# Rings and Fields Theorems

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1 Rings and Fields Theorems Rajesh Kumar PMATH 334 Intro to Rings and Fields Fall 2009 October 25, Rings and Fields 12.1 Definition Groups and Abelian Groups Let R be a non-empty set. Let + and (multiplication) be two binary (must be closed ) operations satisfying: 1. a + b = b + a ( a, b R) 2. (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) ( a, b, c R) 3. There exists 0 R such that a + 0 = a ( a R) 4. To each a R, there exists a R so that a + ( a) = 0 Just rules 2, 3, 4 make R a group. (R, +) is an Abelian group Definition Rings 5. (ab)c = a(bc) ( a, b, c R) 6. a (b + c) = ab + ac ( a, b, c R) 7. (a + b)c = ac + bc ( a, b, c R) 12.3 Definition Commutative Rings If ab = ba for all a, b R, we call R a commutative ring Definition Unity A non-zero element of a ring R, 1, is called a unity if it is an identity element in multiplication. Unity, if exists, is unique Theorem 1. In a ring (R, +, ), to each a R, a is unique, and 0 R is also unique. 2. a 0 = 0 a = 0 for all a R 3. a( b) = ( a)b = (ab) 4. ( a)( b) = ab 1

2 5. a(b c) = ab ac (a b)c = ac bc 12.5 Definition Direct Sum Construction of new rings from known ones. Let R 1, R 2,, R n be rings. Their direct sum R 1 R 2 R n is the set {(r 1, r 2,..., r n ) r i R i } with the operations: (r 1,..., r n ) + (s 1,..., s n ) = (r 1 + s 1,..., r n + s n ) (r 1,..., r n )(s 1,..., s n ) = (r 1 s 1,..., r n s n ) The Cartesian product with the above 2 operation is indeed a ring. It is called the direct sum of R 1,..., R n 12.6 Definition Ring Isomorphisms Let R and S be 2 rings. An isomorphism φ from R to S is a bijective mapping (also known as a oneto-one correspondence) which preserves the algebraic (ring operations). Long form: if r 1 + r 2 = r 3 in R, then φ(r 1 ) + φ(r 2 ) = φ(r 3 ) in S and if r 1 r 2 = r 3 in R, then φ(r 1 )φ(r 2 ) = φ(r 3 ) in S. In shorter form, φ(r 1 + r 2 ) = φ(r 1 ) + φ(r 2 ) and φ(r 1 r 2 ) = φ(r 1 )φ(r 2 ) for all r 1, r 2 R. We say that R and S are isomorphic if an isomorphism exists from R to S, i.e. R S Theorem Chinese Remainder Theorem If m, n are coprime (positive integers), then Z m Z n Z mn 12.8 Proposition For rings R 1, R 2, R 3 : 1. R 1 R 2 R 2 R 1 2. (R 1 R 2 ) R 3 R 1 (R 2 R 3 ) That is is commutative and associative Theorem R S is a ring with unity if and only if both R and S are rings with unity. In fact, if 1 R and 1 S are the unities of R and S respectively, then (1, 1) is the unity of R S, and vice versa Definition Unit Let R be a ring with unity 1. An element a R is called a unit if it has a multiplicative inverse, i.e. there exists a b in R so that ab = ba = 1. All units of R is denoted by U(R) Definition Subrings Let R be a ring, a subset S of R is a subring if it is by itself a ring under the operations of R Theorem Subring Test A non-empty subset S of a ring R is a subring iff it is closed under subtraction and multiplication Theorem 2

3 If R is a ring and F is a family of subrings of R, then the intersection of F = {x R x S for everys F} is a subring of R Theorem Generated Subrings There exists a smallest subring of R which contains A (over all the subrings which contain A). We call it the subring generated by A, denoted by A. 3

4 13 Integral Domains 13.1 Definition Zero Divisor A zero divisor is a non-zero element of a commutative ring for which there exists a non-zero b R so that ab = 0. When a, b are both non-zero and ab = 0 in a commutative ring, then both a and b are zero divisors Definition Integral Domains An integral domain is a commutative ring, with unity, without zero divisors. Thus, in an integral domain, if ab = 0, then either a = 0 or b = Proposition Cancellation Law In an integral domain, we have the cancellation law: if a 0, and ab = ac (where b, c R) as well, then b = c Terminology Injective Maps A map f from set X to set Y is injective if f(b) = f(c) b = c Theorem In an integral domain, left (or right) multiplication by a 0 is an injective function of R to R: f(x) = ax for all x R Corollary If R is a finite integral domain, then (left) multiplication by a 0 is surjective (in addition to being injective). Thus, every non-zero a in R (finite R) is a unit Definition Fields A field is a commutative ring with unity where every non-zero element is a unit Corollary Every finite integral domain is a field Proposition Z m is an integral domain (field) iff m is prime Theorem Every field is an integral domain Definition Embeddings of Rings A ring R is said to be embedded in a ring S is there is an injective map f : R S preserving the operations: 1. f(r 1 + r 2 ) = f(r 1 ) + f(r 2 ) 4

5 2. f(r 1 r 2 ) = f(r 1 ) + f(r 2 ) for all r 1, r 2 R. In terms of isomorphisms, f is an isomorphism between R and the image of R in S. The image is a subring of S Proposition If R 1 can be embedded in R 2, and that R 2 can be embedded in R 3, then R 1 can be embedded in R Question If R 1 can be embedded in R 2 and R 2 can be embedded in R 1, does it imply that R 1 and R 2 are isomorphic? Proposition 1. If F is a field, and S F is a subring, then S is commutative. Further, if S has unity, then S is an integral domain. 2. If R can be embedded in a field F, and R has unity, then R is an integral domain. 3. A ring R is an integral domain iff it can be embedded in a field and R has a unity matching the unity of F Definition Ring Characteristics Let R be a ring. The least positive integer n such that a + + a (n fold) = 0 for all a R is called the characteristic of R. If no positive integer n gives such a line, we say that the characteristic of R is Proposition If R has a unity, then its characteristic is equal to the first (least) positive n so that (n-fold) = 0. If there is no such n, the characteristic will be Proposition For an integral domain, the characteristic is either 0 or a prime. 5

6 14 Ideals and Factor Rings 14.1 Definition Ideals Let R be a ring. An ideal I is a subring which is closed under left and right multiplications by elements of R, i.e. a I ra I and ar I 14.2 Theorem Consider R[x]. Let I = {p(x) R[x] p( 2) = 0}. Then it is an ideal Theorem Let R be a ring and let a R be a subset. Then there exists a smallest ideal of R which contains A Definition Generated Ideals We call F the ideal generated by the subset A Definition Quotient Rings Let R be a ring and I be an ideal of R. Let R/I denote the partition of the set R by the cosets of I, i.e. by {r + I r R} (needs to be justified). The set is called the quotient set. On the quotient set, we define (r 1 + I) + (r 2 + I) = (r 1 + r 2 ) + I. R/I under the above operation is a ring. It is called the quotient ring Definition Ring Homomorphisms Let R and S be rings, a map f : R S is a ring homomorphism if it satisfies: f(r 1 + r 2 ) = f(r 1 ) + f(r 2 ) f(r 1 r 2 ) = f(r 1 )f(r 2 ) for all r 1, r 2 R. Between any two rings R and S, homomorphisms always exist, eg. f 0 (the trivial homomorphism) Theorem Let f : R S be a ring homomorphism. Then 1. If R 1 is a subring of R, then f(r 1 ) = {f(r) r R 1 } is a subring. 2. If I 1 is an ideal of R, then the image f(i 1 ) is not necessarily an ideal of S. 3. Let S 1 be a subring of S. Then the pre-image f 1 (S 1 ) = {r R f(r) S 1 } is a subring of R. 4. If J 1 is an ideal of the co-domain S, then f 1 (J 1 ) = {r R f(r) J 1 } is an ideal of R Proposition If f : R S is a surjective (everything in S is used and tight) ring homomorphism, then the image of an ideal in R is an ideal in S. 6

7 14.9 Definition Let R be a commutative ring, and I is an ideal of R. 1. I is proper if I R (some books also rule out {0}) 2. I is prime if it is proper and has the property a, b R, ab I a I or b I 3. I is maximal if there are no ideals J or R which is truly in between I and R, i.e. the only ideal I satisfying I J R are J = I or R Theorem Let R be a commutative ring with unity 1. Let I be a proper ideal of R. Then i. I is prime iff R/I is an integral domain. ii. I is maximal iff R/I is a field Corollary Maximal ideals are prime Theorem If φ : R S is a ring homomorphism, if R has a unity and if φ is surjective, then φ(1) is the unity of S, i.e. φ(1) = Theorem A ring homomorphism φ : R S is injective if and only if Ker φ = {0} Corollary If F is a filed and φ : F S is a ring homomorphism, then φ is either the zero map or it is an embedding of F into S Theorem The Fundamental Theorem of Ring Homomorphisms or The First Isomorphism Theorem Let φ : R S be a ring homomorphism. Then R/Ker(φ) φ(r) Definition Let F 1 and F 2 be two fields. We say that F 1 is an extension of F 2 if F 2 F 1 as a subfield, or more generally, there exists and embedding φ : F 2 F 1. For example, C is a field extension of R Proposition If F 1 is an extension of F 2, and F 2 is a extension of F 3, then F 1 is an extension of F 3 (transitive) Proposition Let F be a field. Suppose that char(f )=0. Then F is field extension of the field of rationales Q Proposition Let F be a field, and let the char(f ) = p, a finite strictly positive integer. Then p must be a prime. Moreover, the subfield generated by 1 in F is isomorphic to Z p. Hence F is an extension of Z p. 7

8 14.20 Theorem Let E be a field extension of F. Then E is a vector space over F Theorem (from linear algebra) Every vector space over a field F has a basis Corollary Let E be a finite field. Let char(e) = p, where p is prime. So, E is a field extension of Z p. Let B be a basis for E over Z p. B must then be finite. If B = n, then E Z n (as vector spaces over Z p ) Corollary No field can be of size 10, as 10 is not prime Claim For every prime p, and positive integer n, there exists a field who size is p n. Moreover, any 2 such fields having size p n are isomorphic. 8

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