# Modern Algebra (MA 521) Synopsis of lectures July-Nov 2015 semester, IIT Guwahati

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1 Modern Algebra (MA 521) Synopsis of lectures July-Nov 2015 semester, IIT Guwahati Shyamashree Upadhyay Contents 1 Lecture Properties of Integers Sets, relations and functions Laws of modular arithmetic Lecture Groups Properties of a Group Order Subgroups Lecture Lagrange s theorem Applications to number theory Properties of cosets Product of two Subgroups Lecture Normal subgroups, Quotient groups Applications of Quotient groups Lecture Application of Quotient groups continued Cyclic groups

2 6 Lecture Fundamental theorem for cyclic groups Group Homomorphisms Lecture Properties of Homomorphisms Isomorphism theorems Lecture A theorem on epimorphism of groups Permutation Groups Lecture Alternating group contd Group actions Lecture Group action continued Isomorphisms Properties of isomorphisms Lecture Automorphisms Group action revisited Lecture The class equation Sylow theorems Lecture Sylow theorems continued External Direct Products Lecture Internal Direct Products Solvable groups Lecture Nilpotent groups

3 16 Lecture Rings, subrings and Ideals Factor rings Ring Homomorphisms The field of fractions of an integral domain Prime ideals and maximal ideals Lecture Factorization in domains Euclidean domains Principal ideal domains Factorization Domains Unique Factorization Domains Lecture Reducibility tests Gauss s theorem for UFD s Lecture Extension fields Algebraic extensions Splitting fields Algebraic extensions revisited Characteristic of a field Finite fields Subfields of a finite field

4 1 Lecture Properties of Integers Theorem The well-ordering Principle: Every non-empty set of positive (or non-negative) integers contains a smallest member. Definition We say that a non-zero integer t is a divisor of an integer s if there exists an integer u such that s = tu. In this case, we write t s and read t divides s. When t is not a divisor of s, we write t s. Definition A prime is a positive integer > 1 whose only positive divisors are 1 and itself. Definition We say that an integer s is a multiple of an integer t if there exists an integer u such that s = tu. Theorem The division Algorithm: Let a and b be integers with b > 0. Then unique integers q and r such that a = bq + r where 0 r < b. Definition The integer q in the division algorithm is called the quotient upon dividing a by b. The integer r is called the remainder upon dividing a by b. Definition The greatest coomon divisor (gcd) of two non-zero integers a and b is the largest among all common divisors of a and b. We denote this integer by gcd(a, b). When gcd(a, b) = 1, we say that a and b are relatively prime. Theorem GCD is a linear combination: For any two non-zero integres a and b, there exists integers s and t such that gcd(a, b) = as + bt. Moreover, gcd(a, b) is the smallest positive integer of the form as + bt. Lemma If p is a prime that divides ab, then either p divides a or p divides b. Definition The least common multiple of two integers a and b is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of both a and b. We denote it by lcm(a, b). 4

5 Theorem The Prime factorization theorem: Every integer > 1 is either a prime or a product of primes. This product is unique, except for the order in which the factors appear. That is, if n = p α 1 1 p αr r and n = q β 1 1 qs βs, where the p i s and the q j s are primes. Then r = s and after some rearrangement, p i = q i i and α i = β i for all i. 1.2 Sets, relations and functions Definition An equivalence relation on a set S is a set R of ordered pairs of elements of S such that (i) (a, a) R for all a S (reflexive property). (ii) (a, b) R implies that (b, a) R (symmetric property). (iii) (a, b) R and (b, c) R together imply that (a, c) R (transitive property). When R is an equivalence relation on a set S, it is customary to write arb instead of (a, b) R. The symbol is usually used to denote an equivalence relation. If is an equivalence relation on a set S and a S, then the set [a] := {x S x a} is called the equivalence class of S containing a. Example(s) Let S = Z and let n be a positive integer. If a, b S, define a b if a = b mon n, that is, if a b is divisible by n. Then is an equivalence relation on S and its distinct equivalence classes are [0], [1],..., [n 1]. Definition A Partition of a set S is a collection of non-empty disjoint subsets of S whose union is S. Proposition The equivalence classes of an equivalence relation on a set S constitute a partition of S. Remark The converse of the above proposition is also true: For any partition P of S, there is an equivalence relation on S whose equivalence classes are the elements of P. Remark Recall the definition of a function or a mapping. Recall the concept of domain, codomain and range or image of a function. Recall the definitions of composition of functions, one-to-one function, onto function and bijections/one-to-one correspondence. 5

6 1.3 Laws of modular arithmetic Let n be a positive integer and a be an integer. We denote by a mod n the remainder upon dividing a by n. We say that a b mod n whenever a b is divisible by n. Recall that (a + b)mod n = ((a mod n) + (b mod n))mod n and (a.b)mod n = ((a mod n).(b mod n))mod n. 6

7 2 Lecture Groups Definition A non-empty set of elements G is said to be a group if in G, there is defined a binary operation, called the product, denoted by, such that (i) a, b G a b G. (Closure prperty) (ii) a, b, c G a (b c) = (a b) c. (Associativity) (iii) an element e G such that a e = e a = a a G. (Existence of identity) (iv) For every a G, an elementy a 1 in G such that a a 1 = a 1 a = e. (Existence of inverses) Definition A group G is called abelian or commutative if a b = b a a, b G. A group which is not abelian is called non-abelian. Definition The number of elements in a group G is called the order of G. It is denoted by o(g) or by G. When o(g) <, we say that G is a finite group. Example(s) Let n be a fixed positive integer. Let U(n) denote the set of all positive integers less than n and relatively prime to n. Then U(n) is a group under multiplication modulo n. In the class, lots of other examples of groups were discussed. Definition Let n be a positive integer. Let G be the set consisting of all symbols a i, where we insist that a 0 = a n = e and { a a i a j i+j if i + j n = a i+j n otherwise It can be verified that G is a group. This G is called the cyclic group of order n. 2.2 Properties of a Group Lemma If G is a group, then (a) The identity element of G is unique. (b) Every a G ahs a unique inverse in G. 7

8 (c) For every a G, (a 1 ) 1 = a. (d) For all a, b G, (ab) 1 = b 1 a 1. Theorem In a group G, the right and left cancellation laws hold, that is, ba = ca b = c and ab = ac b = c. Lemma Given a, b in a group G, the equations ax = b and ya = b have unique solutions for x and y in G. 2.3 Order Definition The number of elements of a group (finite or infinite) G is called the order of the group G. It is denoted by G or o(g). Definition The order of an element g in a group G is the smallest positive integer n such that g n = e. [In additive notation, this would be ng = 0.] If no such integer exists, we say that g has infinite order. The order of an element g is denoted by g or o(g). 2.4 Subgroups Definition If a non-empty subset H of a group G is itself a group under the operation of G, we say that H is a subgroup of G. We denote this by H G. Remark If H is a subgroup of G that is not equal to G itself, then we say that H is a proper subgroup of G and denote it by H < G. The subgroup {e} is called the trivial subgroup of G. A subgroup that is not equal to {e} is called a non-trivial subgroup of G. Theorem One-step subgroup test: Let G be a group and H be a non-empty subset of G. Then H G if and only if ab 1 H whenever a, b H. Theorem Two-step subgroup test: Let G be a group and H be a non-empty subset of G. Then H G if and only if ab H whenever a, b H and a 1 H whenever a H. 8

9 Theorem Let H be a non-empty finite subset of a group G. Then H is a subgroup of G if H is closed under the operation of G. Theorem Let G be a group and let a G. Let < a >:= {a n n Z}. Then < a > is a subgroup of G. Remark The subgroup < a > is called the cyclic subgroup of G generated by a. In the case when G =< a >, we say that G is cyclic and a is a generator of G. Note that a cyclic group may have more than one generators. Definition The center Z(G) of a group G is defined as Z(G) := {a G ax = xa x G}. Theorem The center Z(G) of a group G is a subgroup of G. Definition Let a G be fixed. The centralizer of a in G, denoted by C(a) is given by C(a) := {g G ag = ga}. Theorem For each a G, C(a) is a subgroup of G and Z(G) = a G C(a). 3 Lecture Lagrange s theorem Definition Let G be a group, H a subgroup of G. For a, b G, we say that a is congruent to b mod H if ab 1 H. We denote this by a b mod H. Lemma The relation a b mod H is an equivalence relation on G. Definition If H is a subgroup of G and a G, then the set Ha := {ha h H} is called a right coset of H in G. Similarly, the set ah := {ah h H} is called a left coset of H in G. 9

10 Lemma For all a G, Ha = {x G a x mod H}. Remark Since a b mod H is an equivalence relation, it follows that Ha is the equivalence class of a in G. Proof: Follows from lemma Hence the right cosets Ha s yield a decomposition of G into disjoint subsets. And any two right cosets of H in G are either identical or disjoint. Lemma There is a one-to-one correspondence between any two right cosets of H in G. Remark Lemma above is of most interest when G is a finite group because then it merely states that any two right cosets of H in G have the same number of elements. Since H = He is also a right coset, it follows that any right coset of H in G has o(h) many elements in it. Now suppose G is a finite group and k is the number of distinct right cosets of H in G. Then it follows from the preceeding discussion that ko(h) = o(g). Hence we have Theorem If G is a finite group and H is a subgroup of G, then o(h) divides o(g). Definition If H is a subgroup of G, then the index of H in G is the number of distinct right cosets of H in G. We denote this by i G (H). If G is a finite group, then it follows from theorem that i G (H) = o(g) o(h). Corollary If G is a finite group and a G, then o(a) divides o(g). Corollary If G is a finite group and a G, then a o(g) = e. Corollary If G is a finite group whose order is a prime number, then G is a cyclic group. 10

11 3.2 Applications to number theory The Euler-φ-function, φ(n) is defined for all positive integers n by the following rule: φ(1) = 1 and forn > 1, φ(n) = the number of positive integers < n and coprime to n. Clearly, order of U(n) = φ(n). Lemma If n is a positive integer and a is relatively prime to n, then a φ(n) 1 mod n. Corollary If p is a prime number and a is any integer. Then a p a mod p. 3.3 Properties of cosets Theorem Let H be a subgroup of a group G. Let a, b G. Then (i) a ah. (ii) ah = H iff a H. (iii) Either ah = bh or ah bh =. (iv) ah = bh iff a 1 b H. (v) ah = bh. (vi) ah = Ha iff H = aha 1. (vii) ah is a subgroup of G iff a H. An application of cosets to permutation groups Definition Let G be a group of permutations of a set S. For each i S, let Stab G (i) := {φ G φ(i) = i}. We call Stab G (i) the stabilizer of i in G. Exercise: Verify that Stab G (i) is a subgroup of G. Definition Let G be a group of permutations of a set S. For each s S, let orb G (s) := {φ(s) φ G}. The set orb G (s) is a subset of S and is called the orbit of s under G. 11

12 Theorem Let G be a finite group of permutations of a set S. Then for any i S, G = orb G (i) Stab G (i). 3.4 Product of two Subgroups Definition If H and K are two subgroups of a group G, let HK := {hk h H, k K}. Theorem HK is a subgroup of G if and only of HK = KH. Corollary If H and K are subgroups of an abelian group, then HK is a subgroup of G. Theorem A counting principle: If H and K are finite subgroups of a group G, then o(hk) = o(h)o(k) o(h K). 4 Lecture Normal subgroups, Quotient groups Definition A subgroup N of G is called a normal subgroup of G if, for every g G and n N, we have gng 1 N. We denote this by N G. Let gng 1 := {gng 1 n N}. Then N is a normal subgroup of G if and only if gng 1 N for every g G. Lemma N is a normal subgroup of G if and only if gng 1 = N for every g G. Remark Lemma DOES NOT say that for every n N and for every g G, we should have gng 1 = n! It only says that the two sets N and gng 1 should be the same. 12

13 Lemma The subgroup N of G is a normal subgroup of G if and only if every left coset of N in G is a right coset of N in G. In particular, N G if and only if Ng = gn for every g G. Theorem If G is a group and N G, let G/N denote the set of all right cosets of N in G. Then G/N forms a group under the binary operation given by Na Nb := Nab. Definition The group G/N of theorem above is called the quotient group or the factor group of G by N. Remark The order of G/N equals the index i G (N). Lemma If G is a finite group and N G. Then o(g/n) = o(g) o(n). Example(s) ) Every subgroup of an abelian group is normal. 2) The center of a group G is always normal in G. 3) SL(2, C) GL(2, C). Example(s) For any positive integer n, the quotient Z/nZ is an example of a Quotient group. 4.2 Applications of Quotient groups Theorem If G/Z(G) is cyclic, then G is abelian. Definition Let (G, ) and (G, ) be two groups. A map f : G G is called a group homomorphism if f(a b) = f(a) f(b) for all a, b G. Definition A group homomorphism f : G G is called an isomorphism (resp., monomorphism, epimorphism) if f is bijective (resp., injective, surjective). Definition Let G be a group. The set of all isomorphisms from G onto itself is called the automorphism group of G, and is denoted by Aut(G). 13

14 Definition Let Inn(G) := {φ g g G} where φ g : G G is given by φ g (x) := gxg 1 x G. Then IT CAN BE PROVED (Exercise!) that Inn(G) is a subgroup of Aut(G), called the inner automorphism group of G. Theorem G/Z(G) is isomorphic to Inn(G). 5 Lecture Application of Quotient groups continued Theorem Let G be a finite abelian group and let p be a prime that divides o(g). Then G has an element of order p. 5.2 Cyclic groups Definition A group G is called cyclic if there exists an element a G such that G = {a n n Z}. Such an element a is called a generator of G. We indicate that G is a cyclic group generated by a and denote it by G =< a >. Remark A cyclic group can have more than one generators. For example, Z is a cyclic group under addition having two generators +1 and 1. Also Z n is a cyclic group under addition mod n, having at least two generators +1 and n 1. Observe that Z 8 has 4 generators: 1,3,5,7. Example(s) ) U(10) is cyclic having at least 2 generators, 3, 7. 2) U(8) is NOT CYCLIC. Theorem Let G be a group and a G. If a has infinite order, then all distinct powers of a are distinct group elements. If a has finite order, say n, then < a >= {e, a, a 2,..., a n 1 } and a i = a j if and only if n divides i j. Corollary a k = e o(a) divides k. 14

15 Theorem Let G =< a > be a cyclic group of order n. Then G =< a k > if and only if gcd(k, n) = 1. Corollary An integer k in Z n is a generator of Z n if and only if gcd(k, n) = 1. 6 Lecture Fundamental theorem for cyclic groups Theorem Every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic. Moreover, if < a > = n, then the order of any subgroup of < a > is a divisor of n, and for each positive divisor k of n, the group < a > has exactly one subgroup of order k-namely, < a n k >. Corollary For each positive divisor k of n, the set < n/k > is the unique subgroup of Z n or order k. Moreover, these are the only subgroups of Z n. Theorem If d is a positive divisor of n, then the number of elements of order d in a cyclic group of order n is φ(d), where φ is the Euler-phi function. 6.2 Group Homomorphisms Definition A Group Homomorphism φ from a group (G, ) to a group (G, ) is a map from G into G such that φ(a b) = φ(a) φ(b) for all a, b G. Definition The Kernel of a group homomorphism φ : G G is the set {x G φ(x) = e}. It is denoted by Ker(φ). Isomorphisms, monomorphisms and epimorphisms have been defined in definition Example(s) The map det : GL(2, R) R which maps any matrix A to its determinant is a group homomorphism. Its kernel is SL(2, R). 15

16 Theorem Let φ : G G be a group homomorphism. Let g G be arbitrary. Then (i) φ carries the identity of G to the identity of G. (ii) φ(g n ) = [φ(g)] n for every integer n. (iii) If g = n, then φ(g) divides n. (iv) If φ(g) = g, then φ 1 (g ) = {x G φ(x) = g } = gkerφ. 7 Lecture Properties of Homomorphisms Theorem Let φ : G G be a group homomorphism. Let H be a subgroup of G. Then (i) φ(h) is a subgroup of G. (ii) If H is cyclic, then so is φ(h). (iii) If H is abelian, then so is φ(h). (iv) If H is normal in G, then φ(h) is normal in φ(g). (v) If Ker(φ) = n, then φ is an n-to-1 map from G onto φ(g). (vi) φ(h) divides H. (vii) If K G, then φ 1 (K) = {k G φ(k) K} is a subgroup of G. (viii) If K G, then φ 1 (K) G. (ix) If φ is onto and Ker(φ) = {e}, then φ is an isomorphism from G to G. Corollary Let φ : G G be a group homomorphism. Then Ker(φ) is a normal subgroup of G. Definition Let N G. Then there is a natural group epimorphism π N : G G/N under which a an. This map π N is called the canonical projection with respect to N. Theorem Every normal subgroup of a group G is the kernel of a homomorphism of G. In particular, a normal subgroup N is the kernel of the map π N. 7.2 Isomorphism theorems Theorem If f : G H is a group homomorphism and N G such that N Ker(f), then there exists a unique homomorphism f : G/N H such that f(an) = f(a) for all a G. Moreover, Im(f) = Im(f) and 16

17 Ker(f) = Ker(f). In particular, f is an isomorphism if and only if f is an N epimorphism and N = Ker(f). Corollary st isomorphism theorem: If f : G H is a group homomorphism, then G/Ker(f) is isomorphic to Im(f). Corollary nd isomorphism theorem: If K and N are subgroups of a group G with N G, then K/N K NK/N. Corollary rd isomorphism theorem: If K and H are two normal subgroups of a group G and K H, then H/K G/K and (G/K)/(H/K) G/H. Corollary If f : G H is a group homomorphism, N G, M H, and f(n) M, then f induces a homomorphism given by f(an) = f(a)m. f : G/N H/M 8 Lecture A theorem on epimorphism of groups Theorem Let f : G H be an epimorphism of groups. Let S f (G) denote the collection of all subgroups of G which contain Ker(f) and let S(H) be the collection of all subgroups of H. Then the map T : S f (G) S(H) given by K f(k) is a one-to-one correspondence. Under this correspondence, normal subgroups correspond to normal subgroups. Corollary If N G, then every subgroup of G/N is of the form K/N, where K is a subgroup of G that contains N. Furthermore, K/N G/N K G. 17

18 8.2 Permutation Groups Definition A permutation of a set A is a function from A to A that is bijective. Definition A permutation group of a set A is a set of permutations of A that forms a group under function composition. Definition Let n be a fixed positive integer. Let A = {1, 2,..., n}. The set of all permutations of the set A is called the symmetric group of degree n, and is denoted by S n. Clearly, S n has cardinality n!. The composition of any two permutations in S n expressed in array notation is carried out from right to left, by going from top to bottom, then again from top to bottom. Definition An r-cycle (a 1 a 2... a r ) is a permutation that maps a 1 to a 2, a 2 to a 3,..., a r to a 1, and fixes all other elements. The length of an r-cycle is r. The identity permutation ɛ is the permutation that takes every element to itself. It is usually denoted by a one-cycle, (1) or (2) or... or (n). Definition Two cycles (a 1 a 2... a r ) and (b 1 b 2... b m ) are called disjoint if the sets {a 1,..., a r } and {b 1,..., b m } are disjoint. Theorem Every permutation in S n can be expressed as a one-cycle or as a product ot disjoint cycles, Theorem If two cycles α = (a 1 a 2... a r ) and β = (b 1 b 2... b m ) are disjoint, then they commute, that is, αβ = βα. Theorem The order of a permutation of a finite set written in disjoint cycle form is the lcm of the lengths of the (disjoint) cycles. Definition A 2-cycle is called a transposition. Example(s) (a b) is a transposition. The effect of (a b) is to interchange a and b. A transposition is its own inverse since it has order 2. Theorem Every permutation in S n, n > 1, is a product of (not necessarily disjoint) transpositions. 18

19 Remark ) (a 1 a 2... a r ) = (a 1 a r )(a 1 a r 1 )... (a 1 a 2 ). 2) The decomposition of a permutation into a product of transpositions is not unique. Lemma If ɛ = β 1 β 2... β r where the β i s are transpositions, then r must be even. Theorem If a permutation α can be expressed as a product of an even (resp. odd) number of transpositions, then every decomposition of α into a product of transpositions must have an even (resp. odd) number of transpositions in it. Definition A permutation that can be expressed as a product of an even (resp. odd) number of transpositions is called an even permutation (resp. odd permutation). Theorem The set of all even permutations in S n forms a subgroup of S n. Definition The group of all even permutations on n symbols is denoted by A n and is called the alternating group of degree n. Theorem For n > 1, A n has order n! 2. 9 Lecture Alternating group contd... Lemma A subgroup of index 2 of S n must contain all 3-cycles. Lemma For n 3, A n is generated by all 3-cycles. Theorem For each n 2, A n is normal in S n and A n has index 2 in S n. Furthermore, A n is the only subgroup of S n of index 2. Definition A group G is called simple if G has no proper normal subgroups other than the trivial subgroup. Lemma Ler r and s be two fixed arbitrary elements of {1, 2,..., n}. Then A n (n 3) is generated by the 3-cycles {(r s k) 1 k n, k r, s}. 19

20 Lemma If N is normal in A n and N contains a 3-cycle, then N = A n. Theorem A n is simple if and only if n 4. Another important subgroup of S n (n 3) is the subgroup D n generated by a = ( n) and ( ) i n 1 n b = = Π 1 n n 1 n 2 n 3 n + 2 i i<n+2 i (i n+2 i). This subgroup D n is called the dihedral group of degree n. This group D n is isomorphic to the group of all symmetries of a regular n-gon. For n 3, D n is a group of order 2n whose generators a and b satisfy: (i) a n = (1) = b 2 (ii) a k (1) if 0 < k < n. (iii) ba = a 1 b. 9.2 Group actions Definition A group action of a group G on a non-empty set A is a map : G A A which takes (g, a) to g.a and satisfies the following properties: (i) g 1.(g 2.a) = (g 1 g 2 ).a for all g 1, g 2 G and for all a A. (ii) 1.a = a for all a A. Let a group G act on a set A. Let S A := the group of all permutations of the set A. For each fixed g G, we get a map σ g : A A defined as σ g (a) = g.a. It can be proved that (i) For each fixed g G, σ g is a permutation of A and (ii) The map : G S A given by g σ g is a group homomorphism. Definition The group homomorphism φ : G S A given by g σ g is called the permutation representation associated to the given action of Gon A. Definition ) Kernel of the action = {g G g.a = a a A}. 2) For each fixed a A, Stab G (a) = {g G g.a = a} is called the stabilizer of a in G. It is also denoted by G a. 3) An action is called faithful if its kernel is the identity. 20

21 Remark Kernel of the action = a A G a. Example(s) Let n be a positive integer. The group G = S n acts on the set A = {1, 2,..., n} by g.i = g(i) for all i A. Check that the permutation representation associated to this action is the identity map Id : S n S n. Check also that this action is afithful and for each i A, the stabilizer G i is isomorphic to S n Lecture Group action continued... Remark Suppose a group G acts on a non-empty set A. Then two group elements g 1 and g 2 induce the same permutation of A if and only if g 1 and g 2 belong to the same coset of the Kernel of the action. Given a group action on a non-empty set A. there exists a permutation representation associated to it, which is a group homomorphism! Conversely, given any non-empty set A and any group homomorphism φ : G S A, we can obtain an action of G on A by defining g.a = φ(g)(a) a A, g G. The kernel of this action is the same as Ker(φ). And the permutation representation associated to this action is precisely the given homomorphism φ. Hence we have the following theorem: Theorem For any group G and any non-empty set A, there is a bijection between the actions of G on A and the homomorphisms from G into S A. Proposition Let H G and let G act on the set A of all left cosets of H in G by left multiplication. Then the kernel of the induced permutation representation : G S A is contained in H. Corollary If H G and [G : H] = n and no nontrivial normal subgroup of G is contained in H, then G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S n. Corollary If G is a finite group and H G be of index p, where p is the samllest prime dividing o(g), then H G. 21

22 10.2 Isomorphisms Definition An isomorphism φ from a group G to a group G is a group homomorphism that is bijective. If there is an isomorphism from G onto G, we say that G and G are isomorphic and write G G. Example(s) Let G = (R, +) and G be the group of all positive real numbers under multiplication. Then G and G are isomorphic under the map φ : G G given by φ(x) = 2 x. Example(s) Not an isomorphism: The mapping from (R, +) to itself given by φ(x) = x 3 is not an isomorphism since (x + y) 3 x 3 + y 3. Example(s) Any finite cyclic group of order n is isomorphic to Z n and any infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to Z. Theorem Cayley s theorem: Every group is isomorphic to a subgroup of the group of all permutations of a certain set Properties of isomorphisms Theorem Suppose that φ is an isomorphism from a group G onto a group G. Then (i) φ carries identity of G to the identity of G. (ii) For every integer n and for every group element a G, we have φ(a n ) = [φ(a)] n. (iii) For any two elements a, b G, a and b commute if and only if φ(a) and φ(b) commute. (iv) G is abelian if and only if G is abelian. (v) Isonorphisms preserve order, that is, a = φ(a) for all a G. (vi) G is cyclic if and only if G is cyclic. (vii) If G is a finite group, then for a fixed integer k and a fixed group element b G, the equation x k = b has the same number of solutions in G as does the equation x k = φ(b) in G. (viii) φ 1 is an isomorphism from G to G. (ix) If K is a subgroup of G, then φ(k) = {φ(k) k K} is a subgroup of G. 22

23 11 Lecture Automorphisms Definition An isomorphism from a group G to itself is called an automorphism of G. Example(s) Let G = SL(2, R) and let M G. Define the map φ M : G G by φ M (A) = MAM 1. Then φ M is an automorphism of G. Let G be a group and a G. Let φ a : G G be defined as φ a (x) = axa 1. Then φ a is an automorphism of G. Definition φ a is called the inner automorphism of G induced by a. When G is a group, we use Aut(G) to denote the set of all automorphisms of G and Inn(G) to denote the set of all inner automorphisms of G. Theorem Given a group G, the sets Aut(G) and Inn(G) are both groups under the operation function composition. Theorem For every positive integer n, Aut(Z n ) is isomorphic to U(n). Proposition Let H G. Then G acts on H by conjugation. The action of G on H by conjugation defined (for each g G) by h ghg 1 is an automorphism of H. The permutation representation associated to this action is a homomorphism of G into Aut(H) with kernel C G (H) := {g G ghg 1 = h h H}. In particular, G/C G (H) is isomorphic to a subgroup of Aut(H). Corollary If K G and g G, then K gkg 1. elements and conjugate subgroups have the same order. Conjugate Corollary For any subgroup H of G, let N G (H) := {g G ghg 1 = H}. Then C G (H) is normal in N G (H) and the quotient group N G (H)/C G (H) is isomorphic to a subgroup of Aut(H). In particular, G/Z(G) a subgroup of Aut(G). Definition A subgroup H of a group G is called characteristic in G if σ(h) = H for all σ Aut(G). It is denoted by H char G. 23

24 Characteristic subgroups are normal. If H is the unique subgroup of G of a given order, then H char G. A characteristic subgroup of a normal subgroup must be normal. We may think of characteristic subgroups as strongly normal subgroups Group action revisited Theorem Let G be a group that acts on a set S. (i) The relation on S defined by x x gx = x for some g G is an equaivalence relation. (ii) For each x S, G x := {g G gx = x} is a subgroup of G. Remark (i) The equivalence classes of the equivalence relation as in the previous theorem are called the orbits of G on S. The orbit if x S is denoted by x. (ii) The subgroup G x of G is called the isotropy group of x or the stabilizer of x. Example(s) If a group G acts on itself by conjugation, the the orbit {gxg 1 g G} of x G is called the conjugacy class of x. Proposition Two elements in S n are conjugate in S n if and only if they have the same cycle type. The number of conjugacy classes in S n equals the number of partitions of n. Theorem Orbit-stabilizer theorem: If a group G acts on a set S, then the cardinality of the orbit of x S equals the index [G : G x ]. Corollary Let G be a finite group. (i) The number of elements in the conjugacy class of x G is [G : C G (x)] where C G (x) := {g G gxg 1 = x}. This number divides o(g). (ii) If { x 1,..., x n } (x i G) is the list of all distinct conjugacy classes of G, then o(g) = Σ n i=1[g : C G (x i )]. Remark The equation o(g) = Σ n i=1[g : C G (x i )] as in the above corollary is known as the class equation of the finite group G. 24

25 12 Lecture The class equation Observe that an element x G is in Z(G) if and only if the conjugacy class of x consists of x alone. Thus if G is finite and x Z(G), then x =1 where x denotes the conjugacy class of x. Consequently the calss equation of G may be written as o(g) = Z(G) + Σ m i=1[g : C G (x i )] where x i (1 i m, x i G \ Z(G)) are distinct conjugacy classes of G and each [G : C G (x i )] > 1. Theorem Let G be a finite group whose order is a power of a prime p. Then Z(G) has more than one element in it. Corollary If G = p 2, where p is a prime, then G is abelian Sylow theorems Theorem Sylow s first theorem: Let G be a finite group and let p be a prime. If p k divides G, then G has at least one subgroup of order p k. Definition Let G be a finite group and let p be a prime divisor of G. If p k divides G and p k+1 does not divide G, then any subgroup of G of order p k is called a Sylow p-subgroup of G. Corollary Cauchy s theorem: Let G be a finite group and p a prime that divides G. Then G has an element of order p. Definition A group in which every element has order a power ( 0) of some fixed prime p is called a p-group. Definition If H G and H is a p-group, then H is called a p- subgroup of G. Theorem A finite group G is a p-group if and only if G is a power of p. Lemma If a group H of order p n (p a prime) acts on a finite set S and if S 0 := {x S hx = x h H}, then S S 0 mod p. 25

26 Lemma If H is a p-subgroup of a finite group G, then [G : H] [N G (H) : H] mod p. Corollary If H is a p-subgroup of a finite group G such that p [G : H], then N G (H) H. Theorem Let G be a group of order p n m, with n 1, p prime, and (p, m) = 1. Then every subgroup of G of order p i (1 i < n) is normal in some subgroup of order p i Lecture Sylow theorems continued Theorem Sylow s 2nd theorem: If H is a subgroup of a finite group G and H is a power of a prime p, then H is contained in some Sylow p-subgroup of G. Theorem Sylow s 3rd theorem: The number of Sylow p-subgroups of G is equal to 1 modulo p and this number divides G. Furthermore, any two sylow p-subgroups of G are conjugate External Direct Products Definition Let (G 1, 1 ),..., (G n, n ) be a finite collection of groups. The external direct product of G 1,..., G n written as G 1 G n is the set of all n-tuples for which the i-th component is an element of G i, and the operation is componentwise. In symbols, G 1 G n = {(g 1,..., g n ) g i G i } where (g 1,..., g n ) (g 1,..., g n) is defined to be (g 1 1 g 1,..., g n n g n). The external direct product of groups is itself a group. Example(s) R 2 = R R, the operation being componentwise addition. 26

27 Theorem The order of an element of an external direct product of finite number of groups is the least common multiple of the orders of the components of the element. In symbols, (g 1,..., g n ) = l.c.m( g 1,..., g n ). Theorem Let G and H be finite cyclic groups. Then G H is cyclic if and only if G and H are relatively prime. Corollary An external direct product G 1 G n of a finite number of finite cyclic groups is cyclic if and only if G i and G j are relatively prime whenever i j. Corollary Let m = n 1 n 2... n k. Then Z m is isomorphic to Z n1 Z nk if and only if n i and n j are relatively prime whenever i j. 14 Lecture Internal Direct Products Definition Let H 1,..., H n be a finite collection of normal subgroups of a group G. We say that G is the internal direct product of H 1,..., H n and write G = H 1 H n if (i) G = H 1 H 2... H n = {h 1 h 2... h n h i H i } and (ii) (H 1 H 2... H i ) H i+1 = e for all i = 1, 2,..., n 1. Exercise: Show that if G is the internal direct product of H 1,..., H n and i j with i, j {1, 2,..., n}, then H i H j = {e}. Theorem H 1 H 2 H n H 1 H 2 H n Solvable groups Definition A group G is called Solvable if there exists a decreasing sequence of subgroups G = G 0 G 1 G 2... G n = {e} such that (i) G i+1 G i for all 0 i n 1 and (ii) G i /G i+1 is abelian for all 0 i n 1. 27

28 Example(s) ) Any abelian group is solvable. 2) A solvable group need not be abelian: G = S 3 is not abelian but solvable because S 3 = G 0 G 1 = A 3 G 2 = {e}. Definition For any group G, let G (1) := the commutator subgroup of G =< xyx 1 y 1 x, y G >. For i 2, let G (i+1) denote the commutator of G (i). Theorem A group G is solvable if and only if G (n) = {e} for some n 1. Theorem (i) Any subgroup of a solvable group is solvable. (ii) Any quotient of a solvable group is solvable. Proposition Let G be a group, K a normal subgroup such that both K and G/K are solvable. Then G is solvable. Proposition A group of prime power order is solvable. Proposition S n is not solvable for n 5. Proposition Any group of order pq, p and q being distinct primes, is solvable. Theorem Burnside s theorem: Any group of order p n q m, p, q primes, n, m 1 is solvable. Theorem Feit, Thompson: Every group of odd order is solvable. Corollary Any finite non-abelian simple group is of even order. 15 Lecture Nilpotent groups Definition Let G be a group. The upper central series of G is the sequence of subgroups {C n } such that (i) {e} = C 0 C 1... C n... (ii) C i C i 1 = Z( G C i 1 ) for all i 1. Definition A group G is called nilpotent if there exists some n such that C n = G. 28

29 For subgroups H and K of G, we denote by [H, K] the subgroup generated by all the commutators aba 1 b 1, a H, b K. Definition The lower central series of G is the sequence of subgroups {Z n } such that (i) G = Z 0 Z 1... Z i Z i+1... (ii) Z i+1 = [G, Z i ] for all i 0. Proposition G is nilpotent if and only of Z n = {e} for some n. Example(s) ) Any abelian group is nilpotent. 2) S 3 is not nilpotent. 3) Any nilpotent group is solvable. Proposition Any subgroup of a nilpotent group is nilpotent. Any homomorphic image of a nilpotenet group is nilpotent. Example(s) It is NOT TRUE that if H and G/H are nilpotent, then G is nilpotent. For example: Take G = S 3 and H = A 3. Proposition Let G be a group, H {e} a subgroup contained in the center Z(G) such that G/H is nilpotent. Then G is nilpotent. Proposition Any group of prime power order is nilpotent. Proposition Any proper subgroup H of a nilpotent group is properly contained in its normalizer. Theorem Let G be a finite group. The following conditions are equivalent: (i) G is nilpotent. (ii) G is a direct product of its sylow subgroups. Corollary Let G be a finite nilpotent group. Then for every divisor m of o(g), there exists a subgroup of G of order m. 16 Lecture Rings, subrings and Ideals Definition A non-empty set R is called a ring if in R, there are defined two binary operations + and. respectively such that 29

30 (i) (R, +) is an abelian group. (ii) a.b R for all a, b R. (iii) a.(b.c) = (a.b).c = a.b.c for all a, b, c R. (iv) a.(b + c) = a.b + a.c and (b + c).a = b.a + c.a for all a, b, c R. Definition If the multiplication. ina ring R is commutative, that is, a.b = b.a for all a, b R, we say that R is a commutative ring. Also, a ring R need not always contain a multiplicative identity. When it contains, we say that R is a ring with unity. We denote the unity of R by 1. A non-zero element of a ring with 1 need not have a multiplicative inverse always. When it does, we say that the non-zero element is a unit of the ring. Thus a( 0) is a unit in R if a 1 exists. If a and b belong to a commutative ring R and a is non-zero, we say that a divides b and write a b if there exists an element c R auch that b = ac. If a does not divide b, we write a b. Example(s) ) The set Z of integers under ordinary addition and multiplication is a commutative ring with unity 1. The units of this ring are 1 and 1. 2) The set Z n of integers modulo n is a ring under addition and multiplication modulo n. It is a commutative ring with unity 1. The set of all units of this ring is U(n) (PROVE!). Notation: We use b c to denote b + ( c). Theorem Let a, b, c belong to a ring R. Then (i) a.0 = 0.a = 0. (ii) a.( b) = ( a).b = (ab). (iii) ( a).( b) = ab. (iv) a.(b c) = ab ac and (b c).a = ba ca. Furthermore, if R has a unity element 1, then (v) ( 1).a = a. (vi) ( 1)( 1) = 1. Theorem If a ring has a unity, it is unique. If a ring element has a multiplicative inverse, then it is unique. Definition A subset S of a ring R is called a subring of R if S is itself a ring with the operations of R. Theorem Subring test: A non-empty subset S of a ring R is a subring of R if both a b and a.b belong to S whenever a, b S. 30

31 Example(s) For each positive integer n, the set nz = {0, ±n, ±2n,...} is a subring of Z. Definition A non-zero element a in a commmutative ring R is called a zero-divisor if there is a non-zero element b in R such that ab = 0. Definition A commutative ring with unity is called an Integral domain if it has no zero-divisors. Thus in an integral domain, ab = 0 implies that either a = 0 or b = 0. Example(s) ) The ring of integers Z is an integral domain. 2) The ring of Gaussian integers Z[i] = {a + bi a, b Z} is an integral domain.(prove!) 3) Z n is an integral domain if and only if n is a prime. Theorem Cancellation law: Let a, b, c belong to an integral domain. If a 0 and ab = ac, then b = c. Definition A commutative ring with unity is called a field if every non-zero element in it is a unit. Remark Every field is an integral domain. Theorem A finite integral domain is a field. Corollary Z p is a field. Remark Z n is a field if and only if n is a prime. Definition The Characteristic of a ring R is the least positive integer n such that n.x = 0 for all x R. If no such integer exists, we say that R has characteristic 0. The characteristic of R is denoted by char(r). Example(s) Z has characteristic 0, but Z n has Characteristic n. Theorem Let R be a ring with unity 1. If 1 has infinite order under addition, then char(r) = 0. If 1 has order n under addition, then char(r) = n. 31

32 Theorem The Characteristic of an integral domain is either 0 or a prime. Definition A subring A of a ring R is called an ideal of R if for every r R and every a A, both ra and ar belong to A. Theorem Ideal test: A non-empty subset A of a ring R is an ideal of R if (i) a b A whenever a, b A. (ii) ra and ar both A whenever a A and r R. Example(s) ) For any ring R, {0} and R are ideals of R. The ideal {0} is called the trivial ideal. 2) Let R be a commutative ring with unity. Let a R. The set < a >:= {ra r R} is an ideal of R, called the principal ideal generated by a Factor rings Theorem Let R be a ring and A be a subring of R. The set of cosets {r + A r R} is a ring under the operations (s + A) + (t + A) = s + t + A and (s + A)(t + A) = st + A if and only if A is an ideal of R. Definition IF R is a ring and A is an ideal of R, then the set of cosets {r +A r R} is a ring under the operations (s+a)+(t+a) = s+t+a and (s + A)(t + A) = st + A. This ring is called the factor ring or the quotient ring of R by A and denoted by R/A. If R is commutative, so is R/A. If R has a unity 1, then R/A has unity 1 + A Ring Homomorphisms Definition Let R and R be two rings. A map φ : R R is aclled a ring homomorphism if (i) φ(a + b) = φ(a) + φ(b) for all a, b R and (ii) φ(ab) = φ(a)φ(b) for all a, b R. Lemma If φ : R R is a ring homomorphism, then (i) φ(0) = 0 and (ii) φ( a) = φ(a) for all a R. 32

33 Definition If φ : R R is a ring homomorphism, then the set {a R φ(a) = 0} is called the kernel of φ and is denoted by Ker(φ). Lemma If φ : R R is a ring homomorphism, then Ker(φ) is an ideal of R. Definition A ring homomorphism φ : R R is called an isomorphism if φ is both one-to-one and onto. Lemma If φ : R R is an onto ring homomorphism, then φ is an isomorphism if and only if Ker(φ) = {0}. Lemma Let R be a ring and A be an ideal in R. There always exists an onto ring homomorphism π : R R/A given by r r + A whose kernel is A. Theorem First isomorphism theorem: Let R, R be rings and φ : R R be an onto ring homomorphism with kernel U. Then R R/U. Moerover, there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the set of all ideals of R and the set of all ideals of R which contain U. This correspondence can be achieved by associating with an ideal W in R the ideal W in R defined by W = {x R φ(x) W } The field of fractions of an integral domain Given a commutative integral domain R with unity 1, consider the set X = R R where R = R {0}. Define a binary relation on X by saying that (a, x) (b, y) if ay = bx. It is easy to check that is an equivalence relation on X. Let Q(R) denote the set of all equivalence classes in X. For the equivalence class through (a, x) and call it (a, x) X, we denote by a x the fraction associated to (a, x). We make Q(R) into a ring by defining addition as : defining multiplication as a x. b y = ab xy. a x + b y = ay+bx xy Theorem Q(R) with respect to the above two operations + and. forms a field and it contains R as a subring. Definition (Q(R), +,.) is called the field of fractions of R. Theorem For any commutative integral domain R with 1, Q(R) is the smallest field containing R as a subring, smallest in the sense that if K is a field containing R as a subring, then K Q(R) as a subfield. 33 and

34 16.5 Prime ideals and maximal ideals Definition A proper ideal A of a ring R is called a prime ideal of R if a, b R and ab A implies either a A or b A. Definition A proper ideal A of a ring R is caled a maximal ideal of R if, whenever B is an ideal of R such that A B R, then either B = A or B = R. Theorem Let R be a ring with 1 and I be an ideal of R. Then (i) R/I is an integral domain if and only if I is a prime ideal of R. (ii) R/I is a field if and only if I is a maximal ideal of R. Corollary Every maximal ideal is a prime ideal. Corollary If R is a finite ring, then every prime ideal of R is a maximal ideal. Theorem Every proper ideal of a ring R is contained in a maximal ideal. 17 Lecture Factorization in domains Let R be a commutative integral domain with 1. Let R = R \ {0}. Definition Let a and b be in R with a 0. We say that a divides b if there exists a c R such that b = ac We denote it by a b. Remark a b if and only if (b) (a). Definition Two elements a and b in R are called associates of each other if a b and b a. Proposition Let a, b R. Then the following are equivalent: (i) a and b are associates of each other. (ii) a = ub for some unit u R. (iii) (a) = (b). Definition A non-zero, non-unit element a R is called irreducible if a = bc, then either b or c is a unit. That is, a cannot be written as a product of two non-units. 34

35 Definition A non-zero, non-unit element a R is called prime if a bc implies that either a b or a c. Proposition A prime element is always irreducible, but not conversely in general. Example(s) Let R = Z[i 3] = {a + bi 3 a, b Z}. The element 1 + i 3 is irreducible in R but not a prime. Theorem Let a be a non-zero, non-unit in a commutative integral domain R. Then (i) a is irreducible if and only if the ideal (a) is maximal among all principal ideals other than R. (ii) a is prime if and only if the ideal (a) is a non-zero prime ideal in R Euclidean domains Definition A commutative integral domain R (with or without unity) is called a Euclidean domain if there exists a map d : R Z + such that (i) d(x) d(xy) for all x, y R. (ii) For all a R and b R, there exists q and r (depending upon a and b) such that a = bq + r with either r = 0 or d(r) < d(b). The map d is called the algorithm map and property (ii) is called the division algorithm. Proposition A non zero Euclidean domain R has unity and the group of all units of R is given by U(R) = {a R d(a) = d(1)}. Example(s) ) Any field K is a euclidean domain.(why?) 2) Z is euclidean, with the modulus as the algorithm map. 3) The ring of gaussian integers Z[i] is euclidean with square of modulus as the algorithm map. 4) The polynomial ring K[X] in one variable X over a field K is euclidean with degree of the polynomial as the algorithm map. 35

36 17.3 Principal ideal domains Definition A commutative integral domain R is called a principal ideal domain or a PID if every ideal of R is principal, that is, generated by one element. Theorem Every euclidean domain is a PID. Example(s) Every PID need not be a euclidean domain. For instance, Z[θ] := {a + bθ a, b Z} where θ is the complex number 1+ 19, is a 2 PID but not a ED. Theorem Let R be a PID (with 1). Then (i) Every irreducible element is a prime in R. (ii) Every non-zero prime ideal is maximal in R. Theorem For a commutative integral domain R with 1, the following are equivalent: (i) R is a field. (ii) R[X] is a euclidean domain. (iii) R[X] is a PID Factorization Domains Definition A commutative integral domain R (with 1) is called a factorization domain or a FD if every non-zero element x R can be written as a unit times a finite product of irreducible elements. Theorem Every PID is a FD. Proposition If d is a positive integer, then the ring Z[i d] is a FD Unique Factorization Domains Definition A commutative integral domain R (with 1) is called a unique factorization domain or a UFD if (i) R is a FD and (ii) The factorization into irreducibles is unique upto order and associates. That is, if x R is factored as x = ua 1 a 2 a r = vb 1 b 2 b s 36

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