A course in. Algebraic Geometry. Taught by Prof. Xinwen Zhu. Fall 2011

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1 A course in Algebraic Geometry Taught by Prof. Xinwen Zhu Fall

2 Contents 1. September September September September September September September October October October October October October October October November November November November November November 17 83

3 22. November November 29 90

4 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 1 1. September Algebraic sets. We start with an algebraically closed field k. First define the affine space Definition 1.1. A n k = {(a 1 a n ) : a i k} Definition 1.2. An algebraic set X A n is the set of common zeroes of a collection of polynomials f 1 f m k[x 1 x n ]. We denote this set V (f 1 f n ). That is, V (f 1 f n ) = {(a 1 a n ) : f 1 (a 1 a n ) = = f m (a 1 a n ) = 0}. But there might be some other polynomials g 1 g n such that V (f 1 f n ) = V (g 1 g n ). In general, this set is determined by the ideal generated by the polynomials f i, or g i. So if I = (f 1 f n ), we can write V (f 1 f n ) = V (I) = {(a 1..a n ) A n : f(a 1 a n ) = 0 f I}. Since the polynomial ring is Noetherian, every ideal is finitely generated, and so every V (I) can be written as V (f 1 f n ) for some finite collection of f i. The following relations are really useful, and are not hard to check. Lemma 1.3. The sets V (I) act like closed sets in a topological space, in the following sense: (1) If I 1 I 2, then V (I 1 ) V (I 2 ). (2) V (I 1 ) V (I 2 ) = V (I 1 I 2 ) = V (I 1 I 2 ). (3) α V (I α ) = V ( α I α) (4) V ({0}) = A n and V (k[x 1 x n ]) = Therefore, we can define a topology on this affine space. Definition 1.4. The Zariski topology on A n is given as follows: The closed subsets are algebraic sets (i.e. sets of the form V (I) for some ideal I defined as above). Example 1.5. Consider A 1 k. I claim that the algebraic sets are finite sets, as well as all of A 1 and the empty set. Algebraic sets are zeroes of polynomials in some ideal. In this case we are considering ideals in k[x], which is a PID, so those ideals all look like (f). Our field is algebraically closed, so write f = a(x α 1 ) (x α n ). So all the closed sets look like V (f) = {α 1 α n }. (And, of course, for every finite set we can find a polynomial where those are the only roots, so every finite set is closed.) Example 1.6. Now consider A 2. Obviously, we have A 2 and are algebraic sets. Also, we have things that are plane curves: V (f). However, not every ideal is generated by one polynomial: we also have the ideals V (f 1, f 2 ). Suppose f 1 is irreducible, and f 2 is not divisible by f 1. Then V (f 1, f 2 ) is a finite set. Why? (Homework.) But every other set is some union of sets of the form V (f ) and V (f, g). 4

6 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 1 Any radical ideal can be written as the intersection of finitely many prime ideals (by commutative algebra): I = B 1 B r with B i minimal prime ideals containing I. Therefore, V (I) = V (B 1 ) V (B v ) for B i prime. So each piece is an irreducible component of V (I). Definition An affine algebraic variety is an irreducible algebraic set in A n, with its induced topology. (So it s an irreducible closed space). A quasi-affine variety is an open subset of an affine variety. Example Examples of affine varieties. (1) We have seen that A 1 is an affine variety. In fact, so is every A n : use the fact that A n = V (0), and zero is prime in the polynomial ring. (2) Linear varieties: let l 1 l m be independent linear forms of x 1 x n. (These are linearly independent homogeneous polynomials of degree 1.) Let a 1 a m k. Then V (l 1 a 1, l 2 a 2,, l m a m ) A n is an affine variety, which we call a linear variety of dimension n m. For example, if l = ax + by then V (l c) is just the line ax + by = c. (3) Points are affine varieties. Use l 1 = x 1, l 2 = x 2,, l n = x n in the previous example. Then V (x 1 a 1,, x n a n ) is exactly the point (a 1 a n ). (Two points are an algebraic set, but are not irreducible.) (4) Consider f k[x 1 x n ] such that (f) is prime. Then V (f) is usually called a hypersurface in A n, and is an algebraic variety. (5) If f k[x, y] then V (f) is usually called a plane curve: for example, think about the graph of y 2 = x 3 (this has a cusp at the origin). y 2 x 3 x 2 passes the origin twice, and is called nodal. y 2 x 3 x is called an elliptic curve (it has two disconnected components). If k is the complex numbers, this curve is a torus. (6) Parametrized curves. Given f 1 (t) f n (t) k[t], then x i f i k[t, x 1 x n ] and we can consider V (x 1 f 1 x n f n ) A n+1. For example, we have V (x t 2, y t 3 ) A 3. It looks like y 2 x 3 if you project to the xy plane Morphisms between quasi-affine varieties. Recall that an affine variety is a special case of a quasi-affine variety. Definition Let X A n be a quasi-affine variety. A function f : X k is considered regular at p X if there is some set U p open in X, and f 1, f 2 k[x 1 x n ] such that (1) f 2 (q) 0 for q / U (2) f = f 1 f 2 on U (Basically, it agrees with a well-defined rational function on a neighborhood.) f : X k is called regular if it is regular at every point in X. Observe that the set of regular functions on X form a ring, denoted by O(X). For example, k[x 1 x n ] O(A n ), but you can actually prove equality. 6

7 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 2 So now we have a notion of functions on A n. Are they continuous? Lemma Let f : X k be a regular function. Regard it as map f : X A 1 k naturally. Then f is continuous. Corollary Let f be a regular function on a quasi-affine variety X. If f = 0 on some open subset U X, then f = 0 on X. (So there are no bump functions.) Proof of corollary. Consider Z = {p X : f(p) = 0}. This is closed, because f is continuous and points are closed. We can write X = Z (X\U). These are two closed subsets, and X is irreducible, so one of them must be all of X. But X\U is not X, which implies that X = Z. Proof of lemma. In fact, it is enough to show that f 1 (0) is closed. Why? We want to show that, for every closed subset of A n, the preimage is closed. But the closed subsets of A n are either the whole set, the empty set, or finite sets. But since this is a ring, to show that f 1 (a) is closed, it suffices to show that (f a) 1 (0) is closed. For every p, we need to find some neighborhood U p such that f 1 (0) U is closed. By definition of regular functions, we can choose U such that f = f 1 f 2 on U, with f 1 and f 2 polynomials. But f 1 (0) U = f 1 1 (0) U = V (f 1) U, which is closed in U. 2. September 6 RECALL that a set is quasi affine if it is open in an affine variety (irreducible algebraic set). Let X be a quasi-affine variety over a field k, and let O(X) be the ring of regular functions on X. (A function is regular at a point if it agrees with a well-defined rational function on a neighborhood.) Proposition 2.1. If f : X k is regular, then f : X A 1 is continuous with respect to the Zariski topology. Corollary 2.2. If f = 0 on U X open, then f = 0 on X. Corollary 2.3. O(X) is an integral domain. Proof. If fg = 0, then if Z 1 = {x : f(x) = 0} and Z 2 = {x : g(x) = 0}, then Z 1 Z 2 = X. Since X is irreducible, then one of the Z i = X, and so one of f or g is zero. Definition 2.4. (1) The field of rational functions on X is the fraction field of O(X), denoted by K = k(x). 7

8 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 2 (2) Let p X. The local ring of X at p is given by O X,p = lim O(U). (For every U p V U there is a map O(U) O(V ), and that is where the direct limit is taken.) For every p define an equivalence relation on O(X), where two regular functions are equivalent if they agree on some neighborhood of a point. Then O X,p = O/. Our ring is local because it has a unique maximal ideal: m is the set of functions that vanish at 0. Remark 2.5. Let f k(x) be a rational function f = f 1 f 2, for f 1, f 2 O(X). Therefore, f defines a regular function on U = X {f 2 = 0}. Conversely, if f O(U) then we claim that f can be regarded as a regular function. Why? Choose p U. There is some open neighborhood V U such that f = f 1 f 2 on V, where f 1 and f 2 are polynomials. In particular, f i O(U). So f K, at least in this neighborhood. However, we want this to be well-defined over all p. If you choose any p V U, and write f = f 1 on V, then f 1 f 2 = f 1 f 2 on V V. So f 1 f 2 = f 1 f 2 on V V. But since all the f i and f i were well-defined everywhere, we can write f 1 f 2 = f 1 K. So we ve just gotten an injective map O(U) K f 2 which is in fact a ring homomorphism. You end up getting a sequence O(X) O(U) O X,p K = k(x) = k(u) To clarify the first inclusion, note that O(X) contains functions that agree with rational functions on X, whereas in O(U) they only have to agree on the smaller set U. f 2 If X is affine, it is defined by some prime ideal: X = V (P). Can we determine the regular functions in terms of P? Theorem 2.6. Let X = V (P) A n be affine. Then (1) There is a natural isomorphism A(X) := k[x 1 x n ]/P O(X) (all regular functions are restrictions of polynomials). (2) There is a 1-1 correspondence between points on X and maximal ideals of A(X). We will denote the maximal ideal corresponding to {p} as m p. These are the functions that vanish at the point p. (3) The localization A(X) mp is isomorphic to O X,p. We call A(X) the coordinate ring of X. Proof. (2) Obvious. All the nonempty irreducible algebraic sets correspond bijectively to prime ideals. If Y X is a nonempty irreducible algebraic set, it corresponds bijectively to a containment I(Y ) I(X) = P. In particular, points in X correspond to maximal ideals that contain P. [Points are closed by Example 1.14, and are certainly irreducible.] These are the same as the maximal ideals of A(X). (3) There is a natural map k[x 1 x n ] O(X) that factors through k[x 1 x n ]/P: all the polynomials that vanish on X are exactly the elements of P. On the other hand, we have a natural inclusion O(X) F rac(a(x)), by the same argument as we saw earlier: 8

9 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 2 any regular function on some open subset, can be written as f = f 1 f 2. (We showed that this is well-defined.) So we have inclusions A(X) O(X) F rac(a(x)) = K (K is the fractional field of O(X), but O(X) F rac(a(x)).) A(X) O(X) F rac(a(x)) A(X) mp O X,p The map A(X) mp O X,p is given by writing things in A(X) as fractions on an appropriate open set. However, we claim it is an isomorphism. It is a fact from commutative algebra that every integral domain is the intersection of its localizations. We have A(X) = m A(X) m p K = O(x, p) O(X) is contained in any local ring, so it is contained in the last intersection. Since O X,p = lim O(U), we can write these as rational functions and shrink the open set, to get rational functions that do not vanish at p. So we get an isomorphism for the infinite intersections, which makes A(X) = O(X). Definition 2.7. Let X and Y be two quasi-affine varieties. A morphism ϕ : X Y is a continuous map such that for any V Y open and f : V k regular, is regular. f ϕ : ϕ 1 (V ) k The collection of quasi-affine varieties, with morphisms defined as above, forms a category. Definition 2.8. A morphism ϕ : X Y is called an isomorphism if there is some ψ : Y X such that ψϕ = ϕψ = Id. Definition 2.9. A quasi-affine variety is also said to be affine if it is isomorphic to an affine variety. Example A 1 {0} is a quasi-affine variety. But later we will see that it is isomorphic to V (xy 1) A 2. So it is also an affine variety. Here is an easier way to see what things are morphisms. Lemma Let ϕ : X Y A n be a map with X quasi-affine and Y affine. Then ϕ is a morphism iff x i ϕ is regular (where x i is any coordinate function on Y : a restriction to the i th coordinate). Proof. x i is certainly a regular function, so if ϕ is a morphism, then so is x i ϕ. Conversely, if x i ϕ is regular for any x i, we need to show 9

10 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 2 (1) ϕ is continuous; (2) For any open V Y and f O(V ), the composition f ϕ is regular on ϕ 1 (V ). Now let s prove these things. (1) Let f k[x 1 x n ]. We can write a generic closed set as Z = V (f 1 ) V (f n ). So the goal is to show that ϕ 1 (V (f)) is closed. This is the set of x such that f(ϕ(x)) = 0. So it suffices to show that f ϕ is continuous. In fact, we claim that it is regular. Write f ϕ = f(x 1 ϕ,, x n ϕ) and recall that, on an affine space, regular functions are rational functions. Substituting the regular ( = rational) functions x i ϕ into the variables of the regular ( = rational) function f still produces a rational function. (2) (Now since V need not be affine, we cannot directly use the trick that regular = rational. But we can still do this if we say things are rational in a neighborhood.) If V Y and p U V we want to show that ϕ is regular at p. At ϕ(p) we can write f = f 1 f 2, where f 1 and f 2 are polynomials and f 2 (p) 0. Around p, f ϕ = f 1 ϕ f 2 ϕ; numerator and denominator are regular functions, so f ϕ is also regular at p. Example G m := A 1 0 V (xy 1) A 2 where t (t, t 1 ). Composing with x 1 gives a regular function, as does composition with x 2. Conversely, you can give a map (x, y) xy backwards. This gives an isomorphism of quasi-affine varieties; and now we can say that A 1 0 is an affine variety. Proposition Let X be quasi-affine and Y be affine. Then there is a natural isomorphism Hom(X, Y ) Hom(O(Y ), O(X)) where Hom(X, Y ) is the set of all morphisms X Y. (Note that O(Y ) = A(Y ).) Proof. There is clearly a forwards map. Any ϕ : X Y induces a pullback map ϕ : O(Y ) O(X), where f f ϕ. We want to construct an inverse map: Hom alg (A(Y ), O(X)) Hom(X, Y ) Let Y A n. Start with a map ψ : A(Y ) O(X), construct ϕ : X A n, where ϕ : p (ψ(x 1 )(p), ψ(x 2 )(p), ) sends any function in the ideal defining Y to zero. So the previous map sends p into Y. So send p p(ϕ(x)). To check it is a morphism, we have to look at the coordinate functions. But we constructed it so that we knew what they were: x i ϕ = ψ(x i ). Corollary There is a contravariant equivalence of categories between affine varieties and finitely-generated integral k-algebras. A morphism between X and Y is the same as a morphism between their coordinate rings, by the previous proposition. 10

11 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 2 Given any finitely generated k-algebra k[x 1 x n ]/P, since A is integral P is a prime ideal, and A is exactly the coordinate ring of V (P). In the homework, you will see that A 2 {(0, 0)} is not an affine variety, but its coordinate ring is the same as k[x, y]. So the coordinate ring is not really enough to determine the variety. Definition Let A B be a homomorphism of commutative algebras, and M a B-module. We define the derivations Der A (B, M) = {D : D : B M satisfying (1) and (2)} (1) D(b 1 b 2 ) = b 1 D(b 2 ) + b 2 D(b 1 ) (2) D(a) = 0 a A Example If A = k and B = k[x 1 x n ]. Then M = k is a B-module, defined by the map B k taking every x i 0. We have: Der k (B, k) = {D = λ i : λ i k} x i By definition, x i (x j ) = δ ij. Also note that k = O X,p /m. This is because the map A(X) k given by evaluation at p has, by definition, kernel m p... and so does the map O X,p = A(X)mp k. Definition The Zariski tangent space of X at p is defined as T p X = Der k (O X,p, k) Observe that the space of all derivations Der A (B, M) is a B-module. (Adding and scalar multiplication by b also makes a derivation.) Therefore, T p X is a O X,p -module. But this factors through m, making it a k-vector space. Lemma T p X = (m/m 2 ) Note that the means dual space! Proof. Given a derivation D : O X,p k, we can restrict to m and get a map m k. But this vanishes on m 2 : D(fg) = fd(g) + gd(f) but because f, g m, when you mod out by m you have D(fg) = 0 m/m 2. Given such a map, the derivation is uniquely determined. As a k-vector space, O X,p = k m. By definition this tangent space is the k-derivations Der k (O X,p, k). You can easily check that this gives a bijective correspondence. Exercise: Show m/m 2 is a finite-dimensional k-vector space. 11

12 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 3 We will prove the following theorem next time: Theorem Let X be quasi-affine. Then there is some non-empty Zariski-open subset U X such that dim K Der k (K, K) = dim k T p X for all p U. This number is called the dimension of X. 3. September 8 Next week no class. After that, class is at 2:30-4: Smooth points. Theorem 3.1. Let X be a quasi-affine variety over k. Let K = k(x) be the function field. (1) For all p X, dim Der k (K, K) dim k T p X (2) There is a nonempty open subset U X such that dim k T p X = dim K Der k (K, K) p U This motivates a definition: Definition 3.2. dim X = dim K Der k (K, K) = min p X dim k T p X Definition 3.3. p X is called non-singular (or smooth) if dim T p X = dim X. Otherwise, p is called a singular point of X. X is called smooth or nonsingular if every point on X is smooth. On a smooth manifold, the dimension of the tangent space is always the same. But here, we can have points that are not smooth. Proof of theorem. We can assume that X is affine. (Otherwise take the Zariski closure, and the function field does not change.) There is a natural map obtained by restriction: Der k (K, K) Der k (O(X), K) Because the fraction field is in O(X), this is an isomorphism. If X = V (P) A n, then Der k (O(X), K) = {D = λ i, λ i K : D(f) = 0 f P} x i If we choose a set of generators f 1 f m for I, we can rewrite the above as {D = λ i x i : λ i K, λ i f j x j = 0 j} 12

13 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 3 If it vanishes on x j, then it vanishes on the whole ideal: D(fg) = fd(g) + gd(f). This is the kernel of the map K n K m by the derivation f j x i. So the dimension of the derivations is just n rk K J, where J is the matrix of partials described above. All the entries of this matrix are polynomials, so you can evaluate at p. By the same reasoning, dim k T p X = n rk K J(p). We want to show that rk k J(p) rk K J there is some nonempty subset U such that rk k J(p) = rk K J Assume rk K J = r. Then there are invertible n n matrices A, B with entries in K such that you can write AJB as a block matrix with I r in the upper left and zeroes elsewhere. Write A = A 0 /α, B = B 0 /β such that α and β O(X) and A 0 and B 0 have entries in O(X). Let f = αβ det A 0 det B 0. This is something in O(X) which is not zero (since none of the terms ( is ) zero). Just consider U = X V (f). This is nonempty. You can write Ir 0 A 0 JB 0 = αβ. So for all p U, rk 0 0 k J(p) = r. Lemma 3.4. The function p dim k T p X is upper semicontinuous. That is, X l = {p X : dim T p X l} is closed. So dim T p X n r for all p X. An open subset of X has dimension exactly n r. Others have dimension this. Proof. dim T p X = n rk k ( f i x j (p)). X l = V (P + the ideal generated by all (n l + 1) (n l + 1) minors of J) So this is a closed subset. Example 3.5. Assume k does not have characteristic 2. Remember y 2 = x 3 has a cusp, y 2 = x 3 +x 2 intersects itself at the origin, and y 2 = x 3 +x has two connected components. Since these are plane curves, we hope they have dimension one. In the first case, take f = y 2 x 3. Taking the partials, we find f x = 3x 2, f y = 2y 0. So J = ( 3x 2, 2y). Consider J(p). We know J(0, 0) = 0. The Zariski tangent space at this point is two-dimensional, so it is a singular point. You can check that any other point on the curve is smooth. In the case of f = y 2 x 3 x 2, we find J = (2x, 2y), and again J(0, 0) = 0 and the origin is singular. 13

14 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 3 In the case of f = y 2 x 3 x, we have J = ( 3x 2 1, 2y). We find that the rank of J(p) is always 1. This comes from solving the equations: y 2 = x 3 + x 3x 2 1 = 0 2y = 0 There are no solutions. So all the points are smooth. Example 3.6. dim A n = n and dim = Facts from commutative algebra. Definition 3.7. Let K/k be a field extension. We say that K is separably generated over k if there is some L with k L K such that L/k is purely transcendental and K/L is a finite separable algebraic extension. Theorem 3.8. If K/k is finitely separably generated, then (where tr.d. is the transcendental degree). dim K Der k (K, K) = tr.d. k K Theorem 3.9. Let k be a perfect field (e.g. k = k). Then every finitely-generated K/k is separably generated. For example, in A n, if K = k[x 1 x n ] we know that the transcendence degree is n. But we could also find this by calculating the dimension of the Zariski tangent space. Proposition Let X be an affine variety. Then dim X = n 1 if and only if X = V (f) for some irreducible f k[x 1 x n ]. (We call such V (f) a hypersurface.) Remark If dim X = n 2, then it is not necessarily true that I(X) is generated by two elements. Proof. Suppose X = V (f) is a hypersurface. We want to show that dim X = n 1. f The rank of x i is at most 1, so dim X = n rk( f x i ) n 1. We want to show that rk( f x i ) 0. Remember that this is going on in a space in which we have modded out by f f. Otherwise, x i lands in the ideal generated by f (i.e. f divides this); but the degree f is smaller, which can only happen if x i = 0 (here zero is in k). This can happen if the field has characteristic p > 0, and you can write f = g(x p 1, xp 2,, xp n). (Note that in characteristic p, x p has zero derivative.) Since k is algebraically closed, we can write g = g 1 (x 1 x n ) p (we re using the formula (a + b) p = a p + b p mod p; write ax p + by p ). We assumed X was irreducible, so this is a contradiction. Now assume dim X = n 1. We want to conclude that X is a hypersurface. Let g P = I(X). We have X V (g). We could assume that g is irreducible. If g is a product of things, at least one is in P because P is prime. We already know that dim V (g) = n 1. So now the proposition will follow from a lemma: 14

15 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 3 Lemma Let A be an integral domain over k, and P A be a prime ideal. Then tr.d. k A/P tr.d. k A with equality iff P = 0 or both are infinity. Remark By definition, tr.d. k A/P = tr.d. k F rac(a/p). From this lemma, we can conclude that hypersurfaces have dimension 1. Proof. Assume the contrary: that n = tr.d. k A. Then there is some x 1 x n A such that x 1 x n are algebraically independent over A/P. Let 0 y P. Since we assumed the transcendental degree of A is n, there exists a polynomial P k[y, X 1 X n ] such that P (y, x 1 x n ) = 0. But A is an integral domain, so we can assume that P is irreducible. If P factors as the product of two polynomials, then this relation still holds for one of them (this is by integrality). Note that P is not a multiple of Y : if you plug in y, it is not zero. Therefore, P (0, x 1 x n ) is an algebraic relation in A/P. Contradiction. Here is a theorem that says how to construct affine varieties containing certain smooth points. Theorem Let f 1 f r k[x 1 x n ] have no constant term (i.e. all the polynomials vanish at the origin), and have independent linear terms. (That is, if you write f i = aij x j +, then rk(a ij ) = r.) Let P = (f 1 f r )O A n,0 k[x 1 x n ]. Then (1) P is a prime ideal (2) X = V (P) has dimension n r, and 0 X is smooth (3) V (f 1... f n ) = X Y for some algebraic set Y not containing zero Corollary Let X be an affine variety of dimension n r in which 0 is a smooth point. Then there is some f 1 f r I(X) such that I(X) = (f 1 f r )O A n,0 k[x 1..x n ] Of course, we can transform any point to be the origin. Then this says that our variety X is defined by r equations (even if the original variety is not defined by r equations: it is X Y for Y not containing the chosen point). Proof of the corollary. We need to find r polynomials with independent linear terms; then we can apply the theorem. Let m = (x 1 x n ) k[x 1 x n ] and m 0 be the maximal ideal of O(X) corresponding to zero. We have a sequence 0 P m m (P + m 2 )/m 2 m/m 2 m 0 /m

16 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 3 m/m 2 has dimension n, (P + m 2 )/m 2 has dimension r, and m 0 /m 2 0 has dimension n r. Choose an arbitrary basis (f 1... f r ) for P + m 2 /m 2, and that lifts to a basis of P. So f 1 f r has independent linear terms. (m 2 has a basis, which means that there are linearly independent terms.) From the theorem, is a prime ideal. P = { f i g i k i P = (f 1 f r )O A n,0 k[x 1 x n ] : k i (0) 0, g i f i k i k[x 1 x n ]} This is inside of I(X), because it vanishes on X. (Note that g if i k i is a regular function, except where the denominator vanishes.) We have Y = V (P) X. By the theorem, dim Y = n r. By assumption, dim X = n r. But if they have the same dimension, they have to be equal. So, locally around a point the ideal is always generated by r polynomials. Proof of the theorem. Let (A, m, k) be a local ring. Then that we have an inverse system.. A/m 3 A/m 2 A/m = k We have O A n,0 = k[x 1 x n ] (x1 x n). So then Ô A n,0 = k[[x 1 x n ]] where we now allow infinite polynomials (a.k.a. power series). O(A n ) = k[x 1 x n ] O A n,0 = k[x 1 x n ] (x1 x n) k[[x 1 x n ]] Â := lim A/mn. Recall (Rational functions like 1 1 f have power series.) Remember P = (f 1 f v )O A n,0 k[x 1 x n ] was defined as before. Now define P = (f 1 f r )O A n,0 and P = (f 1 f r )k[[x 1 x n ]] The ring homomorphism of the pullback of a prime ideal is always prime. It is enough to show two things: (1) P is prime in k[[x 1 x n ]] (2) P O A n,0 = P The second fact comes from commutative algebra. By definition, P P O A n,0 = { g i f i : g i k[[x 1 x n ]], g i f i k[x 1 x n ] (x1 x n)} = (P + m N ) N=0 16

17 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 4 If we just truncate this, then the remaining terms will be in P + m N. That is, if g i = α<n xα i + R then Rf i m N and f i x α i P. The second part is proven by the following theorem from commutative algebra Theorem 3.16 (Krull Theorem). If (A, m, k) is Noetherian local, then for any ideal I, I = (I + m N ). N=0 4. September Finishing things from last time. Theorem 4.1. Let f 1 f r k[x 1 x n ] be polynomials with no constant term and independent linear terms. Then the ideal of the local ring P = (f 1 f r )O A n,0 k[x 1 x n ] is prime. dim V (P) = n r and zero is a smooth point on V (P). Moreover, V (f 1 f r ) = V (P) Y when / Y is some algebraic set. Last time, we prove a corollary: If we have a smooth point, then locally this variety is cut out by r equations. Proof. k[x 1 x n ] k[x 1 x n ] (x1 x n) = O A n,0 k[[x 1 x n ]] = ÔA n,0. Consider P = (f 1 f r )O A n,0 P = (f 1 f r )k[[x 1 x n ]] It is enough to prove that P is prime, and that P = P O A n,0. To prove the second thing, note that P P O A n,0 = {no A n,0 : f = h i f i, h i k[[x 1 x n ]]}. Suppose m is the maximal ideal of O A n,0. 0 m N O A n,0 O A n,0/m N 0 We can show that the last term is just k[x 1 x n ]/(x 1 x n ) N. So O A n,0 = m N {polynomials of degree N} as a k-vector space. (Every element in the local ring can be written as a polynomial of small degree plus something in a power of the local ring.) We can write f = f + remainders, where f is a polynomial of degree < N. So going back to the expression of P O A n,0 we have h i = h i + degree N terms 17

18 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 4 Then f h i f i = (f h i f i) + m N O A n,0) Look at the first term; it has degree N. All of this is in m N O A n,0. So which is equal to P by Krull s theorem. P O A n,0 N 0(P + m N ) Now we want to show that P is prime. We need: Proposition 4.2. (Formal inverse function theorem) Let f = a i x i + higher terms k[[x 1 x n ]] and a i 0. Then any g k[[x 1 x n ]] can be uniquely written as g = u f + h(x 2 x n ) Proof. Easy. Expand u and h and show you can solve for all the coefficients. Corollary 4.3. k[[x 1 x n ]]/(f) k[[x 2 x n ]] Corollary 4.4. Let f 1 f r be r power series. Write f i = a ij x j + higher terms If det((a ij ) 1 i,j r ) 0, then k[[x 1 x n ]]/(f 1 f r ) k[[x r+1 xn ]] Proof. Induction. Back to the theorem. If f 1 f r have independent linear terms, then k[[x 1 x n ]]/(f 1 f r ) k[[x r+1 xn ]] This shows that P is prime, which in turn shows that P is prime. A(V (P)) = k[x 1 x n ]/P k[[x 1 x n ]]/P = k[[x n+1 xn ]] They are algebraically independent because they are algebraically independent in the power series map. We used commutative algebra to relate that dimension of a variety to the transcendental degree. Therefore, dim V (P) n r. By definition T p V (P) = (m p /m 2 p) 0 P/(P + (x 1 x n ) 2 ) (x 1 x n )/(x 1 x n ) 2 m p /m 2 p 0 T p V (P) is cut out by the linear terms of f 1 f r in T p A n. Because the linear terms are independent, we have that dim T p V (P) = n r. We know that the dimension of the tangent space is the dimension of the variety. But this tangent space is exactly n r, which is the upper bound anyway, so dim V (P) = n r and p is smooth. We want to show that V (f 1 f r ) = V (P) Y 18

19 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 4 where Y does not contain the origin. P is not necessarily generated by f 1 f r ; this is only true of the local ring O X,p. So let g 1 g s be a set of generators of P (recall this is finite because everything is Noetherian). g i (f 1 f r )O A n,0 k[x 1 x n ] Equivalently, there are some h i not vanishing at the origin such that h i g i (f 1 f r ). Let h = h i. Then hp (f 1 f r ) and V (f 1 f r ) V (hp) = V (h) V (P). In other words, V (f 1 f r ) = V (f 1 f r, h) V (P). Since h(0) 0, 0 / Y. Corollary 4.5. Let p = (0,, 0) X = V (P) be a smooth point of X with dim X = n r. Choose f 1 f r with independent linear terms. You can always do this because of the short exact sequence 0 P/(P + (x 1...x n ) 2 ) (x 1...x n )/(x 1...x n ) 2 m p /m 2 p 0 Then P = (f 1 f r )O A n,0 k[x 1...x n ]. (The idea is that locally the ideal is generated by r functions.) Corollary 4.6. Let X be quasi-affine with dimension r. Let p X be a smooth point. Then Ô X,p = k[[x1...x r ]] If we are in this situation P = (f 1 f r )O A n,0 k[x 1...x n ] then the complete local ring is just the power series ring. Note that this is false if we consider the local ring instead of its completion More general definitions. Definition 4.7. Let k = k be a field. A (pre)variety over k is a connected topological space together with a covering U = {U α } and homeomorphisms ϕ α : U α X α with X α quasi-affine, that plays well on overlaps: ϕ β ϕ 1 α : ϕ α (U α U β ) ϕ β (U α U β ) is a morphism of quasi-affine varieties. In addition, we require this covering U to be maximal; i.e., if Y is quasi-affine V X is open and ψ : V Y quasi-affine such that ϕ α ψ 1 : ψ(u α V ) ϕ α (U α V ) is a morphism, then V U. Exercise 4.8. Prove that this is irreducible. Definition 4.9. A function f : X k is called regular if for every α, f ϕ 1 α : X α k 19

20 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 4 is regular. We denote O(X) to be the ring of regular functions on X. We can also define the local ring at the point p to be O X,p = lim O(U). U p open Definition k(x) is defined to be any k(x α ): you have a covering by quasi affine varieties, so you can talk about the rational functions. But for every piece, there might be a different set of all such. But these are canonically identified. Remark k(x) is not necessarily the fractional field of O(X). We also have dim X, T p X, smoothness,... Definition Let X be a (pre)variety. An irreducible closed subset Y X with the canonical variety structure is called a closed subvariety of X. If you have a closed irreducible subset, it is connected. Restrict the covering to this subset, and you get a covering if this closed subset; restrict the homeomorphism and it will map to a closed subset of a quasi-affine variety. You can check that the transition maps work out. Exercise Z V If Z X is closed the bottom map is a morphism. X Definition Let X, Y be two varieties. A continuous map ϕ : X Y is called a morphism if for any p X, U ϕ(p), f O(U), we have Y f ϕ O(ϕ 1 (U)) (Continuity is needed, because we want ϕ 1 (U) to be an open set.) 4.3. Projective varieties. Definition The projective n-space P n is the set k n+1 {0,, 0}/ where (a 0 a n ) (λa 0,, λa n ) where λ k. Remark P n can also be regarded as the set of 1-dimensional subspaces in k n+1. An element p P n is called a point (even though it s just an equivalence class). Any (a 0 a n ) p is called a set of homogeneous coordinates of p. We need to give a natural variety structure; first we define the topology. Definition An algebraic set in P n is the set Z of zeroes for a set of homogeneous polynomials f 1 f m : Z = V (f 1 f r ) = {p P n : 20 * holds:}

21 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 5 (*) If (a 1 a n ) are homogeneous coordinates of p then f 1 (a 0 a n ) =. = f m (a 0,, a m ) = 0. Let I = (f 1 f r ). Then I is a homogeneous ideal of k[x 0 x n ]; i.e. if f I and f = d f d then f d I. There is a result of commutative algebra that said that any ideal of homogeneous polynomials has a finite set of homogeneous generators. So an algebraic set in P n is given by homogeneous polynomials. Lemma V (k[x 1...x n ]) = V (x 1...x n ) = 0, and V (0) = P n V ( α I α ) = α V (I α ) V (I 1 I 2 ) = V (I 1 V (I 2 )) Unlike the affine case, you can have two radical ideals corresponding to one set. Definition (Zariski topology on P n ) We need to choose a set of subsets that are closed: these are the algebraic sets. Theorem 4.20 (Hilbert s Nullstellensatz). For all homogeneous I and all homogeneous f with deg(f) 1, then f I f vanishes on V (I) Corollary Algebraic sets in P n are in 1-1 correspondence with homogeneous radical ideals. contained in (X 0 X n ) = S +. Proposition Let I be a homogeneous ideal in S = k[x 0...x n ] (this will denote a ring with a grading; the un-graded ring will be denoted k[x 0...x n ]). From commutative algebra, I can be written as an intersection of minimal prime ideals containing this radical: I = P1 P r Then the P i are homogeneous. Proof. Exercise. Corollary V (P) is irreducible iff P is a homogeneous prime (in S + ). Furthermore, every algebraic set in P n can be uniquely written as the union of its irreducible components. Definition A projective variety is an irreducible algebraic set in P n. projective variety is an open subset of a projective variety. A quasi Proposition P n together with the Zariski topology has a natural variety structure over k. (So every projective variety has a natural variety structure.) 21

22 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 5 5. September 22 RECALL that we had introduced the projective n-space P n = {(a 0 a n ) k n+1 0}/ We can define the Zariski topology on P n, where the closed subsets are V (I) where I is a homogeneous ideal. Proposition 5.1. There is a natural variety structure on P n. Proof. The idea is to cover it with some cover, each of which is isomorphic to an affine variety (not just a quasi-affine). Let H i = {(a 0 a n ) : a i = 0}/ = V (x i ). This is closed. Let U i = P n H; this is open, and the collection of these cover the whole projective space. Now define ϕ i : U i A n where (a 0 a n ) ( a 0 a i,, âi a i,, an a i ). This is a bijection. We need to show (1) ϕ i is a homeomorphism (2) ϕ i ϕ 1 j is a morphism Because it s bijective, we just need to show that closed subsets go to closed subsets. Let I S be a homogeneous ideal (remember S is the polynomial ring of n + 1 variables, but regarded as a graded ring). Without loss of generality take i = 0. Then we need to show ϕ 0 : U 0 V (I) A n goes to a closed thing. Define But I ih = {f(1, x n ) : f I} k[x 1...x n ] U 0 V (I) = {(a 0 a n ) : f(a 0 a n ) = 0 f I} {(a 0 a n ) : g( a 1,, a n ) = 0 g I ih } a 0 a 0 Note that ( a 1 a 0 an a 0 ) = (1, a 1 a n an a 0 ) because things are homogeneous. On the other hand, let I k[x 1...x n ] be any ideal. We define I h S where I h = {x deg f 0 f( x 1 x 0 xn x 0 ϕ i (U 0 V (I h )) = V (I) : I)} Now assume i = n, j = 0. ϕ n ϕ 1 0 : A n \{x + n 0} A n \{x 1 0} (a 1 a n ) ( 1, a 1 an 1 ) a n a n a n This pulls back coordinate functions to regular functions, by definition: (ϕ n ϕ 1 0 ) (x 0 ) = x i+1 x n This is the ratio of two polynomials, so it is a regular function. 22

23 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 5 In particular, every projective variety (i.e. V (P) P n ) is actually a variety. Example 5.2. V (xy z 2 ) P 2. U x = {(x, y, z) : x 0} = A 2 V (xy z 2 ) U x = V (y z 2 ) This is a parabola. I think that you can take x = 1 because x 0 and we re working with homogeneous coordinates. So choosing which thing to set to 1 is basically like choosing charts. U z = {(x, y, z) : z 0} = A 2 V (xy z 2 ) U z = V (xy 1) A 2 This looks like a hyperbola. So in projective geometry, there is no difference between a parabola and a hyperbola. Let Y = V (P) P n be a projective variety. We denote S(y) = S P the homogeneous coordinate ring of Y. So S(Y ) is a graded ring given by the degree of S. (The ideal is a homogeneous ideal, so the grading descends.) S(Y ) = d S(Y ) d By the equivalence of categories in the affine case, the coordinate ring is the same as the variety. But this does not work in the projective case. You could have isomorphic projective varieties with non-isomorphic coordinate rings. This coordinate ring determines Y, but you could have different S(Y ) for the same Y (???). Let P be a homogeneous prime ideal of S(Y ). In other words, you have a homogeneous prime ideal containing P and its quotient is P. We denote S(Y ) P = { f g : f, g, homogeneous, deg g = deg f, g / P } Proposition 5.3. Let Y = V (P) be a projective variety, p Y and m p the homogeneous maximal ideal corresponding to p. Then (1) O Y,p = S(Y )(mp) (2) K = k(y ) = S(Y ) (0) = { (3) O(Y ) = k f (mod P) g (mod P) : f, g S, deg f = deg g, g / P} Rational functions can always be written as a quotient of fractions where the denominator does not vanish in the localization. This is the same as requiring g / m p. Proof. Let Y i = Y U i where U i was the open subset {(a 0 a n ) : a i 0} from before. Observation: there is a natural isomorphism ϕ i : A(Y i ) S(Y ) (xi ) 23

24 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 5 Assume i = 0. There is a map k[x 1 x n ] S (xi ) given by f f( x 1 x 0 xn x 0 ). Wait... aren t we supposed to be dividing by everything that s not x 0? Via this map, P ih PS (x0 ). So Y 0 = V (P ih ). Now (1) and (2) folow from the corresponding facts for affine varieties. That is, we can assume p U 0 Y = Y 0. So O Y,p = O Y0,p = A(Y 0 ) m ih p (S(Y )(x0 )) ϕ 0(m ih p ) = m p S(Y ) (x0 ) The localization is transitive, so this is S(Y ) mp. Now we will do part (3): we want to show that O(Y ) = k. Let f O(Y ) k(y ) = S(Y ) (0) L, where L is the fractional field of S(Y ). Recall that Y is covered by Y i (which are each Y U i ). Each regular function on Y gives a regular function on Y i : n O(Y ) O(Y i ) But O(Y i ) = A(Y i ) = S(Y ) (xi ). So for each i there is some N i such that χ N i i f S(Y ) Now let N N i. Then S(Y ) N f S(Y ) N. This is because every element in S(Y ) is spanned by monomials: x r 0 0, Now watch the degrees (?) So for all m, S(Y ) N f m S(Y ) N. Each S(Y ) N is a finite-dimensional vector spaces. f is a map S(Y ) N S(Y ) N. There is some m such that i=0 f m + a 1 f m a m = 0 : S(Y ) N S(Y ) N implies f m + a 1 f m a m = 0 in L. (S(Y ) (0) requires that the denominator is always homogeneous; this is not a requirement in L.) k is algebraically closed in L, which implies f k. This proves that every regular function on a projective variety is a constant Product of two varieties. Definition 5.4. Let X, Y be two varieties. The product X k Y is a variety together with two morphisms X Y X, X Y Y (projections), such that for any other variety Z the natural map Hom(Z, X Y ) Hom(Z, X) Hom(Z, Y ) is a bijection. So we have a diagram Z = X Y X Y pr Y X pr X Y Theorem 5.5. The product of X and Y exists, and is unique up to a unique isomorphism. 24

25 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 5 Proof. Uniqueness is clear. Existence: there is a natural variety structure on the set X Y, making it the product X k Y. (1) If X and Y are affine, then U i k Y exists. (2) Let {U i } be a cover of X, and each U i k Y exists, then X k Y exists. This proves the theorem, because you can cover X by affines X = U i and Y = V i. Then each U i k Y exists, because (by (2)) each U i k V j exists (by (1)). Applying (2) again says that X k Y exists. { affine varieties over k} {f.g. integral k-algebras} In the forwards direction, X O(X) = A(X). In the backwards direction, write Spec(A) A. Lemma 5.6. Let Z be any variety, and X be affine. Hom(Z, X) Hom k alg (O(X), O(Z)) is bijective. (We proved this for quasi-affine varieties, but now we claim it for all varietes.) Proof. Cover Z = U i by quasi-affines. Then Hom(Z, X) i Hom(U i, X) by restricting the elements of Hom(Z, X). We can further restrict them to the intersection of two quasi-affines: Hom(Z, X) Hom(U i, X) Hom(U i U j, X) The middle set is the equalizer. Hom(Z, X) is the equalizer of Hom(U i, X) Hom(U i U j, X) i Concretely, this means: a morphism ϕ : Z X is an equivalence to ϕ i : U i X such that ϕ i Ui U j = ϕ j Ui U j O(Z) O(U i ) O(U i U j ) (A function on Z is the same as a function on U i that coincides on the intersection.) Hom(Z, X) Hom(Ui, X) Hom(Ui U j, X) Hom(O(X), O(Z)) Hom(O(X), O(Ui )) Check the injectivity/surjectivity by diagram chasing. (Exercise.) 25 Hom(O(X), O(Ui U j ))

26 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 6 Back to (1). Let X, Y be affine. A = O(X), B = O(Y ). Then A k B is a finitely generated integral k-algebra. Then You can show that A = k[x 1 x n ]/(f 1 f m ) B = k[y 1 y s ]/(g 1 g t ) A k B = k[x 1 x n, y 1 y s ]/(f 1 f m, g 1 g t ) Spec(A k B) = V (f 1 f m, g 1 g t ) A n+s The underlying set is the underlying set of X times the underlying set of Y. Claim 5.7. Spec(A k B) = X k Y Hom(Z, Spec(A B)) = Hom(A k B, O(Z)) (by the lemma) as k-algebras. definition of tensor products, = Hom(A, O(Z)) Hom(B, O(Z)) = Hom(Z, X) Hom(Z, Y ) By the Example 5.8. A n k A m = A n+m. But the topology on A n A m is not the same as the product topology on A n A m. Rest of the proof: homework. Example 5.9. P n k P m exists. What is it? We know that P n = i U i, P m = j V j. We have a lemma, which is proven in the homework. Lemma If U X open, then U k Y is equal to U Y X k Y with the induced topology. where each piece is isomorphic to A nm. P n k P m = (U i k P m ) = i,j (U i k U j ) 6. September Products of projective varieties. Last time we defined the product of two varieties. Consider P n k P m. If we write P n = U i and P m = V j where each U i and V j is isomorphic to the affine space, then we have an open cover P n k P m = i,j U i k V j 26

27 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 6 where U i V j = A n k A m = A n+m. Lemma 6.1. The topology on P n k P m can be described as follows: closed subsets are of the form V (f 1 f N ) where f i k[x 0 x n, y 0 y n ] that are bi-homogeneous; i.e. we can write f i = (coeff)x a 0 0 xan n y b 0 0 ybm m We call (d, e) the bi-degree of f i. a 0 + +a n=d b 0 + +b m=e Proof. We know the topology on U i V j, because we have an isomorphism ϕ i ϕ j U i V j A n k A m = A n+m where the LHS has the Zariski topology. (When we write A n k A m we mean the topology inherited from this particular construction of product, not the usual product topology.) It suffices to show that (ϕ i ϕ j )((U i V j ) V (f 1 f N )) are the algebraic sets in A n+m. This is the same as when we showed that ϕ i : U i A n is a homeomorphism. Our next goal is to show that P n P m is a projective variety: it is isomorphic to some projective variety (a closed subvariety of some P k ). Definition 6.2. Let ϕ : X Y be a morphism of (pre)varieties. (So far when we say variety we mean prevariety ; we will remove this later by imposing an additional condition.) We say that ϕ is a closed embedding if ϕ is one-to-one on to an irreducible closed subset ϕ(x) Y (therefore ϕ(x) has a variety structure) and ϕ : X ϕ(x) is an isomorphism. Theorem 6.3. Let N = mn + m + n. Then there is a natural closed embedding called the Segre embedding. s : P n k P m P N, Corollary 6.4. Let X, Y be projective. Then X k Y is projective. Proof of corollary. This follows from the theorem and the following lemma: Lemma 6.5. Let ϕ : X X, ψ : Y Y be closed embeddings. Then ϕ ψ : X k Y X k Y. Proof of the theorem. We will define the map (a 0 a n ), (b 0 b m ) (a i b j ) where 1 i n + 1, 1 b m + 1. First, we show that it is a morphism. This is 27

28 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 6 a local condition, so we can check on each piece of an affine open cover. Suppose P n has coordinate functions x 0 x n, P m has coordinate functions y 0 y m, and P N has coordinate functions z ij. Let U ij = P N H ij where H ij = {z ij = 0}. s U i V j U ij ϕ i ϕ j ϕ ij A n A m A mn+m+n where the left vertical map takes (a 0 a n )(b 0 b m ) ( a 0 a i, a i a i an a i ), ( b 0 bj bm b j ). The right vertical map takes (c ij ) ( c 00 c i0 cmn j 0 c i0 ) Then the bottom map is ϕ i0 j j 0 s (ϕ i0 0 ϕ j0 ) 1. When you restrict s to U i0 V j0 it s not hard to see that it goes to the right place. is a morphism. ϕ 00 s (ϕ 0 ϕ 0 ) 1 = (x 1 x n )(y 1 y n ) (x 1 x n, y 1 y m, x i y i ) We want to show that s is injective. Suppose s(a, b) = s(a, b ). This means that a i b j = λa i b j (they represent the same point in projective space), for any i, j. So there are some i 0, j 0 such that a i0 0 and b j0 0. So (a, b) U i0 V j0. 0 a i0 b j0 = λa i 0 b j 0 and so (a, b ) U i0 V j0. Let µ = a i 0 a i 0 and ν = b j 0 b j 0. λ = µ ν. From Similarly, b = b. a i b j0 = λa ib j 0 = a i = µa i = a = a. Let P = ker(k[z ij ] k[x 0 x n, y 0 y m ]) where the map takes z ij x i y j. You can check that P contains the ideal P = (z ij z kl z il z kj ) Obviously, s(p n P m ) V (P) V (P ). We now prove that the map is onto this closed subset: s(p n P m ) = V (P ). In particular, V (P) = V (P ). So the radical of P is P. (Actually, P is the same as P.) Let (c ij ) V (P ); this means that c ij c kl = c il c kj. This means that there is some c i0 j 0 0., and hence (c ij ) U i0 j 0. Let a i = c ij 0 c i0 P n and b j j = c i 0 j 0 c i0 P m. So j 0 s(a, b) = (a i b j ) = c ij 0 c i0 j c 2 i 0 j 0 = c ijc i0 j 0 = (c ij) P N From this argument we have that s 1 (U ij ) = U i k V j. Finally, we show that is an isomorphism iff s : P n k P m V (P) s 1 : V (P) P n k P m 28

29 Math 232a Xinwen Zhu Lecture 6 is a morphism. But we only need to check on affine opens. s 1 : V (P) U i0 j 0 U i0 V j0 We need to check this is a morphism. Consider i 0 = j 0 = 0. We have s 1 s : V (P) U 1 i0 j 0 U i0 V j0 pr first m+n coords A mn+m+n = U i0 j 0 The vertical map is a closed embedding, and hence a morphism. The composition is then a morphism. We are done. The reverse direction of the diagonal map is (a 1 a n, b 1 b m ) (a 1 a n, b 1 b m, b ij ) An important class of projective varieties. Definition 6.6. A hyperplane in P n is defined by a linear polynomial V (a 0 x 0 +.+a n x n ) (a hypersurface where the defining polynomial is linear). A linear variety in P n is the intersection of hyperplanes. A linear variety of dimension r is also called an r-plane. 1-planes are called lines. For example, H i = {x i = 0}. Lemma 6.7. (1) Let X P n be an r-plane. Then X = P r and I(X) can be generated by n r linear polynomials. (i.e. the intersection of planes is a plane!) (2) There is a natural bijection between (r+1)-dimensional sub-vector-spaces in k n+1 and r-planes in P n. (Just consider L X = {(a 0 a r ) L = {0}}/ ; this turns out to be a bijection.) Definition 6.8. The Grassmannian G(r, n) is the set of all r-dimensional subspaces in k n (equivalently, the (r 1)-planes in P n 1 ). For example, G(1, n) = P n 1. Notations 6.9. G(r, n) is also denoted as G(r 1, n 1). Let V be a finite-dimensional k-vector space. Then G(r, V ) is the set of all r- dimensional subspaces in V. (No need to choose a basis.) In particular, G(1, V ) is denoted by P(V ). Theorem G(r, V ) is naturally a smooth projective variety of dimension r(n r), where n = dim V. Proof. We could try to embed this in a projective space. Or, we could give it a cover which gives it a variety structure, and then embed into projective space. We will do the latter. 29

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