# Math 547, Exam 1 Information.

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1 Math 547, Exam 1 Information. 2/10/10, LC 303B, 10:10-11:00. Exam 1 will be based on: Sections 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 9.1; The corresponding assigned homework problems (see boylan/sccourses/547sp10/547.html) At minimum, you need to understand how to do the homework problems. Lecture notes: 1/11-2/5. Topic List (not necessarily comprehensive): You will need to know: theorems, results, and definitions from class. 5.1: Commutative rings; integral domains. A set (R, +, ) is a ring if and only if it an additive abelian group, a multiplicative monoid, and it is distributive. More precisely, the ring axioms for multiplication are: closure: For all r, s R, we have rs R. associativity: For all r, s, t R, we have (rs)t = r(st). identity: The ring R has an identity, 1 R: For all r R, we have 1 r = r = r 1. For R to be distributive, we must have: r, s, t R, r(s+t) = rs+rt; (r+s)t = rt+st. Note: Multiplication in a ring R: Need not have inverses. Need not be commutative. Definition. A ring R is commutative if and only if its multiplication is commutative. Example. The ring of n n matrices with entries in a field or ring R, Mat n n (R) is not commutative. Definition. An element r 0 in R is a zero divisor if and only s 0 in R for which rs = 0 = sr. Definition. A ring R is an integral domain if and only if It is commutative. It has no zero divisors.

2 1. Cancellation holds in an integral domain: a, b, c R with a 0, we have ab = ac b = c. 2. Let n Z, not prime. Then Z n is not an integral domain. 3. Mat n n (R) is not an integral domain. Definition. An element r R is a unit if and only if s R with rs = 1 = sr. Note: The set of units in R is denoted by R ; it is a multiplicative group. Definition. A ring R is a division ring if and only if R = R\{0}. I.e., all non-zero ring elements are units. Example. The real quaternions, H(R) is a non-commutative division ring. Definition. A ring R is a field if and only if it is a commutative division ring. In particular, a field has: (R, +): abelian group. (R = R\{0}, ): abelian group R: distributive. Example. 1. Q, R, and C are fields; Z is not. 2. Let p be prime. Then Z p is a finite field. Facts: 1. If R is a field, then R is an integral domain. The converse is not true in general. 2. If R is a finite integral domain, then R is a field. Definition. Let (S, +, ) be a ring. Then R S is a subring if and only if (R, +, ) is a ring and 1 R = 1 S. Proposition. Let S be a ring. Then R S is a subring if and only if the following hold: (R, +) is closed and has inverses. (Hence, it is a subgroup). (R, ) is closed. 1 R = 1 S R. Example. Let i have i 2 = 1. Then the Gaussian integers are a subring of C given by Z[i] = {a + bi : a, b Z}. More generally, let m 1 in Z be square-free. Then Z[ m] = {a + b m : a, b Z} is a subring of C. Example. Let m 1 in Z be square-free, and let m = (1 + m)/2. Then {a + bm : a, b Z} is a subring if and only if m 1 (mod 4). Example. Let p be prime. Then { m } Z (p) = n : m and n Z, p n is a subring of Q. 2

3 5.2, 5.3: 5.2: Ring homomorphisms; 5.3: Ideals and factor rings. Definition. Let R and S be rings. Then φ : R S is a ring homomorphism if and only if: For all a, b R, we have φ(a + b) = φ(a) + φ(b). For all a, b R, we have φ(ab) = φ(a)φ(b). φ(1 R ) = 1 S. If φ : R S is a ring homomorphism, then: By group theory, we have: φ(0 R ) = 0 S. n Z, and r R, φ(nr) = nφ(r). φ : R S. I.e., φ maps units to units. φ(r) is a subring of S. Definition. A ring homomorphism φ : R S is a ring isomorphism if and only if φ is one-to-one (injective) and onto (surjective). Let φ : R S be a ring isomorphism. Then we have: (R, ) = (S, ). I.e., the units are isomorphic as multiplicative groups. R is commutative if and only if S is commutative. R is a division ring if and only if S is a division ring. R is a field if and only if S is a field. Definition. Let R be a ring. A subset I R is an ideal (we write I R if and only if 1. I is non-empty. 2. (I, +) is a subgroup. 3. r R and a I, we have ra I; as sets, we have RI I. ar I; as sets, we have IR I. 1. Let R be commutative. To show that I is an ideal, it suffices to show: a, b I, we have a ± b I. a I, r R, we have ar I or ra I. 2. Analogy: an ideal I in a ring R plays the role of a normal subgroup N in a group G. Ideal arithmetic: Let R be a commutative ring, and let I, J R. 1. I J R. 2. I + J = {i + j : i I, j J} R. 3. IJ = {i 1 j i n j n : i k I, j k J, n is finite} R. 3

4 Definition. Let φ : R S be a ring homomorphism. The kernel of φ is kerφ = {a R : φ(a) = 0 S }. Proposition. Let φ : R S be a ring homomorphism. Then kerφ R. Definition. Let R be a ring and let I R. The factor ring or quotient ring of R by I is R/I = {a+i : a R} together with the operations of + and defined a+i, b+i R/I by (a + I) + (b + I) = a + b + I, (a + I) (b + I) = ab + I. 1. Multiplication is well-defined. 2. The zero element in R/I is I = 0 + I; the identity element is 1 + I. Proposition. Let R be a ring and let I R. Then the natural projection φ : R R/I defined for all r R by φ(r) = r + I is an onto homomorphism with kerφ = I. Theorem (Fundamental homomorphism theorem). Let φ : R S be a ring homomorphism. Then we have R/kerφ = φ(r). Definition. Let R be a commutative ring, and let a R. Then the principal ideal generated by a is (a) = {ra : r R} = Ra = ar. Moreover, an ideal I R is principal if and only if a R with I = (a). 1. A principal ideal (a) in a ring R is analogous to a cyclic subgroup a in a group G. 2. The improper ideals in a ring are principal: (0) = {0}; if u R, then (u) = R. In particular, we have (1) = R. Proposition. Let R be a commutative ring. Then R is a field if and only if R has no proper ideals. Definition. Let R 1,..., R n be commutative rings. Then the direct sum of the R i s is R = R 1 R n = {(r 1,..., r n )}. It is a commutative ring with + and defined (r 1,..., r n ), (r 1,..., r n) R by (r 1,..., r n ) + (r 1,..., r n) = (r 1 + r 1,..., r n + r n), (r 1,..., r n ) (r 1,..., r n) = (r 1 r 1,..., r n r n). Note: The units in R are given as R = R 1 R n. Definition. Let R be an integral domain. Then R has characteristic m if and only if m is the least positive integer such that m 1 R = 0. If no such m exists, then R has characteristic zero. Example. Let p be prime. Then Z p has characteristic p. Z has characteristic zero. 4

5 Proposition. Let R be an integral domain. Then either the characteristic of R is zero, or it is a prime, p. Definition. Let R be commutative and let I R. Then I R is a prime ideal if and only if a, b R, if we have ab I, then we must have either a I or b I. Definition. Let R be a commutative ring and let I R. Then I R is a maximal ideal of R if and only if J R with I J R, we have either J = I or J = R. Example. In the ring Z[i], the ideal (3) = 3Z[i] is maximal, but (5) = 5Z[i] is not. Let p be prime. Then (p) Z[i] is maximal if and only if p 3 (mod 4). Theorem. Let R be a commutative ring and let I R. 1. R/I is a field if and only if I is maximal. 2. R/I is an integral domain if and only if I is prime. 3. If I is maximal, then I is prime. Note: The converse of part (3) is true in some situations, but not in general. Example. In the ring Z[i], (3) is maximal, so Z[i]/(3) = {a + bi + (3) : 0 a, b 2} is a field of size 9; (5) is not maximal, so Z[i]/(5) = {a + bi + (5) : 0 a, b 4} = Z 5 Z 5. Definition. A ring R is a principal ideal domain (PID) if and only if 1. It is an integral domain. 2. Every ideal in R is principal. Theorem. Let R be a PID. Then I R is maximal if and only if it is prime. Example. Z is a PID. The maximal (hence prime) ideals in Z are: {(p) = pz : p is prime}. 9.1: Principal ideal domains. Definition. A ring R is a Euclidean ring if and only if it is an integral domain for which there exists a norm function δ : R\{0} N {0} with the following properties: 1. a, b 0 in R, we have δ(a) δ(ab) 2. q, r R such that a = bq + r and either δ(a) < δ(b) or r = 0. Example. Z is Euclidean with norm function : Z\{0} N {0}. Example. The ring Z[i] is Euclidean with norm function given in terms of complex conjugation in C. The norm function is δ : a + bi (a + bi) (a bi) = a 2 + b 2. Theorem. Let R be a Euclidean ring. Then R is a PID. The converse is not true in general. Example. The ring Z[i] is Euclidean; therefore, it is a PID. Hence, it must also be true that the prime and maximal ideals in Z[i] agree. Definition. Let R be a commutative ring. Let a, b R with a 0. Then a divides b (a b) if and only if c R with b = ac. 5

6 u R (u) = R. a b b (a) (b) (a). a b and b a (a) = (b). Definition. Elements a and b R are associates (a b) if and only if u R with b = ua. The relation is an equivalence relation on R. a b = (a) = (b). Let R be an integral domain. Then a b (a) = (b). Definition. Let R be a commutative ring. Then d 0 in R is the greatest common divisor (gcd) of {a 1,..., a n } R if and only if the following are true: 1. i, d a i. 2. Suppose that c R such that i, c a i. Then we have c d. The gcd of {a 1,..., a n } may not exist in R. If a gcd of {a 1,..., a n } exists in R it is well-defined (unique) up to multiplication by units. Proposition. Let R be a PID, and let a, b 0 in R. Then we have: 1. gcd(a, b) exists in R; it is unique up to multiplication by units. 2. If d = gcd(a, b), then s, t R with d = as + bt. Let R be a PID. Then the following rules of ideal arithmetic hold: (a) + (b) = (gcd(a, b)). (a) (b) = (lcm(a, b)). (a)(b) = (ab). Definition. Let R be an integral domain. Then q R is irreducible if and only if q is a non-zero, non-unit. If a, b R with q = ab, then one of a, b is a unit, and the other is associated to q. Definition. Let R be an integral domain. Then p is prime if and only if p is a non-zero, non-unit. If a, b R with p ab, then either p a or p b. 6

7 Theorem. Let R be an integral domain. 1. p R is prime if and only if (p) = pr R is a prime ideal. 2. c R is irreducible if and only if (c) = cr R is maximal in the set of all principal ideals in R. 3. Let p R be prime. Then p is irreducible. Note: The converse of part (3) is not true in general. Proposition. Let R be a PID, and let p R. Then p is irreducible if and only if p is prime. 7

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