Honors Algebra 4, MATH 371 Winter 2010 Assignment 3 Due Friday, February 5 at 08:35

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1 Honors Algebra 4, MATH 371 Winter 2010 Assignment 3 Due Friday, February 5 at 08:35 1. Let R 0 be a commutative ring with 1 and let S R be the subset of nonzero elements which are not zero divisors. (a) Show that S is multiplicatively closed. (b) By definition, the total ring of fractions of R is the ring Frac(R) := S 1 R; it is a ring equipped with a canonical ring homomorphism R S 1 R. If T is any multiplicatively closed subset of R that is contained in S, show that there is a canonical injective ring homomorphism T 1 R Frac(R), and conclude that T 1 R is isomorphic to a subring of Frac(R). (c) If R is a domain, prove that Frac(R) is a field and hence that T 1 R is a domain for any T as above. (a) If a, b are nonzero and are not zero-divisors, then ab can t be zero on the one hand, and can t be a zero divisor on the other since if sab = 0 then (sa)b = 0 which forces sa = 0 as b is not a zero divisor, and this forces s = 0 as a is not a zero divisor. (b) Because T S, under the canonical map ϕ : R S 1 R, every element of T maps to a unit. Thus, this map uniquely factors as the composite of the canonical map R T 1 R with a unique ring homomorphism ψ : T 1 R S 1 R. If r/t maps to zero, then there exists s S with sr = 0. But s must be nonzero and not a zero divisor, whence we must have r = 0 and hence r/t = 0. We conclude that ψ is injective, hence an isomorphism onto its image, which is a subring of S 1 R. (c) If R is a domain, then S = R \ 0 and every nonzero element of S 1 R is invertible (If r/s 0 then in particular r 0 and hence r S so s/r S 1 R and is the inverse of r/s). Thus, S 1 R is a field. Since any subring of a field is necessarily a domain, we conclude as desired. 2. Let R be a commutative ring with 1. (a) Let S R be a multiplicatively closed subset. Prove that the prime ideals of S 1 R are in bijective correspondence with the prime ideals of R whose intersection with S is empty. (b) If p is an ideal of R, show that S := R \ p is a multiplicatively closed subset if and only if p is a prime ideal. Writing R p for the ring of fractions S 1 R, show that R p has a unique maximal ideal, and that this ideal is the image of p under the canonical ring homomorphism R R p. (In other words, the localization of R at p is a local ring).

2 (c) Let r R be arbitrary. Show that the following are equivalent: i. r = 0 ii. The image of r in R p is zero for all prime ideals p of R. iii. The image of r in R p is zero for all maximal ideals p of R. (a) Denote by ϕ : R S 1 R the canonical map. If p is a prime ideal of R not meeting S, we claim that S 1 p := {x/s : x p, s S} is a prime ideal of S 1 R. Indeed, if (r 1 /s 1 )(r 2 /s 2 ) = x/s S 1 p then there exists t S with t(sr 1 r 2 s 1 s 2 x) = 0 in R. Since x and 0 lie in p, we conclude that tsr 1 r 2 p. Since S p =, it follows that r 1 r 2 p whence r 1 p or r 2 p as p is prime. It follows that S 1 p is prime. Conversely, if p is a prime ideal of S 1 R then ϕ 1 p is a prime ideal of R by a previous homework, and it remains to show that for any prime ideal p of R, we have ϕ 1 (S 1 p). If ϕ(r) = x/s lies in S 1 p then t(rs x) = 0 for some t S. Arguing as above, we conclude that r p. (b) The first part follows immediately from the definition of prime. The second follows easily from (2a) since the prime ideals of R not meeting S := R \ p are exactly the prime ideals of R contained in p. (c) Clearly (i) = (ii) = (iii). If R is the zero ring then the equivalence is obvious, so we may assume that R is nonzero. Let x R and denote by ann(x) := {r R : rx = 0} the annihilator of x in R; it is easily seen to be an ideal of R. Suppose that the image of x in R p is zero for all maximal ideals p If ann(x) is not the unit ideal, then there exists a maximal ideal p 0 containing ann(x). However, our hypothesis on x implies that then there exists s R \ p 0 with sx = 0, i.e. ann(x) is not contained in p 0 which is a contradiction. It follows that 1 ann(x) and hence that x = Do exercises 8 11 in 7.6 of Dummit and Foote (inductive and projective limits). This is important stuff, but extremely tedious to write up in TEX. If you have any questions about it, I ll be more than happy to discuss.

3 4. A Bézout domain is an integral domain in which every finitely generated ideal is principal. (a) Show that a Bézout domain is a PID if and only if it is noetherian. (b) Let R be an integral domain. Prove that R is a Bezout domain if and only if every pair of elements a, b R has a GCD d R that can be written as an R-linear combination of a and b, i.e. such that there exist x, y R with d = ax + by. (c) Prove that a ring R is a PID if and only if it is a Bézout domain that is also a UFD. (d) Let R be the quotient ring of the polynomial ring Q[x 0, x 1,...] over Q in countably many variables by the ideal I generated by the set {x i x 2 i+1 } i 0. Show that R is a Bézout domain which is not a PID (Hint: have a look at Dummit and Foote, 9.2 # 12). Remark: The above example of a Bézout domain which is not a PID is somewhat artificial. More natural examples include the ring of algebraic integers (i.e. the set of all roots of monic irreducible polynomials in one variable over Z) and the ring of holomorphic functions on the complex plane. The proofs that these are B ezout domains is, as far as I know, difficult. For example, in the case of the algebraic integers, one needs the theory of class groups). (a) Easy unravelling of definitions. (b) If R is a Bézout domain then the finitely generated ideal (a, b) is principal, say with generator d, whence there exist x and y with ax + by = d. Clearly d is a GCD of a and b. Conversely, suppose R has a GCD algorithm of the type described, and that I is an ideal of R generated by a 1,..., a n. Let d be a gcd of a 1 and a 2. Then by definition of GCD, we have a 1 (d) and a 2 (d) whence I (d, a 3,, a n ). Since also we have d = a 1 x + a 2 y, we get the reverse inclusion and R can be generated by n 1 elements. By descent on n, we deduce that I is principal and hence that R is Bézout. (c) We have seen that PID implies UFD and Bézout. Conversely, suppose that R is a Bézout UFD and let I be a nonzero ideal of R. For each irreducible element r of R, denote by e r the minimal exponent of r occurring in the unique factorizations of nonzero elements of I and write b r for any element of I realizing this exponent of r. Clearly e r = 0 for all but finitely many r, say for r 1,..., r n. An easy induction using (4b) shows that there exists a GCD d of b r1,..., b rn which may be expressed as an R-linear combination d = x i b r1 + + x n b rn, so d I. On the other hand, the exponent of r i in d is at most e ri since d b ri whence it must be exactly r i by minimality. If a I is not divisible by d then there is some i for which the exponent of r i in the unique factorization of a is strictly less than e ri, a

4 contradiction to the minimality of the e ri. Thus I (d) and we must then have I = (d) is principal. (d) For each i, we have an injective Q-algebra homomorphism ϕ i : Q[x i ] R given by sending x i to x i. We write ψ i : Q[x i ] Q[x i+1 ] for the Q-algebra himomorphism taking x i to x 2 i+1, so that ϕ i ψ i = ϕ i+1 and note that ψ i is injective. Write R i := im(φ i ); it is a subring of R that is isomorphic to Q[x i ] and is hence a PID. Moreover, the mappings ψ i give ring inclusions R i R i+1 and it is easy to see from the very definition of R that R = i=1 R i. We conclude immediately that R is Bézout: indeed, any finitely generated ideal of R is contained in some R i (as this is the case for each of its generators, and the R i form a chain) and each R i is principal. I claim that the ideal M generated by all x i can not be finitely generated. There are probably a billion ways to see this, so I ll just pick one that comes to mind: For each i, denote by 2 1/2i the unique positive 2 i th root of 2 in Q and consider the Q-algebra homomorphism Q[x 0, x 1,...] Q sending x i to 2 1/2i. Clearly, I is in the kernel of this map so we get a homomorphism of Q-algebras Ψ : R Q. If M were finitely generated, the image of Ψ would be a finitely generated Q-subalgebra of Q and in particular would be Q-vector space of finite dimension d <. It follows that any element of the image would satisfy a polynomial with rational coefficients having degree at most d. But this image contains 2 1/2i, which can not satisfy a polynomial with Q-coefficients of degree less than 2 i. Indeed, on the one hand 2 1/2i is a root of F i := T 2i 2, which is irreducible over Q be Gauss s Lemma and Eisenstein s criterion applied with p = 2. On the other hand, if g is any nonzero polynomial of minimal degree satisfied by 2 1/2i, then by the division algorithm we have F i = gq + r for some rational polynomials q and r with deg r < deg g whence r = 0 by minimality and F i = gq. As F i is irreducible, we conclude that q is a unit and hence an element of Q so deg(g) = 2 i. 5. Let R = Z[i] := Z[X]/(X 2 + 1) be the ring of Gaussian integers. (a) Let N : R Z 0 be the field norm, that is N(a + bi) := (a + bi)(a bi) = a 2 + b 2. Prove that R is a Euclidean domain with this norm. Hint: there is a proof in the book on pg. 272, but you should try to find a different proof by thinking geometrically. (b) Show that N is multiplicative, i.e. N(xy) = N(x)N(y) and deduce that u R is a unit if and only if N(u) = 1. Conclude that R is a cyclic group of order 4, with generator ±i. (c) Let p Z be a (positive) prime number. If p 3 mod 4, show that p is prime in Z[i] and that Z[i]/(p) is a finite field of characteristic p which, as a vector space over F p, has dimension 2.

5 If p = 2 or p 1 mod 4, prove that p is not prime in Z[i], but is the norm of a prime p Z[i] with Z[i]/(p) isomorphic to the finite field F p. Conclude that p Z can be written as the sum of two integer squares if and only if p = 2 or p 1 mod 4. (a) In the complex plane, Z[i] corresponds to the integer lattice consisting of all points (a, b) with integral coordinates. The norm of an element a + bi is precisely the square of the Euclidean distance from the origin to the point (a, b) corresponding to a + bi. Suppose now that x = c + di and y = a + bi are Gaussian integers with y 0. The quotient x/y (as complex numbers) is located inside (or on the perimeter of) a unit square in the complex plane whose vertices have integral coordinates. The minimal (Euclidean) distance from x/y to a vertex of this square is at most half the diagonal of the square, or 2/2. We conclude that there exist a Gaussian integer q (a vertex of minimal distance) with N( x y q) ( 2 2 )2 or in other words, there exist Gaussian integers q and r := x yq with x = yq + r and N(r) 1 N(y) < N(y) 2 so we indeed have a division algorithm and Z[i] is Euclidean. (b) The multiplicativity of N is a straightforward (albeit tedious) calculation. By definition u Z[i] is a unit if there exists v Z[i] with uv = 1; taking norms gives N(u)N(v) = 1 so since N is nonnegative we conclude that N(u) = 1. Conversely, if u = a + bi satisfies N(u) = 1, then 1 = N(u) = (a + bi)(a bi) so u is a unit. It s easy to see that the only integer solutions to a 2 + b 2 = 1 are the 4 points (a, b) = (±1, 0), (0, ±1) corresponding to ±1, ±i. Since (±i) 2 = 1 we conclude that Z[i] is cyclic of order 4 generated by ±i. (c) Let p be a prime of Z. If p = (a + bi)(c + di) then taking norms gives p 2 = (a 2 +b 2 )(c 2 +d 2 ) so if neither a+bi nor c+di is a unit then we deduce that p = a 2 + b 2 for integers a and b. If p 3 mod 4 then reducing this equation modulo 4 implies that 3 = a 2 + b 2 has a solution in Z/4Z which it obviously doesn t (by inspection, sums of squares in Z/4Z can be 0, 1, 2 only). Thus any factorization of p 3 mod 4 in Z[i] as above has one of the two factors a unit; we conclude that p is irreducible and hence prime and hence maximal (we re in a Euclidean domain after all). The quotient Z[i]/(p) is therefore a field which is also an F p -vector space. Using the

6 isomorphism Z[i] Z[X]/(X 2 + 1) and the third isomorphism theorem for rings, we have Z[i]/(p) (Z[X]/(p))/(x 2 + 1) = F p [X]/(X 2 + 1) which as an F p -vector space has basis 1, X so is of dimension 2. If p 1 mod 4 we claim that 1 is a square modulo p. Indeed, the group of units F p is cyclic of order p 1 (proof?) so for any generator u we have u p 1 = 1 in F p. It follows that u (p 1)/2 = ±1 and we must have the negative sign since u is a generator. Since p 1 mod 4 so (p 1)/2 is even, we conclude that 1 is a square mod p. Thus, the equation x = py has a solution for integers x, y. If p were prime in Z[i] then we would have p (x i)(x + i) which would force p (x i) or p (x + i) both of which are absurd. Thus, p is not prime in Z[i] and we have a factorication p = (a + bi)(c + di) with the norm of each factor strictly bigger than 1. Taking norms, we conclude that p = N(a + bi). Moreover, p := (a + bi) must be prime in Z[i] as is easily seen by taking norms. Similarly, (a bi) is prime. It is easy to see that the two prime ideals (a + bi) and (a bi) are co-maximal as the ideals (a) and (b) of Z must be comaximal (why?) and hence by the Chinese Remainder Theorem we have Z[i]/(p) = Z[i]/(a + bi) Z[i]/(a bi). The ring Z[i]/(p) Z[X]/(p, x 2 + 1) F p [X]/(X 2 + 1) is a vector space of dimension 2 over F p and hence has cardinality p 2. It follows easily from this that Z[i]/(a + bi) and Z[i]/(a bi) each have cardinality p and so the canonical map of rings F p Z[i]/(a+bi) must be an isomorphism. To handle 2, we argue as above using that 2 = (1 + i)(1 i). We conclude that p is a sum of integer squares if and only if p is 2 or p 1 mod 4.

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