance,

13 2-4 Power and Watt s Law Power (P) is the rate at which energy is expended. Rate always involves time (t), so power is expressed as where P = power in joules when W is in newton-meters and t in is in seconds Two identical weights are lifted the same distance but in different times. Compare the energy required and the power expended. 1 2 The energy expended is the same; the one lifted in the shortest time requires the greater power.

14 Viktor Gmyria/Fotolia 2-4 Power and Watt s Law In the electrical field, power is often expressed in units of kilowatts (1000 watts) and megawatts (1,000,000 watts). The power company does not charge for power, but for energy. In the electrical field, energy is expressed as kilowatt-hours (kwh) or megawatt-hours (MWh) What is the energy used if five 60 W bulbs are on for three hours? The total power is 300 W. The energy used is (300 W)(3 h) = 900 Wh = 0.90 kwh.

15 2-4 Power and Watt s Law Watt s law formulates the relationship between power voltage and current. Three forms of Watt s law are: (a) What is the power used in a heater if 120 V is applied and the current is 8 A? (b) What is the resistance of the heater? (a) The power is P = VI = (120 V)(8 A) = 960 W. (b) The resistance is 2 V R= P 120 V W W

16 2-5 Series and Parallel Circuits In a series circuit, there is only one path for current, so current is the same everywhere in the circuit. The reading on the first ammeter is 2.0 ma, What do the other meters read? 2.0 ma 2.0 ma 2.0 ma 2.0 ma

17 2-5 Series and Parallel Circuits The total resistance in series is the sum of the individual resistances: R T = R 1 + R 2 + R R n and the total voltage is the sum of the individual voltages: V S = V 1 + V 2 + V V n (a) What is the total resistance? (b) What are the voltage drops? (a) R T = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 6 W + 6 W + 12 W 24 W (b) From Ohm s law, I = 0.5 A and V S = 12 V. V S = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 = IR 1 + IR 2 + IR 3 = (0.5 A)(6 W) + (0.5 A)(6 W) + (0.5 A)(12 W) V 1 = 3 V, V 2 = 3 V, V 3 = 6 V

18 2-5 Series and Parallel Circuits The total voltage from solar modules or batteries is the sum of the individual voltages. If six modules are wired in series and each module has 18 V output, what is the total output voltage? V T = 6 (18 V) = 108 V When you need to increase the output voltage, connect sources in series, but be aware of safety issues.

19 2-5 Series and Parallel Circuits The total resistance in parallel is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual resistances: 1 R T = R R R R (a) What is the total resistance? (b) What is the current in each resistor? n (a) R = T W R R R R 5.0 W 16 W 10 W (b) From Ohm s law, I 1 = 2.0 A, I 2 = A, I 3 = 1.0 A, n

20 2-5 Series and Parallel Circuits If equal sources are wired in parallel, the total output voltage is the same as any one source. The advantage to parallel wiring is an increase in ability to supply current. Assume six 18 V solar modules are wired in parallel. What is the output voltage? How will the ability to supply current change? The output voltage is 18 V, but taken together, the ability to supply current has increased by a factor of six over a single module.

21 2-6 Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors Conductors are materials that allow the free movement of charge. Metals tend to be good conductors because many electrons can move freely in the metallic crystal. These electrons are called conduction electrons and they are not bound to a particular atom. In liquids, the moving charge is composed of positive and negative ions, never electrons. Materials known as electrolytes form ions in water solution and are good conductors.

22 2-6 Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors Insulators are materials that prevent the free movement of charge. The outer shell electrons that are normally involved in chemical bonds are called valence electrons. These electrons are generally not involved in conducting charge in the solid. Comparing the energy diagrams of conductors and insulators reveals that the electrons must acquire much more energy to be in the conduction band of insulators than in conductors. In metals, electrons can easily acquire sufficient energy to become conduction electrons. Conductor Insulator

23 shutswis/fotolia 2-6 Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors Cables and wire are examples where high quality conductors and insulators are needed. Insulators are used as a protective covering for cables and wires. Coaxial cable is an example; it has an inner conductor, an insulation layer, an outer braided conductor that normally is connected to ground, and a outer insulator.

24 2-6 Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors A semiconductor is a crystalline material that has properties between those of conductors (metals) and insulators (nonmetals). For electronics, silicon (Si) is the most widely used semiconductor. For semiconductors to be useful, impurities are added creating two important classes of materials: p-materials (positive) and n-materials (negative). An important semiconductor device is a diode, which has a p-material on one side and an n-material on the other side in one crystal. A few representative diodes are shown.

25 Source: David Buchla 2-6 Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors Diodes allow current in one direction only, so are important in converting ac to dc. There are several types of specialized diodes. A PV cell is a special diode that converts sunlight to electricity. PV cells form the basis of larger modules, which are connected together in many solar energy systems. Symbol for a PV cell 2015 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc.

26 2-6 Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors An important semiconductor is the transistor. A basic bipolar transistor is a sandwich of alternating n-and p-material. It can amplify signals or is often used in switching applications. Another important semiconductor is the thyristor. These are generally four-layer devices that are used to control power. In renewable energy systems, they are frequently used in charging circuits.

27 Source: David Buchla 2-7 Magnetism and Electromagnetic Devices All magnetic fields have their origin in moving charge, which in solid materials is caused by moving electrons. In certain materials, such as iron, atoms can be aligned so that the electron motion is reinforced, creating an observable field that extends in three dimensions. Magnetic fields are described by flux lines. Here the lines surrounding two magnets are visualized with iron filings and tend to reinforce.

28 Source: David Buchla 2-7 Magnetism and Electromagnetic Devices A magnetic field surrounds current carrying wire, forming a circular pattern. It can be visualized with iron filings. Here the wire goes through a paper plate with iron filings in it. By forming the wire into a coil, and placing it into a magnetic material, useful devices can be formed.

29 2-7 Magnetism and Electromagnetic Devices Generators are electromagnetic devices of great importance in renewable energy systems, so will be covered in Chapter 13. Generators are spun by an energy source and produce electricity. Generators produce electricity when a conductor moves perpendicularly to a magnetic field. A common type of generator rotates a coil in a magnetic field to produce a sine wave. tomalu/fotolia Generators at Hoover Dam

30 2-8 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transformers A capacitor is an electrical device that stores energy in the form of an electric field established by electrical charge. In its most basic form, the capacitor is constructed of two conductive plates placed physically in parallel and separated by an insulating material called the dielectric. A representative capacitor is shown. This is a mica capacitor consisting of alternating conductive and dielectric layers.

31 2-8 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transformers The amount of charge that a capacitor can store per unit of voltage across its plates is its capacitance (C). C = Q/V where C is capacitance in farads, Q is charge in coulombs, and V is voltage in volts. The energy stored is W = (1/2)CV 2 where C is capacitance in farads, V is voltage in volts and W is energy in joules. Currently, there is research on supercapacitors for energy storage; they have significant advantages over batteries, with much longer lifespans.

32 2-8 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transformers Supercapacitors (AKA ultracapacitors) can be thought of as two nonreactive porous carbon electrodes suspended within an electrolyte. The electrodes are made from porous carbon separated by about 1 nm! Researchers at Vanderbilt University have reported they have found a novel way to construct silicon-based supercapacitors. The supercapacitors might be integrated into solar cells along with the microelectronic circuitry that it powers them. This could lead solar cells that can store energy.

33 2-8 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transformers Inductance is the property of a wire conductor to oppose a change in current. An inductor is basically a length of insulated wire formed into a coil that intensifies the magnetic field. When the current through a coil changes, an induced voltage is created across the coil in a direction that always opposes the change in the current. zigzagmtart/fotolia

34 Source: NREL 2-8 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transformers A transformer is a device formed by two or more coils (windings) magnetically coupled to each other to provide for transfer of ac power electromagnetically from one winding to the other. In power applications, transformers are used to change ac voltage levels from one value to another.

35 2-9 Protective Devices Fuses and circuit breakers are placed in series with circuits and are used to create an open (break in the circuit) when the current exceeds a specified number of amperes. A fuse is a one-time device that must be replaced when it overheats and blows. Fuses come in a large variety of sizes. A circuit breaker will trip when excess current is detected. After the condition is corrected, the circuit breaker can be reset manually.

36 Source: David Buchla 2-9 Protective Devices A GFCI (ground fault circuit interrupter) is a circuit breaker that is used to protect from severe or fatal electric shock. The GFCI monitors the difference between the hot and neutral currents and trips the breaker if they differ because the current is returning to the source via a ground connection.

37 2-9 Protective Devices A switch is a device that controls a circuit by opening or closing contacts. A pole is a contact and a throw is the movable part. Switches are classified by the number of poles and throws. Pushbutton switches are either normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). From the definition, determine what each type of switch in terms of poles and throws: SPST SPDT DPST DPDT NOPB NCPB

38 2-10 Basic Electrical Measurements The DMM is the most widely used electronic-measuring instrument. It can be used to measure voltage, current and resistance. Many DMMs can measure other quantities as well. To use a DMM. first select the quantity to be measured. For current or voltage, select ac or dc. To measure voltage, connect the meter in parallel with the voltage to be measured. To measure current, connect the meter in series with the component to be measured. To measure resistance, disconnect the resistor from the circuit and place the leads in parallel with the resistor.

39 2-10 Basic Electrical Measurements The clamp meter is a type of DMM that does not require that the circuit is opened for current measurements. The sensing element is a set of jaws that are opened or closed around a single conductor. As in the case of a standard DMM, the quantity to be measured is selected. For current or voltage measurements, either ac or dc is selected. Source: Fluke Corp.

40 Selected Key Terms Ampere Current Digital multimeter (DMM) Energy Joule The unit of current symbolized by I. The flow of electrical charge past a specified point in a circuit. An instrument that can measure voltage, current, and resistance. The ability or capacity for doing work. The SI unit of energy. The work done when 1 newton of mechanical force is applied over a distance of 1 meter.

41 Selected Key Terms Kilowatt-hour magnetic flux density Ohm Ohm's law Parallel circuit A unit energy. The energy used when one thousand watts of power are expended in one hour. The amount of flux, f, per unit area (A) perpendicular to the magnetic field. The unit of resistance. A circuit law that specifies the relationship between voltage, current and resistance as a mathematical formula. A type of circuit connection where two or more components or loads are connected across a common voltage source.

42 Selected Key Terms Power Resistance Series circuit Sinusoidal wave Voltage Watt s law The rate at which energy is expended. The opposition to current. A type of circuit connection in which there is a single complete path (forming a string) from the voltage source and through the load (or loads) and back. The cyclic pattern of ac voltage or current. Also known as a sine wave. Energy per unit charge A circuit law that expresses the relationship of voltage, current, resistance, and power as a formula.

43 true/false quiz 1. You are doing work if you push on a car, but it won t budge.

44 true/false quiz 2. Three forms of energy are potential, kinetic, and rest.

45 true/false quiz 3. The unit of current is the coulomb.

46 true/false quiz 4. One form of Watt s law can be expressed as W = IR 2.

47 true/false quiz 5. AWG #6 wire is smaller than AWG #4 wire.

48 true/false quiz 6. Ohm s law can be written as V= IR.

49 true/false quiz 7. The current in a parallel circuit is the same everywhere.

50 true/false quiz 8. Diodes allow current in one direction only.

51 true/false quiz 9. When there is current in a wire, there is always a magnetic field present.

52 true/false quiz 10. A capacitor can store more charge if it is charged to higher voltage.

53 true/false quiz Answers: 1.F 2.T 3.F 4.F 5.T 6.T 7.F 8.T 9.T 10. T

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