# Lecture Notes Math 371: Algebra (Fall 2006) by Nathanael Leedom Ackerman

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1 Lecture Notes Math 371: Algebra (Fall 2006) by Nathanael Leedom Ackerman October 17, 2006

2 TALK SLOWLY AND WRITE NEATLY!! Factorization Factorization of Integers and Polynomials Now we are going to discuss some of the nice properties of the integers with regards to factorization. One of the most important ones is that for any a, b with a 0 there are q, r such that Properties of the Integers b = aq + r 0 r < a From this fact we get several important results. Including Theorem If a, b have no factor in common other than ±1 then there are c, d such that ac+bd = 1 and

3 Theorem Let p be a prime integer and let a, b be integers. Then if p divides ab we must have p divides a or p divides b. Which will get us Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 2 Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic). Every integer a 0 can be written as a product a = cp 1 p k where c is ±1 and each p i is prime. And further, up to the ordering this product is unique. Proof. First we need to show a prime factorization exists. It suffices to consider the case when a > 1. And, we can assume that this is the case for all b < a. Now there are two cases

4 3 Case 1: a is prime. Then we are done. Case 2: a = bb. then both b, b are less than a and hence have a prime factorization. Next we need to show that prime factorizations are unique. Let ±p 1... p n = ±q 1... q m where all p i, q j are prime. We use the fact that if p divides ab then p divides a or p divides b. This means that for each p 1, p i must divide some q i. Hence, because q i is prime p 1 = q i for some i. We can then cancel p 1 from both sides and proceed by induction. Polynomial Rings over Fields Theorem Let F be a field and let F [x] denote the polynomial ring in one variable over F.

5 (a) If two polynomials f, g have no common non-constant factor then there are polynomials r, s F [x] such that rf + sg = 1 (b) If an irreducible polynomial p F [x] divides a product fg then p divides one of the factors. (c) Every nonzero polynomial f F [x] can be written as a product cp 1 p n where c is a nonzero constant and the p i are monic irreducible polynomials in F [x] and n 0. This factorization is unique except for the ordering of the terms. Proof. *********PROVE (B) (MAYBE) MAYBE GIVE (A), (C) AS HOMEWORK (ASSUMING (B)) Same as the case for integers. MAYBE PROVE THIS INSTEAD OF THE INTEGER CASE ********* 4

6 5 Similarly we have Number of Roots of a Polynomial Theorem Let F be a field and let f(x) be a polynomial of degree n with coefficients in F. Then f has at most n roots in F. Proof. An element α F is a rot of f if and only if (x α) divides f. So if we can then write f(x) = (x α)q(x) where q(x) is a polynomial of degree n 1. If β is another root of f then f(β) = (β α)q(β) = 0 and so β is a root of q(x) (as the product of non-zero elements is non-zero in a field). Hence by induction on n we see that f has at most n rots. 0.2 Unique Factorization Domains, Principle Ideal Domains, and Euclidean Domains Now that we have have seen that the integers and polynomials rings over fields behave similarly it is natural to

7 ask which other rings behave in a similar manner. So that we have the cancellation law we will assume that all of these rings are integral domains. Divisors, Irreducible Elements, Associates 6 Definition Let R be an integral domain. If a, b R we say that a divides b if ( r R)ar = b. We say that a is a proper divisor of b if b = qa for some q R and neither q nor a is a unit. We say a non-zero element a of R is irreducible if it is not a unit and if it has no proper divisor. We say that a, a R are associates if a divides a and a divides a. It is easy to show that if a, a are associates then a = ua for some unit u R.

8 We can think of these ideas in terms of the principle ideals which they generate. Connections to Ideals 7 Theorem u is a unit (u) = (1) a and a are associates (a) = (a ) a divides b (a) (b) a is a proper divisor of b (1) > (a) > (b) Proof. Immediate. We then have the following result which compares the process of factoring with ideas. Factorization and Chains of Ideals Theorem Let R be an integral domain. Then the following are equivalent (a) For every non-zero element a R which is not a

9 8 unit factors as a = b 1... b n where each b i is irreducible. (b) R does not contain an infinite increasing chain of principle ideals (a 1 ) < (a 2 ) < (a 3 ) < Proof. Suppose R contains an infinite increasing sequence (a 1 ) < (a 2 ) < (a 3 ) < Then (a n ) < (1) for all n because (a n ) < (a n+1 ) (1). Since (a n 1 ) < (a n ), a n is a proper divisor of a n 1. Say a n 1 = a n b n where a n b n are not units. This provides a non-terminating sequence of factorizations a 1 = a 2 b 2 = a 3 b 3 b 2 = a 4 b 4 b 3 b Conversely such a factorization gives us an increasing chain of ideals.

10 We call these conditions either the ascending chain condition for princip or that existence of factorizations holds in R Examples Non-UFD To see an example of when the existence of factorization fails consider the following ring F [x 1, x 2,... ]/(x 2 2 x 1, x 2 3 x 2,... ) This ring is essentially F with x 2 k adjoined for each k ω. I.e. we adjoin the equations x 2 i+1 = x i This doesn t have the ascending chain condition because we see that (x 1 ) < (x 2 ) <... is an infinite ascending chain of principle ideals Unique Factorization Domains Unique Factorization Domains

11 Definition We say that an integral domain R is a Unique Factorization Domain (UFD) if (i) Existence of factors is true for R. (ii) If a R and a = p 1... p n and a = q 1... q m where p i, q j are all irreducible, then m = n and with a suitable ordering p i and q i are associates for each i. To see how this can fail consider Z[ 5] = {a + b 5 : a, b Z}. We then have 6 = 2 3 = (1 + 5)(1 5) and it isn t hard to show that 2, 3, (1+ 5), (1 5) are all irreducible. But because ±1 are the only units it is also clear that these are not associates of each other. 10 Hence Z[ 5] is not a unique factorization domain.

12 The crucial property of primes which we use in UFD s is Prime Elements Definition Let R be an integral domain. We say that p R is prime if p 0 and for all ab R such that p divides ab, either p divides a or p divides b. Theorem Let R be an integral domain. Suppose existence of factorization holds in R. Then R is a UFD if and only if every irreducible element is prime. Proof. ********Proposition MAYBE GIVE AS HOME- WORK ******** Theorem Let R be a UFD and let a = p 1... p n and let b = q 1... q m be prime factorizations of a and b. Then a divides b if and only if m n and under a suitable ordering of the factors q i of b, p i is an associate of q i for all i n 11

13 12 Proof. Immediate Greatest Common Divisors in UFD s Corollary Let R be a UFD and let a, b R where we don t have both a = 0 and b = 0. Then there exists a greatest common divisor d of a, b with the following properties (i) d divides a and b (ii) if an element e of R divides a and b then e divides d It follows form the definition that any two greatest common divisors are associate, but a greatest common divisor does not need to be of the form aq + bp. For example Z[x] is a UFD and 2, x have a greatest common divisor of 1 but 1 is not a linear combination of 2 and x with integer coefficients.

14 Principle Ideal Domains Principle Ideal Domains Definition We say an integral domain R is a Principle Ideal Domain (PID) if every ideal is principle. Theorem (a) In an integral domain, a prime element is irreducible. (b) In a PID an irreducible element is prime. Proof. ********Proposition MAYBE GIVE AS HOMEWORK ******** PID implies UFD Theorem A Principle Ideal Domain is a Unique Factorization Domain. Proof. Suppose that R is a PID. Then every irreducible element of R is prime. So we only need to prove the existence of factorizations for R (and uniqueness is taken

15 14 care of). We have shown that this is equivalent to there being no infinite ascending chain. We will argue by contradiction so lets assume that (a 1 ) < (a 2 ) < is such a chain Lemma Let R be any ring. The union of an increasing chain of ideals I 1 I 2... is an ideal. Proof. Let I = I n n ω. If u, v I then u, v I n for some I n and so u + v I n I.

16 15 Let A = n ω(a n ). Then A is an ideal and in particular A = (b) for some b R as R is a PID. But then there must be some n such that b (a n ). But then we have (a n ) (a n+j ) A = (b) (a n ). So we have (a n ) = (a n+j ) for all j contradicting that (a 1 ) < (a 2 ) <... was an infinite ascending chain. Note however that there are unique factorization domains which are not principle ideal domains (like Z[x]). PID s and M Theorem (a) Let p be a nonzero element of a principle ideal domain R. Then R/(p) is a field if and only if p is irreducible. (b) The maximal ideals are the principle ideals gen-

17 16 erated by irreducible elements. Proof. Since an ideal M is maximal if and only if R/M is a field then the two parts are equivalent. So we will prove the second part. We will prove part (a). (a) (b) if and only if a divides b. The only divisors of an irreducible element p are the unites and the associates of p. Therefore the only principle ideals which contain (p) are (p) and (1). Since every ideal of R is principle this shows that an irreducible element generates a maximal ideal. Conversely let b = aq where neither a nor q are a unit. Then we have (b) < (a) < (1) and so (b) is not maximal.

18 Euclidean Domains The next step we want to take is to generalize the division with remainder procedure. Now in order to do this we need a sense of size in a ring. Recall that for the following rings we have the following sizes absolute value if R = Z degree of a polynomial if R = F [x] (absolute value) 2 R = Z[i] So in particular we have a the following definition Euclidian Dom Definition Let R be an integral domain. We say that R is a Euclidean Domain if there is a size function σ : R {0} {0, 1, 2,... } Such that if a, b R and a 0 then there are p, q R

19 18 with b = aq + r and either r = 0 or σ(r) < σ(a) As examples we have Z, F [x], Z[i] are Euclidean Domains. Theorem A Euclidean Domain is a principle ideal domain and hence also a unique factorization domain. Proof. ********Proposition MAYBE GIVE AS HOMEWORK OR SAY IS IMMEDIATE. ******** 0.3 Gauss s Lemma We know that Q is a field and hence we also know that Q[x] is a unique factorization domain. So in particular, given any polynomial p(x) Z(x) we know that it can be factored in Q[x]. But we can then ask the question, Can this factorization be done inside Z[x]?. The answer is

20 19 YES and that is what we will now prove. Primitive Polynomials Definition A polynomial Σ i a i x i Z[x] is called primitive if gcd(a 1,..., a n ) = 1 and n is positive. Primitive Decomposition of Polynomials Theorem Every non-zero polynomial f(x) Q[x] can be written uniquely as the product f(x) = cf 0 (x) where c is a rational number (called the content of f(x)) and f 0 (x) Z[x] and is primitive. Further the polynomial f has integer coefficients if and only if c is an integer. Proof. First what we do is factor out all the denominators to get a polynomial f 1 Z[x] such that f(x) = 1 n f 1(x)

21 for some n Z. Then factor out the greatest common divisor of the coefficients of f 1 to get a polynomial f 0 where f 1 (x) = c f 0 (x). This proves existence. 20 To show uniqueness lets assume we have cf 0 (x) = dg 0 (x) where f 0 (x), g 0 (x) are primitive. We then want to show that c = d and f 0 (x) = g 0 (x). By cross multiplication it suffices to consider the case when c, d are integers. Let {a i }, {b i } be the coefficients of f 0 (x), g 0 (x) respectively. We therefore have that ca i = db i for all i. But we also have that gcd{a i }gcd{b i } = 1. Hence gcd{ca i } = c and gcd{db i } = d and we have c = ±d and f 0 = ±g 0. But because the leading coefficient of f 0 and of g 0 are positive this means that c = d and f 0 = g 0.

22 21 Gauss s Lemma Theorem (Gauss s Lemma). A product of primitive polynomials in Z[x] is primitive Proof. Let f, g Z[x] be primitive and let h = fg. We know that the leading coefficient of h is positive as the leading coefficient of g and f are. We will show that no prime p divides all the coefficients of h(x). This will show that the gcd of the coefficients of h is 1 and hence that h is primitive. Consider the homomorphism ϕ p : Z[x] F p [x]. If we can show that ϕ p (h) 0 then we are done. But we know that ϕ p (f) 0 and ϕ p (g) 0 because f, g are primitive and hence the gcd of their coefficients is 1. But, F p is an integral domain and we have ϕ p (h) = ϕ p (f) ϕ p (g) and

23 22 so ϕ p (h) 0. Theorem (a) Let f, g be polynomials in Q[x] and let f 0, g 0 be the associated primitive polynomials in Z[x] If f divides g in Q[x] then f 0 divides g 0 in Z[x] (b) Let f be a primitive polynomial in Z[x] and let g be any polynomial with integer coefficients. Suppose that f divides g in Q[x], say g = fq with q Q[x]. Then q Z[x] and hence f divides g in Z[x] (c) Let f, g be polynomials in Z[x]. If they have a common nonconstant factor in Q[x], then they have a common nonconstant factor in Z[x] too. Proof. To prove (a) clear denominators so that f, g become primitive and then (a) is a consequence of (b).

24 In order to prove (b) we apply the previous theorem to get q = cq 0 where c Q and q 0 is primitive. We then have fq 0 is primitive and g = cfq 0 shows that fq 0 = g 0 the primitive polynomial associated to g and g = cg 0. But as g Z[x] this means that c Z and hence q Z[x]. 23 To prove c suppose that f, g have a common factor h. We may assume that h is primitive (as we are working in Q[x] and if h divides f, g then so does ch). But then by part (b) we have that h divides f, g in Z[x] Corollary If a nonconstant polynomial f is irreducible in Z[x] then it is irreducible in Q[x] Proof. Immediate Irreducibility in Z[x] Theorem Let f be an integer polynomial with positive leading coefficient. Then f is irreducible

25 24 in Z[x] if and only if either (a) f is a prime integer or (b) f is a primitive polynomial which is irreducible in Q[x] Proof. Suppose f is irreducible. We ay write f = cf 0 where f 0 is primitive. Since f is irreducible this can t be a proper factorization so either f 0 = 1 or c = 1. Theorem Every irreducible element of Z[x] is a prime element Proof. Let f be irreducible and suppose f divides gh where gh Z[x]. Case 1: f = p a prime integer. Let g = cg 0 and h = h 0 where g 0, h 0 are primitive. We have that g 0 h 0 is also primitive. So in particular there is some coefficient a which is not divisible by p. But we have p divides gh

26 so p divides cda. And in particular this means that p divides c or p divides d. Hence p divides g or p divides h. 25 Case 2: f is a primitive polynomial which is irreducible in Q[x]. We then have f is a prime element of Q[x] and so f divides g or f divides f in Q[x]. Hence f divides g or f divides h in Z[x]. Theorem The polynomial ring Z[x] is a unique factorization domain. Every nonzero polynomial f(x) Z[x] which is not ±1 can be written as the product f(x) = ±p 1... p m q 1 (x)... q n (x) where the p i are prime integers and the q i (x) are irreducible primitive polynomials. This expression is unique up to rearrangement of factors.

27 26 Proof. Immediate Now if we let R be any UFD and let F be the field of fractions of R then the results above can be copied (we just have to allow some ambiguity to deal with units). Specifically we have Generalization to Arbitrary UFD s Theorem Let R be a unique factorization domain with field of fractions F (a) Let f, g be polynomials in F [x] and let f 0, g 0 be the associated primitive polynomials in R[x]. If f divides g in F [x] then f 0 divides g 0 in R[x] (b) Let f be a primitive polynomial in R[x], and let g be any polynomial in R[x]. Suppose that f divides g in F [x], say g = fq with q F [x]. Then q R[x] and hence f divides g in R[x]. (c) Let f, g be polynomials in R[x]. If they have a

28 common nonconstant factor in F [x] then they have a common nonconstant factor in R[x] also. (d) If a nonconstant polynomial f is irreducible in R[x] then it is irreducible in F [x] also. (e) R[x] is a unique factorization domain. Proof. This follows the previous proofs concerning Q[x] and Z[x]. Corollary The polynomial ring Z[x 1,..., x n ] and F [x 1,..., x n ] where F is a field are unique factorization domains TODO Go through Lang s book on the same topics.

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