# SUMMARY OF GROUPS AND RINGS GROUPS AND RINGS III Week 1 Lecture 1 Tuesday 3 March.

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1 SUMMARY OF GROUPS AND RINGS GROUPS AND RINGS III 2009 Week 1 Lecture 1 Tuesday 3 March. 1. Introduction (Background from Algebra II) 1.1. Groups and Subgroups. Definition 1.1. A binary operation on a set G is a function G G G often written just as juxtoposition, i.e (x, y) xy. Definition 1.2. A group is a set G with a binary operation G G G, (x, y) xy, a function G G, x x 1 called the inverse and an element e G called the identity satisfying: (a) (xy)z = x(yz) x, y, z, G (b) ex = x = xe x G, and (c) xx 1 = e = x 1 x x G. Definition 1.3. Let G be a group. (a) For x, y G we say that x and y commute if xy = yx. (b) If every x, y in G commute we call G an abelian group. Proposition 1.4. (Basic properties of groups). (a) The identity is unique. That is if f G and f x = x = xf for all x G then f = e. (b) If x G then x 1 is unique. That is if xy = e = yx then y = x 1. (c) Any bracketing of a multiple product x 1 x 2 x n gives the same outcome so no bracketing is necessary. (d) Cancellation laws hold. That is if ax = ay then x = y and if xa = ya then x = y. Definition 1.5. If H G we say that H is a subgroup of G if: (a) x, y H we have xy H, (b) x H we have x 1 H and (c) e H. Note 1.1. If H is a subgroup of G we write H < G. If H < G and H G we say that H is a proper subgroup of G. Note 1.2. A subgroup is a group. Proposition 1.6. (Properties of subgroups) (a) If H G then H is a subgroup if and only if H and for all x, y H we have xy 1 H. (b) e < G and G < G. (c) If H and K are subgroups of G then H K is a subgroup of G. Week 1 Lecture 2 Wednesday 4th March. Note 1.3. Sometimes it is useful to draw the subgroup lattice of a group G. This is a directed graph whose nodes are the subgroups of G with H and H joined by a directed edge if H < H. We usually draw this vertically with G at the top and e at the bottom. If we have H < H < H then we obviously have H < H but we usually omit that edge to stop the graph becoming too complicated. Definition 1.7. If G is a group and has a finite number of elements we call it a finite group. The number of elements is called the order of G and denoted G. If G is not a finite group we call it an infinite group and say it has infinite order. 1

2 2 GR 2009 If G = {x 1,..., x n } is a finite group the multiplication table of G is formed from all the products: x 1 x 2 x n x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 2 x 1 x n x 2 x 2 x 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x n x n x n x 1 x n x 2 x n x n Note 1.4. If x G then we write x 0 = e, x k = xx x where there are k x s in the product and x k = (x 1 ) k. Definition 1.8. If G is a group and x G we say that x has order n if n is the smallest non-negative integer for which x n = e. We denote the order of x by x. If x n e for all n we say that x has infinite order. Definition 1.9. If G is a group and X G we define X to be the smallest subgroup of G containing X and called it the subgroup generated by X. Note 1.5. If X G then X consists of all arbitrary products of elements of X with arbitrary integer powers. Definition If G is a group with X G and X = G we say that X generates G. If X is finite we say that G is finitely generated. Definition If G is a group which is generated by one element x G we call G cyclic. Note 1.6. Cyclic groups are abelian. Theorem Any subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic. Note 1.7. If G x has finite order n then the subgroups of G are exactly the subsets x d where d n. If G = x is infinite then each x d is a subroup for d = 1, 2, Examples of Groups. (1) The integers Z, the rationals Q, the real numbers R, and the complex numbers C are all abelian groups under addition. (2) The sets of n n matrices, M n (Z), M n (Q), M n (R) and M n (C) are abelian groups under matrix addition. (3) Z = Z {0} is not a group under multiplication but Q, R and C are. (4) GL(n, R) the set of all invertible matrices in M n (R) is a group as is GL(n, C). Example 1.1. (The quaternion group.) Let H = {±1, ±i, ±j, ±k} and define the multiplication by letting the identity be 1 and assuming that 1 commutes with everything else and that also ij = ji = k, jk = kj = i, ki = ik = j, i 2 = j 2 = k 2 = 1 and ijk = 1. This group H is called the quaternion group. It is not abelian and has order 8. Week 1 Lecture 3 Friday 6th March. Example 1.2. (Integers modulo n.) Define Z n = {0, 1, 2,..., n 1} and define a binary operation on it by using addition modulo n. That is we add x and y to get x + y and then calculate the remainder modulo n. This makes Z n into an abelian group which is cyclic and generated by 1. Proposition The set Z p = Z p {0} is a group under multiplication if and only if p is prime. Definition A field is a set F with two binary operations +, such that (a) (F, +) is an abelian group (b) (F, ) is an abelian group, where F = F \ {0} (c) a(b + c) = ab + ac for all a, b, c F. Some examples of fields are Q, R, C, Z p where p is prime. The latter example is also denoted GF(p).

3 GR Matrix groups. The set GL(n, F) of all invertible n n matrices over a field F is a group under matrix multiplication. Some subgroups of GL(n, F) are SL(n, F), scalar matrices and diagonal matrices. We denote GL(n, Z p ) also by GF(n, p) Permutation groups. Definition A permutation on n letters is a 1 1, onto function from {1, 2,..., n} to {1, 2,..., n}. For a given n, the set of all these forms a group S n under composition of functions called the symmetric group on n letters. Recall (1) I will use composition of functions so if α, β S n then αβ is defined by αβ(k) = α(β(k)). (2) S n = n! (3) Each element of S n can be written as a product of disjoint cycles. This decomposition is unique up to the order of writing the cycles. (4) The group S n is not abelian if n 3. (5) A transposition is a cycle of length 2. Every permutation can be written as a product of transpositions. (6) A permutation is called even or odd according to whether it is the product of an even or odd number of transpositions. The set of all even permutations in S n is a group, the alternating group A n on n letters, and A n = n! 2. (7) A cycle of even length is an odd permutation and a cycle of odd length is an even permutation. Week 2 Lecture 4 Tuesday 10th March. Definition A permutation group of degree n is a subgroup of S n Symmetry groups. The symmetries of the square form a group of order 8, the dihedral group D 4. Similarly, the symmetries of the regular n-gon form a group of order 2n, the nth dihedral group D n. Clearly D n < S n, so D 4 is another example of a permutation group of degree Isomorphism. Definition Two groups G and H are called isomorphic if there is a 1 1, onto function φ: G H such that for all x, y G we have φ(xy) = φ(x)φ(y). Note 1.8. We call such a φ an isomorphism. If G and H are isomorphic, we write G H. Proposition Assume that φ: G H is an isomorphism and that x G. Denote the identities of G and H by e G and e H. Then (a) φ(e G ) = e H. (b) φ(x 1 ) = (φ(x)) 1 (c) G = H (d) Either x and φ(x) are both of infinite order or they have equal finite order. (e) If G is abelian so is H. 2. Cosets and Normal Subgroups 2.1. Cosets. Definition 2.1. Let H < G. A left coset of H in G is a set of the form xh = {xh h H}, where x is an element of G. Similarly, a right coset is a set of the form Hx = {hx h H}.

4 4 GR 2009 Proposition 2.2. Let H < G. Then (a) gh = H = Hg. (b) If x, y G then either x 1 y H and xh = yh or x 1 y H and xh yh =. (c) If x, y ing then either yx 1 H and Hx = Hy or yx 1 H and xhx Hy =. (d) Every element of G is in exactly one left coset of H and exactly one right coset of H. (e) G is the disjoint union of the left (or right) cosets of H. Week 2 Lecture 5 Friday 13th March. Definition 2.3. If H < G, the index of H in G is the number of distinct left cosets of H in G. It is denoted (G : H). Theorem 2.4. (Lagrange s Theorem) If H is a subgroup of a finite group G then and thus H divides G. (G : H) = G H Corollary 2.5. If x is an element of the finite group G, then x divides G. Corollary 2.6. Every group of prime order is cyclic Normal subgroups. If H < G and g G, the left coset gh and the right coset Hg are in general not the same set. For example, consider G = S 3 = {1, (12), (13), (23), (123), (132)} and the subgroup H = {1, (12)}. Left cosets of H Right cosets of H 1H = {1, (1 2)} H1 = {1, (1 2)} (1 2)H = {(1 2), 1} H(1 2) = {(1 2), 1} (1 3)H = {(1 3), (1 2 3)} H(1 3) = {(1 3), (1 3 2)} (2 3)H = {(2 3), (1 3 2)} H(2 3) = {(2 3), (1 2 3)} (1 2 3)H = {(1 2 3), (1 3)} H(1 2 3) = {(1 2 3), (2 3)} (1 3 2)H = {(1 3 2), (2 3)} H(1 3 2) = {(1 3 2), (1 3)} Compare this example with what we get when we consider the subgroup A 3 = {1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)}: We see that ga 3 = A 3 g for every g A 3. Left cosets of A 3 Right cosets of A 3 1A 3 = {1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)} A 3 1 = {1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)} (1 2)A 3 = {(1 2), (2 3), (1 3)} A 3 (1 2) = {(1 2), (1 3), (2 3)} (1 3)A 3 = {(1 3), (1 2), (2 3)} A 3 (1 3) = {(1 3), (2 3), (1 2)} (2 3)A 3 = {(2 3), (1 3), (1 2)} A 3 (2 3) = {(2 3), (1 2), (1 3)} (1 2 3)A 3 = {(1 2 3), (1 3 2), 1} A 3 (1 2 3) = {(1 2 3), (1 3 2), 1} (1 3 2)A 3 = {(1 3 2), 1, (1 2 3)} A 3 (1 3 2) = {(1 3 2), 1, (1 2 3)} Definition 2.7. A subgroup H of a group G is normal if for all g G, ghg 1 = H. We write H G. Equivalently, H G if gh = Hg for all g G. Note 2.1. We saw in the above examples that {1, (1 2)} S 3 and A 3 S 3. Proposition 2.8. (a) Whenever (G : H) = 2, H G. In particular, A n S n for n = 3, 4, 5,... (b) Every subgroup of an abelian group is normal. (c) {1} G and G G. (d) If H G and K G then H K G. (e) If N G and N < H < G then N H.

5 GR Conjugation. Definition 2.9. Let g G and let X G. Then the subset gxg 1 is called a conjugate of X in G. In particular, if x G, then the element gxg 1 is called a conjugate of x (in G). Note 2.2. Week 3 Lecture 6 Tuesday 17th March. (1) A conjugate of x has the same order as x. (Assignment 1) (2) We say that x is conjugate to y if y is a conjugate of x, ie if there is some g G with y = gxg 1. Proposition Conjugacy is an equivalence relation on G. Note 2.3. The equivalence class of x is called the conjugacy class of x and denoted [x]. The conjugacy classes partition G: G = [1] [x]... [z] Centralizer. Definition The centralizer C G (x) of x in G is the subgroup consisting of all elements of G that commute with x. Thus, C G (x) = {g G gx = xg} = {g G gxg 1 = x}. Note 2.4. (1) x < C G (x). (2) If G is abelian, then C G (x) = G. Proposition If x G a finite group then [x] = (G : C G (x)) Centre. Definition The centre Z(G) of a group G is the subgroup of G consisting of all elements x G that commute with every elements of G. Thus, Z(G) = {x G xg = gx for all g G}. Note: (1) Z(G) G. (2) Z(G) = G if and only if G is abelian. (3) x Z(G) if and only if [x] = {x}, or equivalently [x] = Simple groups. Definition A group G is called simple if G has no proper non-trivial normal subgroups. Week 3 Lecture 7 Wednesday 18th March. Theorem An abelian simple group G with G > 1 must be isomorphic to C p for some prime p. Definition A group of order p n, where p is prime, is called a p-group. Lemma Let P be a p-group of order p n, n 1. Then Z(P) e. Thus P is not simple unless n = 1, that is P C p.

6 6 GR Conjugates of a subgroup, and the normalizer. If H < G, the conjugates of H are the subgroups ghg 1, for g G. Definition The normalizer of a subgroup H of G is the subgroup N G (H) = {g G ghg 1 = H}. Note 2.5. N G (H) is the largest subgroup of G in which H is normal. That is if H N G (H), and if H K < G then K < N G (H). Proposition If H is a subgroup of a finite group G then the number of distinct conjugates of H in G equals (G : N G (H)). 3. Homomorphisms and Factor Groups 3.1. Homomorphisms. Definition 3.1. If G and H are groups, a homomorphism from G to H is a function f : G H such that f (xy) = f (x)f (y) for all x, y G. Week 3 Lecture 8 Friday 20th March. Proposition 3.2. If f : G H is a homomorphism, then (1) f (e) = e. (2) f (g 1 ) = (f (g)) 1. (3) The image of f, im(f ) = f (G) = {f (g) g G}, is a subgroup of H. (4) The kernel of f, ker f = {g G f (g) = e}, is a normal subgroup of G. (5) A homomorphism f is one to one if and only if ker f = e. So f is an isomorphism if and only if ker f = {e} and im(f ) = H. Proposition 3.3. Let f : G H be a homomorphism of groups. If K G define f (K) = {f (k) k K} H and if L H define f 1 (L) = {g G f (g) L} G. We have: (a) If K < G then f (K) < H. (b) If L < H then f 1 (L) < G. (c) If K G and f is onto then f (K) H. (d) If L H then f 1 (L) G The factor group. Let N G. Consider the set G/N = {gn g G} of left cosets of N in G. This set is a group under the operation gnhn = (gh)n. This group is called the factor or quotient group of G by N. Its order is G / N = (G : N). Theorem 3.4. (Homomorphism Theorem) Let f : G H be a homomorphism. Then the groups G/ker f and f (G) are isomorphic. Theorem 3.5. Let N G. Then the function f : G G/N given by f (g) = gn is a homomorphism with kernel N.

7 GR Week 4 Lecture 9 Tuesday 24th March Related results. Lemma 3.6. Let G be a group such that G/Z(G) is cyclic. Then G is abelian. Corollary 3.7. G/Z(G) cannot be cyclic of order greater than one. Lemma 3.8. Every group of order p 2 is abelian. Theorem 3.9. Let N G. Then there is a 1-1 correspondence between subgroups of G containing N and subgroups of G/N, namely if N < H < G then H H/N. Every subgroup of G/N is of form H/N for some subgroup H of G containing N. Also, H G if and only if H/N G/N Composition series. Definition Let N G. Then N is called a maximal normal subgroup of G if the only normal subgroup of G that properly contains N is G itself. Then N is a maximal normal subgroup of G if and only if G/N is simple. Definition A composition series of a group G is a sequence of subgroups {e} = N k+1 N k... N 2 N 1 N 0 = G, such that each N i+1 is a maximal normal subgroup of N i. That is, each factor group N i /N i+1 is simple. Theorem The Jordan-Hölder Theorem states that for any composition series, the number of factors k and the set of factor groups {N i /N i+1 i = 0, 1,..., k} is unique The derived group. Let X be a subset of G. Then H = X denotes the smallest subgroup of G containing X. We say that H is generated by X. Then H is the set of all products of the form x n i i...x n j j, where x i,..., x j X and n i,..., n j Z. Definition The commutator of the elements g, h G is [g, h] = ghg 1 h 1. commutator subgroup of G is the group The derived group or G = [G, G] = [g, h] g, h G. Note 3.1. Week 4 Lecture 10 Friday 27th March. (1) Elements g and h commute if and only if [g, h] = e. (2) [g, h] 1 = [h, g]. (3) G = {e} if and only if G is abelian. Proposition Let G be a group and G its commutator subgroup. Then: (a) G G. (b) G/G is abelian. (c) If N G and G/N is abelian, then G < N. Thus G is the smallest normal subgroup of G with abelian factor group.

8 8 GR Products of Groups 4.1. The isomorphism theorem. Let H and K be subgroups of the group G. We define HK = {hk h H, k K}. Then HK < G if and only if HK = KH. In particular, if H G or K G then HK < G. If HK < G, then HK = H K H K. Theorem 4.1. (The Isomorphism Theorem) Let H and K be subgroups of G with H G. Then HK/H K/H K. Week 5 Lecture 11 Tuesday 31 March Direct products of groups. Let H and K be groups. Then we can make the cartesian product H K = {(h, k) h H, k K} into a group, called the (external) direct product of H and K, by defining for all h, h H, k, k K. Then H K has subgroups (h, k) (h, k ) = (hh, kk ) H 0 = {(h, e) h H} H, K 0 = {(e, k) k K} K. Proposition 4.2. Let H and K be groups as above. Then: (1) H 0 K 0 = {(e, e)} = {e}. (2) For all h H, k K we have (h, e) (e, k) = (h, k) = (e, k) (h, e). Hence G = H 0 K 0. (3) We write (h, e) as h and (e, k) as k, and identify H 0 and K 0 with H and K. Then every g G can be written uniquely as g = hk for h H, k K. (4) H G and K G. (5) G = H K = H. K. (6) G/H K and G/K H The internal direct product. Definition 4.3. A group G is decomposable if it is isomorphic to a direct product of two proper non-trivial subgroups. Otherwise G is indecomposable. If G is decomposable then G has subgroups H and K such that (i) H K = {e} (ii) G = HK (iii) hk = kh for all h H, k K. Then we write G = H K and say that G is the (internal) direct product of H and K. Equivalently, if (iii) is the statement: (iii) H G and K G then (i), (ii) and (iii) imply that G = H K.

9 GR Week 5 Lecture 12 Wednesday 1 April. 5. Finitely generated abelian groups 5.1. The fundamental theorem. Definition 5.1. A group G is finitely generated if there is some finite subset X of G such that G = X. Thus G = x 1,..., x n, the set of all finite products of the x i s and their inverses. Definition 5.2. If every element of a group G has finite order then G is called a torsion group. If only the identity e has finite order then G is called a torsion-free group. If G is an abelian group, then the subgroup of G consisting of all elements of finite order is called the torsion subgroup of G and denoted Tor(G). Theorem 5.3. (Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups) Every finitely generated abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups of the form where each n i = p a i i Note: C n1 C n2... C ns C... C, for some prime p i and a i N. (The p i need not be distinct.) (1) The torsion subgroup of G is Tor(G) = C n1 C n2... C ns. Thus T = n 1 n 2...n s. (2) The group F = C... C }{{ is torsion free. (It is called a free abelian group of rank f.) The number } f factors of factors f is the (free) rank or Betti number of G. G is finite if and only if f = 0. (3) Since C n C m C nm if m and n are coprime, we can also write T C d1... C dt where d 1 d 2... d t and T = d 1 d 2...d t. The d i, known as the torsion invariants of G, are unique. (4) Two finitely generated abelian groups are isomorphic if and only if they have the same free rank and the same torsion invariants. Week 5 Lecture 13 Friday 3 April. Corollary 5.4. The indecomposable finite abelian groups are precisely the cyclic groups of order p a, where p is prime, a N. Corollary 5.5. If G is a finite abelian group and m divides G then G has a subgroup of order m Generators and relations for abelian groups. Suppose that an abelian group is defined by generators x 1, x 2,..., x m and a number of relations of the form x n 11 1 x n x n m1 m = e x n 12 1 x n x n m2 m = e.. x n 1n 1 x n 2n 2... x n mn m = e. We also know that [x i, x j ] = e for all i, j as G is abelian.

10 10 GR 2009 Week 6 Lecture 14 Tuesday 7th April. To determine the rank and torsion invariants of G we use the following procedure. Write the exponents n ij in a matrix N, with the jth relation corresponding to the jth column. There must be at least as many columns as rows, so we have an m n matrix with n m. (If not, add columns of zeros to make n m). We then use certain row and column operations to reduce N to a diagonal matrix in which the diagonal entries are d 1,..., d t, 0,..., 0 and the successive non-zero entries divide one another: d 1 d 2... d t. Then the entries d 1,...d t are the torsion invariants of G and the number of zeros is the rank of G Permissible row and column operations. (i) Interchange any two rows: R i, R j R j, R i. (ii) Multiply any row by 1: R i R i. (iii) Add to any row an integer multiple of another row: R i R i + cr j, c Z. The corresponding column operations are also permitted. It is not permissible to: (i) Multiply a row by c, if c ±1. (ii) Replace R i by cr i + dr j, if c ± Why does it work? Row operations correspond to changing the generators, column operations to manipulating the relations. Specifically, the row operation R i R i + cr j corresponds to replacing generator x j by y j = x j x c i Procedure. The initial aim is to get the g.c.d. of all entries in the matrix to the (1, 1) position, and then use this entry as a pivot to eliminate all other entries in the first row and column. Then repeat this procedure on the (m 1) (n 1) submatrix obtained by removing the first row and column. Continue. To get the g.c.d. to the (1, 1) position, it will in general be necessary to use the Division Algorithm several times on the rows and/or columns, as in the following examples: [ ] [ ] [ ] (R R 2 4R 1 ) (R R 1 3R 2 ). [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Groups Acting on Sets 6.1. Introduction. Definition 6.1. Let G be a group and X a set. An action of G on X is a map G X X, (g, x) g x such that (i) for each g 1, g 2 G and x X, (ii) for each x X, e x = x. (g 1 g 2 ) x = g 1 (g 2 x) If there is no confusion, we may write gx for g x.

11 GR Note: (1) S n acts on X = {1, 2,..., n}. (2) G acts on X = G by (a) conjugation: g x = gxg 1 (b) left multiplication: g x = gx. (3) If H < G, G acts on the left cosets of H by left multiplication: g xh = gxh. (4) If G = GL(n, F) and V is a vector space of dimension n over F, then G acts on V by matrix multiplication. Definition 6.2. If G acts on X then for any x X, [x] = {g x g G} is called an orbit in X of the action. If there is only one orbit then we say G is transitive on X. Week 7 Lecture 15 Tuesday 28th April. Proposition 6.3. The orbits of a group G acting on a set X are the equivalence classes under the equivalence relation on X: x y if and only if y = g x for some g G. Hence X is the disjoint union of the distinct orbits. Definition 6.4. If G acts on X then for any x X, the stabilizer of x X is S G (x) = {g G g x = x}. The stabilizer of x is a subgroup of G. It is sometimes called the isotropy subgroup of x, and sometimes denoted G x The Orbit-Stabilizer Theorem. Theorem 6.5. (Orbit-Stabilizer Theorem) Let G act on X. Then for any x X, [x] = (G : S G (x)). Week 7 Lecture 16 Wednesday 29th April Burnside s Theorem. Theorem 6.6. (Burnside s Theorem) Let G be a finite group and X a finite set such that G acts on X. Let r be the number of distinct orbits of G on X and for each g G let X g = {x X g x = x}, the set of all elements in X fixed by g. Then r G = X g. g G Application of Burnside s theorem to chemistry. Week 7 Lecture 17 Friday 1st May Cayley s Theorem. Theorem 6.7. (Cayley s Theorem) Every group is isomorphic to a group of permutations.

12 12 GR The Sylow Theorems 7.1. Sylow s first theorem. The results of this chapter are due to the Norwegian mathematician Ludvig Sylow ( ), though the proofs have been modernized. Along with Lagrange s theorem, they are the most important results of finite group theory Lagrange s theorem gives a necessary condition for subgroups, and Sylow s theorems give sufficient conditions. Theorem 7.1. Sylow s First Theorem Let G be a finite group of order p m r, where p is a prime and r is coprime to p. Then G has a subgroup P of order p m. Such a subgroup P, the existence of which is guaranteed by this theorem, is called a Sylow p-subgroup of G. Lemma 7.2. Let G be a finite p-group acting on the finite set X. Let F = {x X g x = x for all g G}. Then F X (mod p). Week 8 Lecture 18 Tuesday 5th May Sylow s second and third theorems. Theorem 7.3. (Sylow s Second Theorem) Let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of the finite group G of order p m r, where r is coprime to p. If Q is any p-subgroup of G (that is, Q is a power of p) then Q < gpg 1 for some g G. In particular, all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugate. Lemma 7.4. (i) Let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of G and suppose P G. Then P is the only Sylow p-subgroup of G. (ii) In any finite group G, P is the only Sylow p-subgroup of N G (P). Theorem 7.5. (Sylow s Third Theorem) Let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of G. Then the number of Sylow p- subgroups of G is (G : N G (P)). Further, (G : N G (P)) 1 (mod p). Theorem 7.6. (Cauchy s Theorem) Let p divide G. Then G contains an element of order p. Corollary 7.7. If p divides G then G has a subgroup of order p. Week 8 Lecture 19 Friday 8th May Examples. We consider the structure of groups of order pq, where p and q are distinct odd primes, groups of order 2p where p is prime and groups of order less than or equal to Rings 8.1. Definitions. Definition 8.1. A ring is a set R with two binary operations +, such that (i) (R, +) is an abelian group (ii) a(bc) = (ab)c for all a, b, c R (Associative law for multiplication) (iii) a(b + c) = ab + ac and (a + b)c = ac + bc for all a, b, c R (Distributive laws). Notes: (1) As usual, we often omit and write ab instead of a b. (2) (R, ) is not necessarily a group why?

13 GR (3) The additive identity of (R, +) is denoted 0. Thus a + 0 = 0 + a = a for all a R. (4) The additive inverse of (R, +) is denoted a. Thus a + ( a) = ( a) + a = 0 for all a R. (5) R is called a commutative ring if ab = ba for all a, b R. (6) R is called a ring with identity if there is an element 1 0 in R such that 1.a = a.1 = a for all a R Examples of rings. (1) Z, Q, R, C are rings (commutative rings with identity). (2) For any integer n 1, Z n is a ring under addition and multiplication (mod n). (3) For any integer n 1, if R is a ring, then the set of n n matrices M n (R) is a ring under the usual operations. (4) The Gaussian integers Z(i) = {a + bi a, b Z}. (5) The set Q( 2) = {a + b 2 a, b Q}. (6) The ring of real quaternions R(H) = {a + bi + cj + dk a, b, c, d R, i 2 = j 2 = k 2 = 1, ij = k, jk = i, ki = j} Properties of rings. (1) 0.a = a.0 = 0 for all a R. (2) a( b) = ( a)b = ab for all a, b R. (3) ( a)( b) = ab for all a, b R. Week 9 Lecture 20 Tuesday 12th May Homomorphisms. Definition 8.2. Let R and R be rings. A function φ : R R is a ring homomorphism if (i) φ(a + b) = φ(a) + φ(b) (ii) φ(ab) = φ(a)φ(b) for all a, b R. The homomorphism φ is called an isomorphism if it is 1 1 and onto. The kernel of φ is ker φ = {a R φ(a) = 0}. Note: The homomorphism φ is 1 1 if and only if ker φ = {0} Subrings. Definition 8.3. A subring S of a ring R is a subset of R that is itself a ring. Thus S is a subring of R if (S, +) < (R, +) and if S is closed under multiplication. In particular, if φ : R R is a ring homomorphism then φ(r) and ker φ are subrings of R and R respectively. 9. Integral Domains and Fields 9.1. Definitions. Definition 9.1. Let R be a ring with identity 1. A unit of R is an element u that has a multiplicative inverse u 1. So, uu 1 = u 1 u = 1. If every non-zero element of R is a unit then R is called a field when R is commutative, or a skewfield or division ring when R is not commutative.

14 14 GR 2009 Thus when R is a field, (R, +) and (R \ {0}, ) are both abelian groups. Definition 9.2. Let R be a ring. Non-zero elements a, b of R such that ab = 0 are called zero-divisors. The ring Z n (n > 1) has no zero-divisors if and only if n is prime. Definition 9.3. An integral domain is a commutative ring with identity which has no zero-divisors. Examples: (1) Z is an integral domain. (2) If p is prime, Z p is an integral domain. (3) If n is composite, Z n is not an integral domain. (4) Every field is an integral domain. Theorem 9.4. Every finite integral domain is a field. Corollary 9.5. If p is a prime, then Z p is a field. Week 9 Lecture 21 Wednesday 13th May The field of quotients of an integral domain. Let D be an integral domain. Then we can construct a field F containing D as follows: Let S = {(a, b) D D b 0}. Define an equivalence relation on S by (a, b) (c, d) if ad = bc. Let F be the set of equivalence classes under this relation: F = {[(a, b)] a, b D, b 0}. Define operations of addition and multiplication on F by and [(a, b)] + [(c, d)] = [(ad + bc, bd)] [(a, b)] [(c, d)] = [(ac, bd)]. Then F is a field under these operations and F contains an integral domain which is isomorphic to D. We usually say that D F. D = {[(a, 1)] a D} The field F is called the field of quotients of D. This field is the smallest field containing D, and is unique up to isomorphism. 10. Polynomials Basic operations. Let R be a ring. We denote by R[x] the set of all polynomials in x with coefficients in R. Here x is an indeterminate, not a variable or element of R. Thus R[x] = a i x i = a 0 + a 1 x + a 2 x a i R, only a finite number of a i non-zero. i=0 The degree of the polynomial f (x) is the largest i such that a i 0. It is conventional to say that the zero polynomial 0 has degree.

15 GR Addition and multiplication of polynomials. If then and f (x) = a 0 + a 1 x + a 2 x g(x) = b 0 + b 1 x + b 2 x f (x) + g(x) = (a 0 + b 0 ) + (a 1 + b 1 )x + (a 2 + b 2 )x f (x)g(x) = d 0 + d 1 x + d 2 x where d i = i j=0 a jb i j. Note that with these definitions, and Under these operations, R[x] is a ring. deg f (x)g(x) deg f (x) + deg g(x) deg(f (x) + g(x)) max{deg f (x), deg g(x)}. If R is commutative, so is R[x]. If R has an identity 1, so has R[x]. More generally, we can define the polynomial ring R[x 1, x 2,..., x n ] in n indeterminates x 1, x 2,..., x n by R[x 1, x 2,..., x n ] = (R[x 1, x 2,..., x n 1 ])[x n ] Polynomials over an integral domain and field. If D is an integral domain, so is D[x] and hence so is D[x 1, x 2,..., x n ]. In this case deg f (x)g(x) = deg f (x) + deg g(x). If F is a field, then F[x] is an integral domain but not a field. Week 9 Lecture 22 Friday 15th May The division algorithm. Lemma 10.1 (Division algorithm for Z). Let m and n be integers with m 0. Then there are unique integers q and r such that n = qm + r and 0 r < m. Lemma 10.2 (Division algorithm for F[x]). Let F be a field and f (x), g(x) be polynomials in F[x] with g(x) 0. Then there are unique polynomials q(x) and r (x) in F[x] such that and deg r (x) < deg g(x). f (x) = g(x)q(x) + r (x) Note that g(x) f (x) if and only if r (x) = Polynomial functions. Let R be a ring and f (x) = a 0 + a 1 x + a 2 x 2 + a polynomial over R. Then the function f : R R given by f (r ) = a 0 + a 1 r + a 2 r 2 + is called the polynomial function associated to f. The set P(R) of all polynomial functions over R is a ring under the operations (f + g)(r ) = f (r ) + g(r ) and (f g)(r ) = f (r ).g(r ). It is then easy to show that f + g = f + g, f g = f g. If R is a commutative ring with identity then so is P(R), but note that P(R) is not necessarily isomorphic to R[x].

16 16 GR Zeros of polynomials. Let F be a field. Definition An element a F is a zero of f (x) F[x] if f (a) = 0. Theorem 10.4 (Factor Theorem). The element a F is a zero of f (x) F[x] if and only if x a f (x). Corollary A polynomial of degree n over a field F has at most n zeros in F. Week 10 Lecture 23 Tuesday 19th May. Definition A non-constant polynomial f (x) F[x] is irreducible over F if f (x) g(x)h(x) for any polynomials g(x), h(x) of degree less than f (x). 11. Ideals Introduction. Definition A subring I of a ring R is called an ideal of R if for all r R and i I we have ir I and r i I The Factor Ring. Theorem 11.2 (The Factor Ring). Let I be an ideal of the ring R. Then the set R/I of all cosets of I in R is a ring under the operations (r + I) + (s + I) = (r + s) + I (r + I).(s + I) = r s + I. If R is a commutative ring, or a ring with identity, then so is R/I. Lemma Let φ : R S be a ring homomorphism. Then ker φ is an ideal of R. Theorem 11.4 (Homomorphism Theorem). If φ : R S is a ring homomorphism then R/ker φ φ(r). Week 10 Lecture 24 Friday 22nd May. Lemma If I and J are ideals of R then so are I + J and I J. Theorem 11.6 (Isomorphism Theorem). (i) Let I be an ideal of R. Then there is a 1 1 correspondence between subrings S of R containing I and subrings S/I of R/I. Here S is an ideal of R if and only if S/I is an ideal of R/I. (ii) Let I J R with I and J ideals of R. Then (iii) Let I and J be ideals of R. Then R/J (R/I)/(J/I). (I + J)/J I/(I J) Ideals in commutative rings with identity. Let R be a commutative ring with identity. Definition An ideal of the form a = {ar r R} is called a principal ideal of R. An ideal M of R is called a maximal ideal if there is no ideal I of R such that M I R. Theorem Let R be a commutative ring with identity. Then M is a maximal ideal of R if and only if R/M is a field.

17 GR Factorization in Integral Domains Irreducibles and associates. Definition An element c of an integral domain, not zero or a unit, is called irreducible if, whenever c = df, one of d or f is a unit. Elements c and d are called associates if c = du for a unit u Euclidean domains. Definition A Euclidean domain is an integral domain D together with a function δ : D N satisfying (i) δ(a) δ(ab) for all non-zero a, b D (ii) for all a, b D, b 0 there exist q, r D such that with either r = 0 or δ(r ) < δ(b). The function δ is called a Euclidean valuation. a = bq + r Examples: (1) Z with δ(n) = n. (2) F[x] with δ(f (x)) = deg f (x), where F is a field. Week 11 Lecture 25 Tuesday 26th May. Note (a) If a D then δ(1) δ(a). (b) If u D then δ(u) = δ(1) if and only if u is a unit The integral domains Z( d) The Gaussian integers. This is the integral domain Z(i) = {m + ni m, n Z} with δ(m + ni) = m 2 + n 2 and i = 1 as usual. Then δ is a Euclidean valuation The general case. If d Z we define Z( d) = {a + b d a, b Z}. This is an integral domain, a subdomain of C. We normally take d 0, 1 and d squarefree. The norm in Z( d) is the function N : Z( d) N given by N(a + b d) = a 2 db 2. Theorem In Z( d), (i) N(x) = 0 if and only if x = 0 (ii) for all x, y Z( d), N(xy) = N(x)N(y) (iii) x is a unit if and only if N(x) = 1 (iv) if N(x) is prime, then x is irreducible in Z( d). Note that N is in some cases, but not in all cases, a Euclidean valuation, so for some d, Z( d) is a Euclidean domain with valuation N. There are also cases where Z( d) is a Euclidean domain with a different valuation.

18 18 GR Principal ideal domains. Definition An integral domain D is a principal ideal domain (PID) if every ideal of D is principal. Theorem Every Euclidean domain is a PID. Examples: (1) Z is an ED and hence a PID. (2) If F is a field, F[x] is an ED, and hence a PID. (3) The Gaussian integers Z(i) is a PID. (4) The domain Z[x] is not a PID. (Consider the ideal 2, x = 2Z[x] + xz[x].) Week 11 Lecture 26 Wednesday 27th May. 13. Unique Factorization Domains Definitions. Definition An integral domain D is called a unique factorization domain (UFD) if for every a D, not zero or a unit, (i) a = c 1 c 2... c n for irreducibles c i (ii) if a = c 1 c 2... c n = d 1 d 2... d m with c i, d j all irreducible then n = m and the d i can be renumbered such that each c i is an associate of d i Irreducibility tests for polynomials. Lemma Let F be a field. If f (x) F[x] has degree 2 or 3 then f (x) is reducible over F if and only if f (x) has a zero in F. Theorem 13.3 (Eisenstein s criterion). Let f (x) = a 0 + a 1 x a n x n Z[x]. Suppose that there is a prime p such that (i) p a n (ii) p a i for i = 0, 1,..., n 1 (iii) p 2 a 0. Then apart from a constant factor f (x) is irreducible over Z Irreducibles and primes. Definition Let a, b elements of an integral domain D. If a 0 we say that a divides b (a b) if b = ac for some c D. Lemma Let D be an integral domain. Then (a) a b if and only if a b. (b) a = D if and only if a is a unit. (c) a = b if and only if a and b are associates. Definition An element p of an integral domain D, not zero or a unit, is called prime if whenever p ab for a, b D, either p a or p b. Week 11 Lecture 27 Friday 29th May. Lemma Every prime in an integral domain is irreducible. Theorem Let D be an integral domain. Then D is a UFD if and only if

19 GR (i) for every a D, not zero or a unit, a = c 1 c 2... c n for irreducibles c i (ii) every irreducible in D is prime. Theorem Every PID is a UFD. Week 12 Lecture 28 Tuesday 2 June. Lemma Let D be a PID and let a 1, a 2, a 3,... be a sequence of elements of D such that for each i, a i+1 a i. Then for some N, a n is an associate of a N for all n > N Polynomial rings as UFDs. Theorem If D is a UFD then so is D[x]. Corollary If D is a UFD so also is D[x 1,..., x n ]. Hence, in particular, Z[x], F[x, y], F[x, y, z] are UFDs Relationships between classes of rings. Examples: ED PID UFD ID Commutative rings with identity. EDs Z, F[x], Z(i), Z( 2) PIDs which are not EDs { m 2 + n 2 19 m, n Z} UFDs which are not PIDs Z[x], Z[x, y], F[x, y] IDs which are not UFDs Z( 5), Z( 10) Commutative rings with 1 which are not IDs Z m, m composite.

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