Algebra Review. Instructor: Laszlo Babai Notes by Vincent Lucarelli and the instructor. June 15, 2001

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1 Algebra Review Instructor: Laszlo Babai Notes by Vincent Lucarelli and the instructor June 15, Groups Definition 1.1 A semigroup (G, ) is a set G with a binary operation such that: Axiom 1 ( a, b G)(!a b G) Axiom 2 ( a, b, c G)((ab)c = a(bc)) Definition 1.2 A group (G, ) is a semigroup such that: Axiom 3 (Identity element) ( 1 G)( a G)(1 a = a = a 1) Axiom 4 (Inverse) ( a G)( b G)(a b = b a = 1) Multiplicative Notation: ab = a b In Axiom 4, b = a 1 Additive Notation: Binary operation + Identity becomes 0 Additive inverse a The size of G as a set, which is denoted G, is called the order of G. Definition 1.3 G is an abelian group if G is a group such that ( a, b G)(ab = ba). 1

2 Definition 1.4 H G is a subgroup of G (denoted H G) if 1. 1 H 2. H is closed under the binary operation 3. H is closed under inverses Definition 1.5 Let H G. The sets of the form a H := {ah : h H} for a G are the left cosets of G. The left cosets partition G. Right cosets are defined analogously. Definition 1.6 G : H = number of left cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G. Exercise 1.7 Prove that the number of left cosets is the same as the number of right cosets, even if G is infinite. (Hint: construct a bijection between the left and the right cosets.) Exercise Prove: if G is finite then the left and the right cosests have a common system of represetatives, i. e., there exists a set T of size T = G : H such that T contains exactly one element from every left coset as well as from every right coset. Exercise 1.9 (Lagrange) If H G then G = H G : H. Therefore, if G < then H G. Exercise 1.10 Prove: the intersection of subgroups is a subgroup. Definition 1.11 Let S G. We define the subgroup of G generated by S by S = H. H G H S A group is cyclic if it is generated by an element ( S = 1). Exercise 1.12 S is the set of all products of elements of S and inverses of elements of S. Example 1.13 Let S = {a, b}. Then aba 4 bab 6 S. Example 1.14 If S = 1 and S = {g} then S = {g n : n Z}. Exercise 1.15 If G is cylic then 1. if G = then G = (Z, +) 2. if G = n then G = (Z/nZ, +) 2

3 Definition 1.16 The order of an element g G is the order of the cyclic group generated by g: g := g. Exercise 1.17 g k = 1 k g Exercise 1.18 g G = 1 Exercise 1.19 (Euler - Fermat) ( a, n Z)(g.c.d. (a, n) = 1 a ϕ(n) 1 mod n) Exercise 1.20 If G is an abelian group then l.c.m. [ a, b ] g.c.d. [ a, b ] ab l.c.m. [ a, b ]. This shows that if g.c.d. [ a, b ] = 1 then ab = l.c.m. [ a, b ]. Definition 1.21 F k is a free group of rank k on free generators {a 1,..., a k } if the products of the a i and the a 1 i give 1 only by explicit cancellation. Example 1.22 ab 3 a 4 a 2 a 2 b 5 b 2 a 1 = 1 Exercise F 3 F 2. In fact, F F 2. Definition 1.24 For a commutative ring R, the special linear group SL(n, R) is the group of those n n matrices A M n (R) with det(a) = 1. (More about rings below; we assume all rings have an identity element.) [ ] 1 2 Exercise 1.25 (Sanov) A = and A 0 1 T (A transpose) freely generate a free group F 2 SL(2, Z). (Hint: for T = (t ij ) SL(2, Z), let m(t ) = max t ij. Show that T there is at most one X {A, A T, A 1, A T } such that m(t ) m(t X).) Definition 1.26 Let G be a group and S G \ 1. The Cayley graph Γ(G, S) has G for its vertex set; elements g, h G are adjacent if gh 1 S S 1 (where S 1 = {s 1 : s S}). Exercise 1.27 Prove: Γ(G, S) is connected if and only if S generates G. Exercise 1.28 Suppose G = S. Then Γ(G, S) is bipartite if and only if G has a subgroup N of index 2 such that S N =. Exercise 1.29 Let S be a minimal set of generators of G, i. e., no proper subset of S generates G. Prove: K 3,5 Γ(G, S). 3

4 A theorem of Erdős and Hajnal states that if an (infinite) graph X does not contain K m,ℵ1 as a subgraph (for some m N) then χ(x) ℵ 0. As a consequence of the preceding exercise, if S is a minimal set of generators then χ(γ(g, S)) ℵ 0. Exercise 1.30 Prove that every group G has a set S of generators such that χ(g, S) ℵ 0. Hint. Not every group has a minimal set of generators (e. g., (Q, +) does not). But every group has a sequentially non-redundant set of generators, {s α : α I}, where I is a wellordered set and ( α I)(s α s β : β < α. Prove that if S is sequentially non-redundant then K 5,17 Γ(G, S). Exercise 1.31 If a regular graph of degree r with n vertices has girth g then n 1 + r + r(r 1) +... r(r 1) (g 3)/2 > (r 1) g/2 1. Consequently, g < log n/ log(r 1). On the other hand, Erdős and Sachs proved for every r 3 there exist r-regular graphs of girth g log n/ log(r 1). The following problem addresses the question of explicit construction of a 4-regular graph with large girth. The girth will be optimal within a constant factor. Exercise [ ] (Margulis) Let G = SL(2, p) := SL(2, Z/pZ). Let S = {A, B} where 1 2 A = and B = A 0 1 T (A transpose). Note that G < p 3 and Γ(G, S) has degree 4. Prove that the girth of Γ(G, S) is Ω(log p). (Hint. Use Sanov s Theorem and the submultiplicativity of matrix norm. 2 Rings Definition 2.1 A ring (R, +, ) is an abelian group (R, +) and semigroup (R, ) such that: (Distributivity) ( a, b, c R)(a(b + c) = ab + ac) and ((b + c)a = ba + ca) Exercise 2.2 In a ring R, ( a R)(a 0 = 0 = 0 a) Definition 2.3 (R, +, ) is a commutative if (R, ) is abelian. Definition 2.4 R is a ring with identity if (R, ) satisfies Axiom 3 (semigroup with identity) and 1 0. CONVENTION. By rings we shall always mean rings with identity. Definition 2.5 a R is a unit if a 1 R. 4

5 Exercise 2.6 The units of R form a multiplicative group denoted R. Example 2.7 Let R be a ring. M n (R) := set of n n matrices over R is a ring Exercise 2.8 Let R be a commutative ring. GL(n, R) denotes the group of units of M n (R). Prove: A M n (R) belongs to GL(R) if and only if det(a) R. Example 2.9 mod m residue classes form a ring, denoted Z/mZ. Exercise 2.10 What is the order of the group of units of Z/mZ? Definition 2.11 a R is a left zero divisor if a 0 and ( b R, b 0)(ab = 0). Right zero divisors are defined analogously. Definition 2.12 a R is a zero-divisor if a is a left OR a right zero-divisor. Exercise If a 1 then a is not a zero-divisor. 2. The coverse is false. 3. The converse is true if R is finite. 4. The converse is true if R = M n (F ) where F is a field. In this case, A R is a zero-divisor if and only if det(a) = 0. Definition 2.14 An integral domain is a commutative ring with no zero-divisors. Definition 2.15 A division ring is a ring where all nonzero elements are units, i. e., R = R \ {0}. 3 Gaussian integers and quaternions; sums of two squares and four squares Definition 3.1 The Gaussian Integers are complex numbers of the form {a + bi : a, b Z} where i = 1. They form the ring Z[i]. The norm of z Z[i] is N(z) = a 2 + b 2 = zz. Exercise 3.2 Define divisibility among Gaussian integers. Observe that z w N(z) N(w). Show that the units among the Gaussian integers are ±1, ±i. Exercise 3.3 Use Gaussian integers to show that (a 2 + b 2 )(c 2 + d 2 ) = sum of two squares. Hint. Observe that N(zw) = N(z)N(w). 5

6 Exercise Define division with remainder among Gaussian integers. Show the existence of g.c.d. s. Use this to establish unique prime factorization in Z[i]. Exercise 3.5 Show: if z is a prime in Z[i] then N(z) is either p or p 2 for some prime p Z. In the former case p = N(z) = a 2 + b 2 ; in the latter case, p = z. Exercise Let p Z be a prime. Prove: p is a prime in Z[i] if and only if p 1 (mod 4). Hint. If: if p 1 (mod 4) then p a 2 + b 2. Only if: if p 1 (mod 4) then ( a Z)(p a 2 + 1). Let w = a + bi Z[i]. Let z = g.c.d. (p, w). Exercise 3.7 Infer from the preceding exercise: if p is a prime (in Z) and p 1 (mod 4) then p can be written as a 2 + b 2. Exercise The positive integer n = p α i i only if ( i)(p i 1 (mod 4) 2 α i ). can be written as a sum of two squares if and Exercise Show that the number of ways to write n as a 2 + b 2 in Z is ɛ + (α i + 1) where ɛ = 1 if n is a square and 0 otherwise. i:p i 1 mod 4 Exercise 3.10 Let n be a product of primes 1 (mod 4) and suppose n is not a square. Prove: the number of ways to write n as a 2 + b 2 is d(n) (the number of positive divisors of n). Definition 3.11 The quaternions form a 4-dimensional division algebra H over R, i. e., a division ring which is a 4-dimensional vector space over R. The standard basis is denoted by 1, i, j, k, so a quaternion is a formal expression of the form z = a + bi + cj + dk. Multiplication is performed using distributivity and the following rules: i 2 = j 2 = k 2 = 1; ij = ji = k; jk = kj = i; ki = ik = j. It is clear that H is a ring. We need to find inverses. Exercise 3.12 For z = a + bi + cj + dk, we define the norm of z by N(z) = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2. Prove: N(z) = zz = zz, where z = a bi cj dk is the conjugate quaternion. Exercise 3.13 Let z, w H. Prove: N(zw) = N(z)N(w). 6

7 Exercise 3.14 (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2 )(k 2 + l 2 + m 2 + n 2 ) = t 2 + u 2 + v 2 + w 2 where t, u, v, w are bilinear forms of (a, b, c, d) and (k, l, m, n) with integer coefficients. Calculate the coefficients. Exercise 3.15 (Lagrange) Every integer is a sum of 4 squares. Hint. By the preceding exercise, it suffices to prove for primes. First prove that for every prime p there exist x 1,..., x 4 Z such that p x 2 i and g.c.d. (x 1,..., x 4 ) = 1. Let now m > 0 be minimal such that mp = x x2 4 ; note that m < p. If m 2, we shall reduce m and thereby obtain a contradiction (Fermat s method of infinite descent; Fermat used it to prove that if p 1 (mod 4) then p is the sum of 2 squares). If m is even, halve m by using (x 1 ± x 2 )/2 and (x 3 ± x 4 )/2 (after suitable renumbering). If m is odd, take y i = x i mt i such that y i < m/2. Observe that 0 < yi 2 < m2 and m yi 2, so yi 2 = md where 0 < d < m. Now represent m 2 dp = ( x 2 i )( yi 2) as a sum of four squares, zi 2, using the preceding exercise. Analyzing the coefficients, verify that ( i)(m z i ). Now dp = (z i /m) 2, the desired contradiction. 4 Fields Definition 4.1 A field is a commutative division ring. Example 4.2 Let F be a field. M n (F ) := set of n n matrices over F is a ring GL n (F ) := group of units of M n (F ) is called the General Linear Group Exercise 4.3 A finite ring with no zero divisors is a division ring. (Hint: use Exercise 2.13.) Theorem 4.4 (Wedderburn) A finite division ring is a field. Exercise 4.5 If F is a field and G F is a finite multiplicative subgroup then G is cyclic. Definition 4.6 Let R be a ring and for x R let n x be the g.c.d. of all n such that nx = 0 where nx := x x when n > 0 nx := x... x (n times) when n 0 nx := 0 (n times) when n = 0. 7

8 Exercise 4.7 n x x = 0 Exercise 4.8 If R has no zero divisors then ( x, y 0)(n x = n y ). Definition 4.9 The common value n x is called the characteristic of R. Exercise 4.10 If R has no zero divisors then char(r) = 0 or it is prime. In particular, every field has 0 or prime characteristic. Exercise 4.11 If R is a ring without zero-divisors, of characteristic p, then (a + b) p = a p + b p. Exercise If R has characteristic 0 then R Z 2. If R has characteristic p then R Z/pZ. Exercise 4.13 If F is a field of characteristic 0 then F Q. Definition 4.14 A subfield of a ring is a is a subset which is a field under the same operations. If K is a subfield of L then we say that L is an extension of K; the pair (K, L) is referred to as a field extension and for reasons of tradition is denoted L/K. Definition 4.15 A prime field is a field without a proper subfield. Exercise 4.16 The prime fields are Q and Z/pZ (p prime). Definition 4.17 Observe: if L/K is a field extension then L is a vector space over K. The degree of the extension is [L : M] := dim K L. A finite extension is an extension of finite degree. Exercise 4.18 The order of a finite field is a prime power. Hint. Let L be a finite field and K its prime field, so K = p; let [L : M] = k. Prove: L = p k. Exercise 4.19 The degree of the extension C/R is 2. The degree of the extension R/Q is uncountably infinite (continuum). Exercise Prove that 2, 3, 5,..., p are linearly independent over Q. Exercise 4.21 If K L M are fields then [M : L][L : K] = [M : K]. 8

9 5 Polynomials over Rings and Fields Definition 5.1 Let R be a commutative ring. (As always we assume R has an identity.) R[x] denotes the ring of polynomials in the variable x with coefficients in R. Exercise 5.2 If R is an integral domain then R[x] is an integral domain. Definition 5.3 A unique factorization domain (UFD) is an integral domain in which every element can be written uniquely as a product of irreducible elements. The factorization is unique up to the order of the factors and multiplying each factor by units. Example 5.4 Every field is a UFD. The rings Z and Z[i] are UFDs. Exercise 5.5 Prove: if R is a UFD then R[x] is a UFD. Exercise { 5.6 For an } integral domain R, define the field of quotients (or field of fractions) a : a, b R, b 0 by copying how Q arises from Z. (Hint: rational numbers are b equivalence classes of fractions). Definition 5.7 Let F be a field and F (x) be the field of quotients of F [x]. F (x) is called the function field over F. Exercise { 5.8 dim R R[x] } is countably infinite and dim R R(x) is uncountably infinite. (Hint: 1 Show x α : α R is linearly independent over R.) Definition 5.9 Let F be a field. f F [x] is irreducible if f is not constant (i. e., deg f 1) and ( g, h F [x])(f = gh deg g = 0 or deg h = 0). Definition 5.10 Let L/K be a field extension; let α L. We say that α is algebraic over K if ( f K[x])(f 0 and f(α) = 0). We define m α (x) as the g.c.d. of all such polynomials. m α (x) and we call it the minimal polynomial of α (over K). If all elements of L are algebraic over K then we call L/K an algebraic extension. Exercise 5.11 m α (α) = 0. Exercise 5.12 m α is irreducible over K. Exercise 5.13 Every finite extension is algebraic. Definition 5.14 Let R be a ring. I R is a left ideal of R if I is an additive subgroup of R and ( r R)(rI I). Right ideals are defined analogously. I is an ideal if it is both a leftand a right-ideal. 9

10 Definition 5.15 Let R be a ring and I and ideal of R. The additive quotient group R/I with elements a + I is a ring under the multiplication rule (a + I)(b + I) = ab + I. It is called the quotient ring. Exercise 5.16 Let F be a field and f K[x]. The ring K[x]/(f) if a field if and only if f is irreducible. Definition 5.17 A simple extension K(α) is the smallest field containing K and α. Exercise 5.18 If α is algebraic over K then K(α) = K[α] = {f(α) : f K[x]} K[x]/(m α ). Exercise 5.19 Let F q be a finite field of order q. Then x q x = α F q (x α) x q 1 1 = (x α) α F q Exercise Let q = p n be a prime power. Let F d (x) be the product of of all monic irreducible polynomials of degree d over F p. Prove that x q 1 = d n F d(x). (For this exercise, do not assume the existence of F q. The field F p = Z/pZ of course exists.) Exercise Let N d be the number of monic irreducible polynomials of degree d over F p. Observe from the preceding exercise that p k = d n dn d. Infer: N n = (1/n) d n µ(n/d)p d. Conclude that N n 0. Exercise 5.22 Prove that there exists a field of order p n. Hint. The preceding exercise shows that there exists an irreducible polynomial f of degree n over F p. Take the field F p [x]/(f). Exercise 5.23 Prove: the field of order p k is unique (up to isomorphism). 6 Irreducibility over Z, Gauss lemma, cyclotomic polynomials Exercise 6.1 (Gauss Lemma) A polynomial f Z[x] is primitive if the g.c.d. of its coefficients is 1. Prove: the product of primitive polynomials is primitive. (Hint. Assume fg = ph where f, g, h Z[x] and p is a prime. Look at this equation modulo p and use the fact that F p [x] is an integral domain.) 10

11 Exercise 6.2 If f Z[x] splits into factors of lower degree over Q[x] then such a split occurs over Z[x]. In fact, if f = gh where g, h Q[x] then ( r Q)(rg Z[x] and h/r Z[x]). Exercise 6.3 Let f(x) = n (x a i ) 1 where the a i are distinct integers. Then f(x) is i=1 irreducible over Q. Hint. Let f = gh where g, h Z[x]. Observe that ( i)(g(a i ) + h(a i ) = 0). ) ( n 2 Exercise 6.4 Let f(x) = (x a i )) + 1 where the a i are distinct integers. Then f(x) is i=1 irreducible over Q. Hint. Let f = gh where g, h Z[x]. Observe that ( i)(g(a i ) = h(a i ) = ±1). Observe further that g never changes sign; nor does h.) Exercise 6.5 Let f(x) = n a i x i Z[x]. If p is a prime and p a n, p a 0,..., p a n 1, p 2 a 0, i=0 then f is irreducible over Q. (Hint: Unique factorization in F p [x]). Exercise 6.6 If p is a prime then Φ p (x) := x p 1 + x p x + 1 is irreducible over Q. (Hint: Introduce the variable z = x 1.) Exercise 6.7 g.c.d. (x k 1, x l 1) = x d 1 where d = g.c.d. (k, l). Definition 6.8 The n-th cyclotomic polynomial is defined as Φ n (x) = ω (x ω) C[x] where the product extends over all complex primitive n-th roots of unity. Exercise 6.9 Φ d (x) = x n 1 d n Exercise 6.10 Let f, g Z[x] with the leading coefficient of g equal to 1. If f g f g Z[x]. Q[x] then Exercise 6.11 Φ n (x) Z[x] 11

12 Exercise 6.12 Φ n (x) = d n (x d 1) µ(n/d) Exercise 6.13 Let f, g be polynomials over the field F. Prove: if g 2 f then g f, where f is the (formal) derivative of f. Exercise 6.14 Prove: if p n then x n 1 has no multiple factors over F p. Exercise Let a b and n be positive integers. Let p be a prime. Assume p g.c.d. (Φ a (n), Φ b (n)). Prove: p g.c.d. (a, b). Exercise 6.16 Prove: if f is a polynomial over any field of characteristic p, then f(x p ) = (f(x)) p. Exercise Let ω be a complex primitive n-th root of unity. Prove: if p is a prime and p n then the minimal polynomials of ω and ω p (over Q) coincide. (Hint. Let f and g be the minimal polynomials of ω and ω p, respectively. Assume f g; then fg x n 1. Observe that f(x) g(x p ). Look at this equation over F p and conclude that x n 1 has a multiple factor over F p, a contradiction.) Exercise 6.18 A major result is now immediate: Φ n is irreducible over Q. 12

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