# MATH 631: ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: HOMEWORK 1 SOLUTIONS

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1 MATH 63: ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: HOMEWORK SOLUTIONS Problem. (a.) The (t + ) (t + ) minors m (A),..., m k (A) of an n m matrix A are polynomials in the entries of A, and m i (A) = 0 for all i =,..., k if and only if rank(a) t. In other words, X t = V(m,..., m k ) is an algebraic subset of k nm. (b.) SU 2 can be described as the set of complex matrices ( ) a b such that ad bc =, c = b, and d = ā. c d Suppose, by way of contradiction, that SU 2 is an algebraic subset of C 4. Then, in particular, the intersection of SU 2 with V(b, c) C 2 is also an algebraic set. In other words, the set of pairs (a, d) C 2 with ad = and d = ā is an algebraic set. Now, using a as a coordinate, we can identify V(ad ) in C 2 with the Zariski open subset C \ {0} of C. It follows that Z := { a C \ {0} ā = a } {0} is Zariski closed in C. Since 2 /2, we see that Z C. The Zariski closed subsets of C are either C or finite, hence Z must be a finite set. But this is absurd, as the unit circle S = { a C a = } Z is an infinite subset! Thus, we conclude that SU 2 is not an algebraic subset of C 4. However, SU 2 is an algebraic set of R 8. Let a and a 2 be the real and imaginary parts of a, respectively, and similarly for b, c, d. Taking the real and imaginary parts of the equations above, we see that the following polynomials in R[a, a 2, b, b 2, c, c 2, d, d 2 ] cut out SU 2 : a d b c a 2 d 2 + b 2 c 2 = ; a 2 d + a d 2 b c 2 b 2 c = 0 c = b ; c 2 = b 2 ; d = a ; d 2 = a 2. Problem 2. (a.) Let I = x 3 z, x 2 y. It is clear that V V(I); alternatively, if (x, y, z) V(I), then (x, y, z) = (x, x 2, x 3 ) is the image of x A. (b.) To see that I(V ) = I(V(I)) = I, it suffices to show I is prime (and hence radical). Consider the map Φ : k[x, y, z] k[t] given by f(x, y, z) f(t, t 2, t 3 ). This map is surjective (t is the image of x), and it is enough to check that I is the kernel. Let f(x, y, z) k[x, y, z]. Then we can consider f as an element in R[z], where R = k[x, y]. Using the division algorithm, we can write f(z) = (x 3 z)g(z) + r(z),

2 where deg z r < deg z (x 3 z) =. So deg z r = 0, and we see that r R is a polynomial in x and y only. Similarly we can write r(y) = (x 2 y)h(y) + s(y), where s k[x]. So we get f(x, y, z) = (x 3 z)g(x, y, z) + (x 2 y)h(x, y) + s(x). Now, if Φ(f) = s(t) = 0 if and only if s(x) = 0, i.e., f I. Thus, it follows that Φ induces an isomorphism of k[x, y, z]/i onto the integral domain k[t], and hence I is a prime ideal. Problem 3. (a.) The nonempty open subsets of A in the Zariski topology of have the form A \ {p,..., p n }. A basis for the product topology on A A is given by sets of the form A \ {p,..., p n } A \ {q,..., q m }. Consider the Zariski open set A 2 \, where = V (x y). Since k is algebraically closed, it is infinite (this is crucial); thus, every basis element intersects. In particular, A 2 \ cannot be open in the product topology it does not contain any basis elements at all! (b.) Denote the coordinates of A n by x,..., x n, and the coordinates of A m by x n+,..., x n+m. Let V A n be given by I = f,..., f l and W A m by J = g,..., g k. Then the subset V W of A n+m is determined by the vanishing of { f i (x,..., x n ) i =,..., l } { g j (x n+,..., x n+m ) j =,..., k } k[x,..., x n+m ]. (c.) The map k[v ] k[w ] k[v W ] given by (f, g) f(x,..., x n )g(x n+,..., x n+m ) is bilinear, and induces a k-algebra homomorphism φ : k[v ] k k[w ] k[v W ]. To see that φ is surjective, observe that k[v W ] is generated by the restriction of the coordinate functions on A n+m to V W. These are all in the image of φ: φ(x i ) = x i for i n; φ( x j ) = x j for n + j n + m. To see that φ is injective, consider k[v ] k k[w ] and k[v W ] as (probably infinite-dimensional) k-vector spaces. Let {α i } i I be a basis for k[v ], and {β j } j J a basis for k[w ]. Suppose that h = i,j c ijα i β j is in the kernel of φ. This means for all (x,..., x n+m ) A n+m, c ij α i (x,..., x n ) β j (x n+,..., x n+m ) = 0. i,j In particular, for any fixed (x,..., x n ) A n, we have c ij α i (x,..., x n ) β j = 0 k[w ]. i,j 2

3 Since the β j are linearly independent, for each j we must have c ij α i (x,..., x n ) = 0. i But (x,..., x n ) can be chosen arbitrarily, so we see i c ijα i = 0 k[v ]. Again, as the α i are linearly independent, we must have c ij = 0 for all i I and j J. This shows h = 0, so φ is an isomorphism. Problem 4. (a.) By the Nullstellensatz, we need to identify I(V c ) = x c, y 2 ( c 2 ). First, suppose that c ±. Then y 2 ( c 2 ) splits into two distinct linear factors (every nonzero element of k has two distinct square roots as char(k) 2). Thus, the ring k[x, y]/ x c, y 2 ( x 2 ) k[y]/ y 2 ( c 2 ) is reduced, and x c, y 2 ( c 2 ) = x c, y 2 ( c 2 ). Geometrically, the intersection consists of two points. Next, suppose c = ±. Then y 2 ( c 2 ) = y 2, and it is easy to that x c, y 2 ( c 2 ) = x c, y. In this case, the intersection consists of a single point, at which the line x = c is tangent to the circle x 2 + y 2 =. (b.) In terms of the projection map A 2 A sending (x, y) x, V c is simply the fiber over c A. 3

4 The special values c = ± are ramification points because they are the only ones for which there is a single point in the fiber; otherwise, there are two. In some sense, however, we should think of the fiber over c = ± as two points coming together into a double point. Although not a variety, this is an example of geometric object called a scheme. The coordinate ring of the fiber over c ± is k[x, y]/ x c, y 2 ( c 2 ). As c approaches ±, this ring is approaching k[x, y]/(x, y 2 ). So we would really like to say that V ± is some geometric object whose coordinate ring is the non-reduced ring k[x, y]/(x, y 2 ). Further, this geometric object can be thought of as a double point, or even more accurately, as the point (, 0) with a first order tangent vector pointing vertically (do you see why the tangent points vertically, both algebraically and geometrically?). (c.) In characteristic two, we have x 2 + y 2 + = (x + y + ) 2. In other words, the circle x 2 + y 2 = is really just the line x + y = (although we would really like to think of it as a double line). In this case, V c is always just the single point (c, c + ), and I(V c ) = x + c, y + c +. There are no special points (although, if we think of the circle as a double line, we would really like to think of every point as a special point, and the projection map as a degree two everywhere ramified cover). (b.) I have a truly marvellous proof of this proposition which this margin is too narrow to contain. Problem 5. (a.) If φ is an isomorphism, then the inverse mapping is given by polynomials g,..., g n in variables x,..., x n such that g i (f,..., f n ) = x i for all i. Let K be the Jacobian polynomial of the inverse, i.e. the determinant of the matrix g i / x j. Taking the partial derivative with respect to x j gives n k= g i x k f k x j = δ ij for all i and j (δ ij is the Kronecker delta). In other words, we have computed that the matrix product g g x f f x n x..... x n..... g n g x n f n f x n x n x n is the identity matrix. Taking determinants gives the equation K J =. Thus, since J is a unit in k[x,..., x n ], it is a nonzero constant. Problem 6. The image of the regular map A 2 A 2 given by (x, y) (x, xy) is (A 2 \ V(x)) {0}, i.e. it misses the y-axis except for the origin. 4

5 Since the image contains the open set A 2 \ V(x), it is dense as A 2 is irreducible. In particular, as the image is a proper subset of A 2, it is not closed. Neither is the image open: the complement V(x) \ {0} is infinite, hence cannot be a proper closed subset of V(x) A. Problem 7. The maps of coordinate rings are: (Problem 2) A A 3 k[t] k[x, y, z] t x t 2 y t 3 z or A V k[t] k[x,y,z] x 3 z,x 2 y t x t 2 y t 3 z (Problem 4 (b.)) A 2 A k[x, y] k[x] or V(x 2 + y 2 ) A k[x,y] x 2 +y 2 k[x] (Problem 5) A n A n k[x,..., x n ] k[x,..., x n ] f i x i (Problem 6) A 2 A 2 k[x, y] k[x, y] xy y 5

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