# Math Introduction to Modern Algebra

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1 Math Introduction to Modern Algebra Notes Field Theory Basics Let R be a ring. M is called a maximal ideal of R if M is a proper ideal of R and there is no proper ideal of R that properly contains M. Lemma 14.1: Let R, S be rings and I be an ideal in S. Let φ : R S be a homomorphism. Then the pre-image φ 1 (I) = {r R φ(r) I} is an ideal in R. Proof : φ 1 (I) = {r R φ(r) I} R isn t empty since 0 I and φ(0) = 0 implies 0 φ 1 (I). Let a, b φ 1 (I). Then φ(a), φ(b) I. Then φ(a b) = φ(a) + φ( b) = φ(a) φ(b) I since I is an additive subgroup of S. Thus φ 1 (I) is an additive subgroup of R by the 1-step subgroup test. Let r R. φ(ar) = φ(a)φ(r) I since φ(a) I, φ(r) S, and I is an ideal. Similarly, φ(ra) I. Thus ra, ar φ 1 (I). So φ 1 (I) is an ideal of R Proposition 14.2: Let R be a commutative ring with unity. M is a maximal ideal of R iff R/M is a field. Proof : Suppose M is a maximal ideal of R. Since M R it follows that 1 M (otherwise r = r(1) M for all r R implies M = R). So R/M is a non-trivial commutative ring with unity 1 + M. Let r + M R/M be non-zero. So r M. Suppose r + M does not have a multiplicative inverse in R/M. Then the set (R/M)(r + M) = {(a + M)(r + M) a + M R/M} contains r + M, but does not contain 1 + M. That makes (R/M)(r + M) a proper and nontrivial subset of R/M. It s very easy (ELFY) to show that (R/M)(r + M) is an ideal of R/M. Let φ : R R/M be given by φ(r) = r + M. Clearly φ is an onto homomorphism (epimorphism). Set I = φ 1 ((R/M)(r + M)) = {s R φ(s) (R/M)(r + M)}. Then by the lemma above I is an ideal in R containing M and r M, but I R since I does not contain 1. That is a contradiction since M is maximal. Hence r + M has a multiplicative inverse. Thus R/M is a field. Conversely, assume M R is an ideal and R/M is a field. Let N be an ideal of R such that M is properly contained in N. Then there exists r N such that r M. Then r + M 0 + M in R/M. Since R/M is a field, r + M has a multiplicative inverse s + M R/M such that (r + M)(s + M) = (s + M)(r + M) = sr + M = 1 + M. Then sr 1 M. Then sr 1 N. Then 1 = sr N since r N and N is an ideal. Thus x = x(1) N for all x R. Thus R = N showing that M is a maximal ideal

2 Let R be a ring. An ideal I of R is a prime ideal if for all a, b R we have that ab I implies a I or b I. Proposition 14.3: Let R be a commutative ring with unity. P is a prime ideal of R iff R/P is an integral domain. Proof : Assume P is a prime ideal of R. Let a + P, b + P R/P. Suppose (a + P )(b + P ) = 0 + P = P. Well this means that ab + P = P and hence ab P. But then a P or b P since P is a prime ideal. But that makes a + P = 0 + P = P or b + P = 0 + P = P. Thus R/P is an integral domain. Conversely, assume P is an ideal of R and R/P is an integral domain. Suppose a, b R and ab P. Then ab + P = 0 + P = P. But that implies that (a + P )(b + P ) = 0 + P = P. Therefore either a + P = 0 + P = P or b + P = 0 + P = P. So either a P or b P, which shows that P is a prime ideal Putting together the last two propositions we get the following elegant result: Corollary 14.4: Let R be a commutative ring with unity. All maximal ideals of R are prime ideals of R. Proof : Assume M is a maximal ideal of R. Then R/M is a field. A field is an integral domain, so R/M is an integral domain. Thus M is a a prime ideal Proposition 14.5: Let F be a field. An ideal (f) (0) in F [x] is maximal if and only if f is irreducible over F. Proof : Assume (f) (0) is a maximal ideal in F [X]. Then (f) F [X] and thus deg(f) 1. Suppose f = gh is a factorization of f(x) where g, h F [X]. Since (f) is also a prime ideal we get that either g (f) or h (f). But then it is not possible that both g, h are of degree less than deg(f). Hence f is irreducible over F. Conversely, assume f F [X] is irreducible over F. In particular, (f) F [X] is an ideal of F [X]. Suppose M is an ideal of F [X] and (f) M F [X]. Since F [X] is a PID we have that M = (g) where g F [X]. Since f (g) we get f = gh for some h F [X]. But f is irreducible over F, so we get that either g or h is of degree 0. If g is of degree 0 then M = (g) = F [X] (see proof of proposition 13.4). If h is of degree 0 then h F is invertible and hence g = h 1 f (f) implies M = (f). Thus (f) is a maximal ideal of F [X]

3 Extension Fields Let E, F be fields. We call E an extension field of F if E F (that is, F is a subfield of E). In particular, this makes E (using the field operations in E) a vector space over the field F by the standard vector space axioms. Proposition 15.1 (Kronecker s Theorem): Let F be a field and f(x) be a non-constant polynomial in F [X]. Then there exists an extension field E of F and α E such that f(α) = 0. Proof : Since we can factor f(x) into a product of irreducible polynomials in F [X] it suffices to show that for an arbitrary irreducible p(x) F [X] we can find an extension field E of F and α E such that p(α) = 0. So let p(x) = a 0 + a 1 x + + a n x n F [X] be irreducible. Then (p(x)) is a maximal ideal of F [X], which makes F [X]/(p(x)) a field. Consider the canonical map ψ : F F [X]/(p(x)) given by ψ(a) = a + (p(x)). Clearly ψ is a field homomorphism. Let s show that ψ is 1 1. Let a, b F and suppose ψ(a) = ψ(b). Then a+(p(x)) = b+(p(x)). This implies that a b (p(x)). So a b = p(x)q(x) for some q(x) F [X]. But the degree of a b is less than 1 and the degree of p(x) is at least 1. The only way to reconcile this is for q(x) = 0. Thus a = b showing that ψ is 1 1. Then F = ψ(f ). So we can identify F with the subfield ψ(f ) = {a + (p(x)) a F } of F [X]/(p(x)). So we shall view E = F [X]/(p(x)) as extension field of F = ψ(f ) (as it is an extension field of ψ(f )). With this in mind when we write a F, we can view it as the same as writing a+(p(x)) E. In particular, this means we can view p(x) as an element of E[X]. Let s find a zero for p(x) in the extension field E. Let α = x + (p(x)) E. Consider that in E we have p(α) = a 0 + a 1 (α) + + a n (α) n = a 0 + a 1 (x + (p(x))) + + a n (x + (p(x))) n = = a 0 + a 1 x + + a n x n + (p(x)) = p(x) + (p(x)) = (p(x)) = 0. So we have found an extension field E = F [X]/(p(x)) of F = ψ(f ) and α E such that p(α) = 0 Let s see this theorem in action! Consider the polynomial f(x) = x in R[X]. We know that f(x) is irreducible over R. So (x 2 +1) is a maximal ideal in R[X] and thus R[X]/(x 2 +1) is an extension field of R (where we identity R with {a + (x 2 + 1) a R} R[X]/(x 2 + 1)). Let α = x + (x 2 + 1) R[X]/(x 2 + 1). Then α = [x + (x 2 + 1)] 2 + [1 + (x 2 + 1)] = x (x 2 + 1) = (x 2 + 1) = 0 in R[X]/(x 2 + 1).

4 Let E be an extension field of F. An element α E is algebraic over F if there exists a nonconstant polynomial f F [x] such that f(α) = 0. Otherwise, α is transcendental over F. If α E is algebraic over F then the degree of α over F is the degree of a polynomial f F [X] of minimal degree such that f(α) = 0. ELFY: Let E be an extension field of F. Show that if α E is algebraic of degree n over F and f F [X] is of degree n with f(α) = 0 then f is irreducible. Consider that R is an extension field of Q. Then we have that 2 is algebraic over Q since for f(x) = x 2 2 Q[X] we have f( 2) = 0. Furthermore, the degree of 2 over Q is 2 since 2 isn t the root of a degree one polynomial in Q[X]. It is well-known (although very difficult to prove, and we won t) that the real numbers π and e are transcendental over Q. ELFY: Show that is algebraic over Q. Let E be an extension field of a field F. Let α 1, α 2,..., α k E. We denote by F (α 1, α 2,..., α k ) the subfield of E which is the smallest field extension of F that contains α 1, α 2,..., α k. A field extension E of F is called a simple extension if E = F (α) for some α E. Example: R(i) = C since once we have an extension of R that contains i, it must contain a + bi for any a, b R. So C is a simple extension of R. Proposition 15.2 : Let E be an extension field of F. Let α E be algebraic of degree n over F. Then F (α) = {a 0 + a 1 α + + a n 1 α n 1 a 0, a 1,..., a n 1 F }. Moreover, every element in F (α) is uniquely expressed in the form a 0 + a 1 α + + a n 1 α n 1 where a 0, a 1,..., a n 1 F. Proof : Let p(x) F [X] be an irreducible polynomial satisfying deg(p) = n and p(α) = 0. WLOG assume that p(x) = x n b n 1 x n 1 + b 1 x b 0 where b 0, b 1,..., b n 1 F. Then we have that α n = b n 1 α n b 1 α + b 0. Obviously K = {c 0 + c 1 α + + c m α m m {0, 1,...} and c 0, c 1,..., c m F } F (α). By using that α n = b n 1 α n b 1 α + b 0 (as many times as needed) we have that {c 0 +c 1 α+ +c m α m m {0, 1,...} and c 0, c 1,..., c m F } = {a 0 +a 1 α+ +a n 1 α n 1 a 0, a 1,..., a n 1 F }. This means that to show that F (α) = {a 0 + a 1 α + + a n 1 α n 1 a 0, a 1,..., a n 1 F } it just suffices to show that K = {c 0 + c 1 α + + c m α m m {0, 1,...} and c 0, c 1,..., c m F } is a field.

5 Let φ α : F [X] K be given by φ α (f(x)) = f(α). This is obviously an onto ring homomorphism (called an evaluation homomorphism). We have that Ker(φ α ) = (p(x)). Well, by the first isomorphism theorem F [X]/(p(x)) = K is a field as (p(x)) is a maximal ideal. Now we prove uniqueness. Suppose a 0 + a 1 α + + a n 1 α n 1 = b 0 + b 1 α + + b n 1 α n 1 where a 0, a 1,..., a n 1, b 0, b 1,..., b n 1 F. Then (a 0 b 0 ) + (a 1 b 1 )α + + (a n 1 b n 1 )α n 1 = 0. Hence f(x) = (a 0 b 0 ) + (a 1 b 1 )x + + (a n 1 b n 1 )x n 1 Ker(φ α ) = (p(x)). So f(x) = p(x)q(x) for some q(x) F [X]. Since the degree of f(x) is less than the degree of p(x) it follows that q(x) = 0 and thus f(x) = 0. Hence a i = b i for all i {0, 1,..., n 1} This proposition tells us something interesting: For a field extension E of F and an element α E that is algebraic of degree n over F we get that the simple extension field F (α) is a vector space of dimension n over the field F with basis {1, α, α 2,..., α n 1 }. We say that the degree of the simple extension F (α) over F is that dimension n. In this new language, we can say that C is a degree-2 simple extension of R. Example making use of vector space concepts: Consider F = Q( 2, 3) (smallest subfield of R containing 2 and 3) as an extension field of Q. Let s show that 1, 2, 3, 6 F are linearly independent over Q: First we note (ELFY) 2, 3, 6 Q and the product of a non-zero rational and an irrational is irrational. It s clear that 2, 3, 6 F. Suppose a, b, c, d Q and a + b 2 + c 3 + d 6 = 0. Then a d 6 = b 2+c 3. Squaring both sides gives a 2 +2ad 6+6d 2 = 2b 2 +2bc 6+3c 2. Then (2ad 2bc) 6 Q implies ad = bc since 6 Q and the product of a non-zero rational and an irrational is irrational. Notice that a or d is zero iff b or c is zero. This gives three cases worth examining: Case 1: a = 0. In this case b = 0 or c = 0. Suppose b = 0. Then c 3+d 6 = 0 This implies that c 3 = d 6. Dividing both sides by 3 gives 3c = d 2 which implies d = 0 since 2 Q and the product of a non-zero rational and an irrational is irrational. Thus c = 0, showing that the vectors are linearly independent. A similar argument holds when c = 0. Case 2: d = 0. In this case b = 0 or c = 0. Suppose b = 0. Then a + c 3 = 0 implies as above that c = 0 and then a = 0, showing that the vectors are linearly independent. A similar argument holds when c = 0. Case 3: a 0 and d 0. Then b 0 and c 0. Then 0 = 2b 2 + 3c 2 6d 2 a 2 = 2b 2 d 2 + 3c 2 d 2 6d 4 b 2 c 2 = (b 2 3d 2 )(2d 2 c 2 ).

6 We get a contradiction since c 2 2d 2 0 and b 2 3d 2 0, as otherwise c = ± 2d or b = ± 3d is not rational as the product of a non-zero rational and irrational is irrational. This contradiction completes the argument as now it follows that a = b = c = d = 0 making 1, 2, 3, 6 linearly independent over Q. In general, whenever E is a field extension of F, and E has finite dimension n as a vector space over F, then the degree of E over F is n and we use the notation [E : F ] = n. ELFY: Let E, F, K be fields. Show that if K is a field extension of finite degree over E and E is a field extension of finite degree over F then [K : F ] = [K : E][E : F ]. Hint: Play with bases. A field F is algebraically closed if every non-constant polynomial f(x) F [X] has a zero in F. Clearly the fields Q and R are not algebraically closed, as we have seen. We just state the following theorem since it is fundamental to this subject, however we don t give a proof. It has a very simple proof using complex analysis (not given here) and some very difficult proofs using just algebra (also not given here). Proposition 15.3 (The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra : Every non-constant polynomial f(x) C[X] has a zero in C. In other words, C is algebraically closed. Here is another important theorem we just state without proof to save the time: Proposition 15.4 : Every field F has an algebraic closure F, which is an extension field of F that is algebraically closed.

7 Finite Fields The primary goal of this section will be to show that there exists a finite field of order p n where p N is a prime and n N. We already know that there is (up to isomorphism) exactly one field with p N elements where p is a prime, namely Z p. We will now denote these fields by F p instead of Z p. Proposition 16.1: Let F be a finite field with q elements. Let E be a field extension of F of degree n. Then E has q n elements. Proof : Let {α 1, α 2,..., α n } be a basis for E as a vector space over F. Then every element β E can be written uniquely in the form β = b 1 α 1 + b 2 α b n α n. Thus this turns into a simple counting problem: How many such expressions above are there? Well, there are q choices for the field element from F chosen as the scalar on α i for i = 1, 2,.., n so by the multiplication principle there are q n elements in E Corollary 16.2: Let E be a finite field of characteristic p N where p is a prime. Then E contains p n elements where n N. Proof : Clearly E contains < 1 >= {1, 1 + 1, ,...} = F p as a subfield. Since E is a finite field, it must be of degree n over F for some n N. Then by the previous proposition, E has p n elements Lemma 16.3: Let F is a finite field with q elements. Then a q = a for all a F. Proof : Clearly 0 q = 0. Since the non-zero elements of F form a multiplicative group of order q 1 we have that a q 1 = 1 for all non-zero a F, since the order of any group element divides the order of the group. Thus a q = a for all a F This gives us a beautiful result: Lemma 16.4: Let F is a finite field with q elements. Then x q x F [X] factors into x q x = a F(x a). Proof : Since f(x) = x q x is of degree q it has at most q roots in F. By the previous lemma, every element in F is a root of f(x), giving q distinct roots in F. By the Root- Factor Correspondence we get that f(x) = a F(x a)

8 Let F be a field. Define the derivative operator D : F [X] F [X] by the rule D(a n x n + a n 1 x n a 1 x + a 0 ) = na n x n 1 + (n 1)a n 1 x n a 2 x + a 1. Let s justify the product rule: Let f(x) = a n x n + a n 1 x n a 1 x + a 0 and g(x) = b m x m + b m 1 x m b 1 x + b 0 be in F [X]. Then f(x)g(x) = n m a j b k x j+k and thus D(f(x)g(x)) = j=0 k=0 n m (j + k)a j b k x j+k 1 j=0 k=0 n n D(f(x)) = ja j x j 1 and D(g(x)) = kb k x k 1 so j=0 D(f(x))g(x) + f(x)d(g(x)) = n k=0 m ja j b k x j+k 1 + j=0 k=0 j=0 k=0 n m ka j b k x j+k 1 = D(f(x)g(x)). Lemma 16.4: Let F be a field and f(x) F [X]. Then for any r F, if f(x) = g(x)(x r) 2 for some g(x) F [X] then D(f(x))(r) = 0. Proof : Suppose r F and f(x) = g(x)(x r) 2 for some g(x) F [X]. Then we have that f(x) = g(x)(x 2 2rx + r 2 ). By the product rule, D(f(x)) = D(g(x))(x r) 2 + 2g(x)(x r). Hence D(f(x))(r) = 0 Proposition 16.5: Let p N be a prime and n N. There exists a field F p n elements. with p n Proof : Let F be the algebraic closure of F p. Obviously the characteristic of F is still p. Consider that for q = p n the polynomial f(x) = x q x completely factors into linear factors in F [X]. We see that D(f(x)) = qx q 1 1 = 1 in F [X], so f(x) = x q x does not have any repeated roots in F by the previous lemma. So S = {a F a q a = 0} has q distinct elements. Let s show that S is a field: Clearly 0, 1 S. For a, b S we have that (a b) q = a q b q = a b S by using the binomial theorem since q = p n and the characteristic of F is p. So (S, +) is an abelian group (as it is a subgroup of the abelian group ( F, +)). For non-zero a, b S we have that (ab 1 ) q = a q b q = ab 1 S. So (S, ) forms a multiplicative group (as it is a subgroup of ( F, )). So S is a field with q = p n elements

9 It turns out that (up to isomorphism) S is the unique field with p n elements, but we will not devote the time required to prove this. Standard notation: F q is the field (up to isomorphism) with q = p n elements (where p N is prime and n N). Let s play with F 9. First, let s construct this field as a quotient of F 3 [X]. Consider the polynomial f(x) = x 2 + 2x + 2 F 3 [X]. f(0) = 2, f(1) = 2, and f(2) = 1. Hence f(x) is irreducible in F 3 [X]. Thus I = (f(x)) is a maximal ideal and F 3 [X]/I is a field with 9 elements: F 9 = {0 + I, 1 + I, 2 + I, x + I, x I, x I, 2x + I, 2x I, 2x I}. ELFY: Make addition and multiplication tables for F 9. Let s take advantage of x 2 + I = x I: Consider that F 9 = {1 + I, 2 + I, x + I, x I, x I, 2x + I, 2x I, 2x I} and (x + I) 2 = x 2 + I = x I, (x + I) 3 = x 2 + x + I = 2x I, (x + I) 4 = 2x 2 + x + I = 2 + I, (x + I) 5 = 2x + I, (x + I) 6 = 2x 2 + I = 2x I, (x + I) 7 = 2x 2 + 2x + I = x I, and (x + I) 8 = x 2 + 2x + I = 1 + I. So the non-zero elements of this field is generated as a multiplicative group by x + I. Note: A similar construction occurs with g(x) = x 2 + x + 2. Why?

10 Proposition 16.6: Let q = p n where p N be a prime and n N. The multiplicative group F q is cyclic. Proof : We may assume q 4 as otherwise q 1 3 (all groups of orders 1, 2, or 3 are cyclic). Set h = q 1 and let h = p n 1 1 p n 2 2 p n k k be a prime factor decomposition of h. Let i {1, 2,..., k}. The polynomial x h/p i 1 has at most h/p i roots in F q. Since h/p i < h it follows that there are non-zero elements of F q which are not roots of x h/p i 1. Let a i F q be such a non-root. Set b i = a h/(pn i i ) i. Then b pn i i i = a h i = 1, but b pni 1 i i = a h/pi 1. So on one hand the order of b i divides p n i i. On the other hand the order of b i is greater than. That means b i must be of order p n i p n i 1 i i. Let b = b 1 b 2 b k. We claim that the order of b is h and thus generates F q which is hence a cyclic group. Let s prove the claim. To yield a contradiction, suppose the order of b is actually less than h, making it a proper divisor of h. Then the order of b would have to be a divisor of at least one h/p i where i {1, 2,.., k}. WLOG assume the order of b divides h/p 1. Then 1 = b h/p 1 = b h/p 1 1 b h/p 1 2 b h/p 1 k. For i = 2, 3,..., k we have that p n i i divides h/p 1 and thus b h/p 1 i = 1. Therefore, 1 = b h/p 1 1. So the order of b 1 divides h/p 1, but that contradicts the fact that the order of b i is p n 1 1. So b generates F q showing that it is a cyclic group Generators of F q are called primitive elements of F q.

11 One last bit of fun with finite fields: Let p N be prime and m, n N. Consider GL m (F q ), the general linear group of m m matrices over F q, where q = p n. How many elements are there in this finite group? It s a pretty neat counting problem: The first column can be any non-zero vector in the vector space F m q. Well, clearly there are q m 1 such vectors. The second column can be any vector not contained in the span of the first column. There are q vectors in the span of the first column, so that gives q m q such vectors. The third column can be any vector not contained in the span of the first two columns. There are q 2 vectors in the span of the first two columns, so that gives q m q 2 such vectors. Continue in this way until we arrive at q m q m 1 possible vectors for the last column (requiring they aren t in the span on the previous m 1 columns). Hence by the multiplication principle, we get GL m (F q ) = m 1 i=0 q m q i. ELFY: How many elements are there in the group GL 2 (F 2 )? Would it be easy to write them all down? How about GL 3 (F 2 ) or GL 2 (F 4 )?

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