# TEST CODE: PMB SYLLABUS

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1 TEST CODE: PMB SYLLABUS Convergence and divergence of sequence and series; Cauchy sequence and completeness; Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem; continuity, uniform continuity, differentiability; directional derivatives, Jacobians, Taylor Expansion; integral calculus of one variable existence of Riemann integral; Fundamental theorem of calculus, change of variable; elementary topological notions for metric space open, closed and compact sets, connectedness; elements of ordinary differential equations. Equivalence relations and partitions; vector spaces, subspaces, basis, dimension, direct sum; matrices, systems of linear equations, determinants; diagonalization, triangular forms; linear transformations and their representation as matrices; groups, subgroups, quotients, homomorphisms, products; Lagrange s theorem, Sylow s theorems; rings, ideals, maximal ideals, prime ideals, quotients, integral domains, unique factorization domains, polynomial rings; fields, algebraic extensions, separable and normal extensions, finite fields. SAMPLE QUESTIONS 1. Let k be a field and k[x, y] denote the polynomial ring in the two variables x and y with coefficients from k. Prove that for any a, b k the ideal generated by the linear polynomials x a and y b is a maximal ideal of k[x, y]. 2. Let T : R 3 R 3 be a linear transformation. Show that there is a line L such that T (L) = L. 3. Let A R n and f : A R m be a uniformly continuous function. If {x n } n 1 A is a Cauchy sequence then show that lim n f(x n ) exists. 4. Let N > 0 and let f : [0, 1] [0, 1] be denoted by f(x) = 1 if x = 1/i for some integer i N and f(x) = 0 for all other values of x. Show that f is Riemann integrable. 5. Let F : R n R be defined by F (x 1, x 2,..., x n ) = max{ x 1, x 2,..., x n }. Show that F is a uniformly continuous function. 1

2 6. Show that every isometry of a compact metric space into itself is onto. 7. Let T = {z C : z = 1} and f : [0, 1] C be continuous with f(0) = 0, f(1) = 2. Show that there exists at least one t 0 in [0, 1] such that f(t 0 ) is in T. 8. Let f be a continuous function on [0, 1]. Evaluate 1 lim n 0 x n f(x)dx. 9. Find the most general curve whose normal at each point passes though (0, 0). Find the particular curve through (2, 3). 10. Suppose f is a continuous function on R which is periodic with period 1, that is, f(x + 1) = f(x) for all x. Show that (i) the function f is bounded above and below, (ii) it achieves both its maximum and minimum and (iii) it is uniformly continuous. 11. Let A = (a ij ) be an n n matrix such that a ij = 0 whenever i j. Prove that A n is the zero matrix. 12. Determine the integers n for which Z n, the set of integers modulo n, contains elements x, y so that x + y = 2, 2x 3y = Let a 1, b 1 be arbitrary positive real numbers. Define a n+1 = a n + b n, b n+1 = a n b n 2 for all n 1. Show that a n and b n converge to a common limit. 14. Show that the only field automorphism of Q is the identity. Using this prove that the only field automorphism of R is the identity. 15. Consider a circle which is tangent to the y-axis at 0. Show that the slope at any point (x, y) satisfies dy dx = y2 x 2 2xy. 16. Consider an n n matrix A = (a ij ) with a 12 = 1, a ij = 0 (i, j) (1, 2). Prove that there is no invertible matrix P such that P AP 1 is a diagonal matrix. 17. Let G be a nonabelian group of order 39. How many subgroups of order 3 does it have? 18. Let n N, let p be a prime number and let Z p n denote the ring of integers modulo p n under addition and multiplication modulo p n. Let f(x) and g(x) be polynomials with coefficients from the ring Z p n such that f(x) g(x) = 0. Prove that a i b j = 0 i, j where a i and b j are the coefficients of f and g respectively. 2

3 19. Show that the fields Q( 2) and Q( 3) are isomorphic as Q-vector spaces but not as fields. 20. Suppose a n 0 and a n is convergent. Show that 1/(n 2 a n ) is divergent. 3

4 Model question paper Group A 1. Let f be a bounded twice differentiable real valued function on R such that f (x) 0 for all x. Show that f is a constant. 2. Let u, v : [a, b] R be continuous. Define f : [a, b] R by { u(x) if x is rational f(x) = v(x) if x is irrational. Show that f is Riemann integrable on [a, b] if and only if u(x) = v(x) for all x [a, b] 3. In each case, give an example of a function f, continuous on S and such that f(s) = T, or else explain why there can be no such f : (a) S = (0, 1), T = (0, 1]. (b) S = R, T = {the set of rational numbers}. (c) S = [0, 1] [2, 3], T = {0, 1}. (d) S = (0, 1), T = R. (e) S = [0, 1], T = (0, 1). 4. If f(x, y) = 3 x 3 + y 3, then is f differentiable at (0, 0)? Justify your answer. 5. Suppose that g : R n R has continuous partial derivatives and satisfy g (x) x j M for all x = (x 1, x 2,..., x n ) R n and for all j = 1, 2,..., n. (a) Show that g(x) g(y) nm x y for all x, y R n. Here denotes the Euclidian norm on R n. (b) Using (a) or otherwise, prove that g is uniformly continuous. 6. Let C be a subset of a compact metric space (X, d). Assume that, for every continuous function h : X R, the restriction of h to C attains a maximum on C. Prove that C is compact. Group B 1. For the following statements indicate True/False. If the statement is true then give a short proof. Otherwise give a counter-example. 4

5 (a) There is no non-trivial group homomorphism from the symmetric group S 3 to Z 3. (b) If a group G is such that each proper subgroup of G is cyclic, then G is cyclic. (c) Let R be a ring with unity. Consider X 2 1 R[X]. Then X 2 1 has at most two roots in R. (d) Let R be a ring such that R[X] is a principal ideal domain (PID). Then R is a field. 2. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 such that every ascending chain of ideals terminates. Let f : R R be a surjective homomorphism. Prove that f is an isomorphism. 3. Find the gcd of 4X 4 2X and 3X 3 + 4X 2 + X + 1 in Z 7 [X]. 4. Find conditions on a, b, c R to ensure that the following system is consistent, and in that case, find the general solutions : 5. Prove or disprove : x + 3y 2z = a x 5y + 3z = b 2x 8y + 3z = c (a) There exists a linear map T : R 2 R 4 such that Range(T ) = {(x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4 ) R 4 : x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 = 0}. (b) There exists a linear map T : R 2 R 3 such that Range(T ) = {(x 1, x 2, x 3 ) R 3 : x 1 + x 2 + x 3 = 0}. 6. Let V be a finite dimensional vector space over R and T : V V be a linear transformation with dimension of Range of T = k. Show that T can have at most k + 1 distinct eigenvalues. 5

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