# Reid 5.2. Describe the irreducible components of V (J) for J = (y 2 x 4, x 2 2x 3 x 2 y + 2xy + y 2 y) in k[x, y, z]. Here k is algebraically closed.

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1 Reid 5.2. Describe the irreducible components of V (J) for J = (y 2 x 4, x 2 2x 3 x 2 y + 2xy + y 2 y) in k[x, y, z]. Here k is algebraically closed. Answer: Note that the first generator factors as (y x 2 )(y+x 2 ), while the second factors as (y x 2 )( 1 2x + y). Thus J = (y x 2 )(y + x 2, 1 2x + y), so V (J) = V (y x 2 ) V (y + x 2, 1 2x + y). I claim that each of V (y x 2 ), V (y + x 2, 1 2x + y) is irreducible. We check the first by verifying that (y x 2 ) k[x, y, z] is prime. Indeed, k[x, y, z]/(y x 2 ) k[x, z] via x x, y x 2, and z z, with inverse given by x x, z z. For the second, note that, by high school algebra, and V (y + x 2, 1 2x + y) = V (x + 1, y 1), k[x, y, z]/(x + 1, y 1) k[z] via x 1, y 1, z z, with inverse z z. Thus each of V (y x 2 ), V (y + x 2, 1 2x + y) = V (x+1, y 1) is irreducible; to check they are the components, we just need to see that neither contains the other. Again this is high school algebra: we find that if the characteristic of k is not two, there are no containments, whereas if the characteristic is two, the second zero set is redundant, and we have just one component, the first. Remark: The isomorphisms used to check that the above ideals are prime could also been seen geometrically in terms of the zero sets, the first as projecting the parabola-sheet to a plane, the second as recognizing that V (x + 1, y 1) is just a line. See the algebra-geometry correspondence sketched in the next exercise Let k be a field and A 0 a finitely generated k-algebra. Then there exist elements y 1,..., y r A which are algebraically independent over k and such that A is integral over k[y 1,..., y r ]. Moreover, if k is infinite and x 1,..., x n is any set of generators for A, we can choose the y i as linear combinations of the x j. This has the geometric consequence that if k is algebraically closed and V is a closed subvariety of k n, then there is a linear map k n k r which, when restricted to V, is [finite-to-one and] surjective. Proof: The first part was done in lecture, so assume k infinite and let s prove the refined statement. Let s go by induction on n. The case n = 0 being trivial, assume n 1. There are two cases: First suppose that x n is algebraic over k[x 1,..., x n 1 ]. Then we have a nonzero polynomial in n + 1 variables f with f(x 1,..., x n ) = 0. Let F denote its highest degree homogeneous part of f; so F 0. Then its dehomogenization with respect to the last variable is nonzero, hence nonzero as a function since k is infinite; thus there are λ 1,..., λ n 1 k such that F (λ 1,..., λ n 1, 1) 0. Let x i = x i λ i x n. Apply the inductive hypothesis to the x i and get y 1,..., y r ; these are linear combinations of the x i, hence of the x i. I claim that A is integral over k[y 1,..., y r ], which would mean we re done. By transitivity of integrality, it suffices to see that A is integral 1

2 2 over k[x 1,... x n 1]; since A = k[x 1,..., x n 1][x n ], though, it suffices to see that x n is integral over k[x 1,..., x n 1]. And indeed, we have f(x 1 + λ 1 x n, x 2 + λ 2 x n,..., x n 1 + λ n 1 x n, x n ) = 0, which, when expanded out as a polynomial in x n, has leading coefficient F (λ 1,..., λ n 1, 1) 0; dividing through by this we have a monic polynomial which does the job. Now suppose that x n is transcendental over k[x 1,..., x n 1 ]. Apply the inductive hypothesis to x 1,..., x n 1, and add x n to the y j that you get; this works for x 1,..., x n. Now for the geometric interpretation. φ Lemma: Let A B be a map of rings, and f : Spec(B) Spec(A) the map given by pulling back prime ideals along φ. Then for p Spec(A), we have a canonical bijection Spec(B p /pb p ) f 1 ({p}) Spec(B), induced by pulling back prime ideals along the natural map B B p B p /pb p. Proof: Here by B p I mean the localization of B at the multiplicative set φ(a\p), and by pb p I mean φ(p)b p ; this is indeed an ideal, as you should check. Actually, I ll leave this whole thing for you to check; you know what the induced map on Spec is for localizations, and you know what the induced map on Spec is for modding out by an ideal; it suffices to put these two together. Corollary: Let A φ B be a map of rings which is finite, i.e. for which B is a finite A-module, and f its induced map on Spec. Then im(f) = V (ker(φ)) Spec(A). In particular, if φ is injective, f is surjective. Proof: Recall that Spec of a ring is empty if and only if the ring is zero. Thus the lemma gives im(f) = {p B p pb p }. However, B p is a finite A p -module, so Nakayama shows that in fact im(f) = {p B p 0}. But B p = 0 if and only if 1/1 = 0 in B p, which means by definition that there is some s A \ p such that φ(s) = 0, which is equivalent to saying that p ker(φ), as desired. Remark 1: The result holds more generally if φ is just assumed integral; the proof then just has one tricky step. Recall that finite is the same as integral plus finitely generated, so for k-algebra maps between coordinate rings of varieties they re the same thing. Remark 2: For a general φ : A B, the closure of the image of f is always V (ker(φ)) (nice exercise), so the corollary is equivalent to just saying that the image of f is closed.

3 3 Remark 3: We can also show that, under the hypotheses of the corollary, the fibers of f are all finite. This is because B p /pb p, being a finite dimensional vector space over the field A p /pa p, is Artinian, and thus has only finitely many prime ideals. Remark 4: Also in this situation, if f(p) = p, then P is maximal if and only if p is. Indeed, φ induces an integral injection A/p B/P, from which the claim follows by a result from class. We ll probably see a more refined version of this when we get to dimension theory. OK, back to the show. Let V be a closed subvariety of k n ; let A = k[x 1,..., x n ]/I(V ). Use the first part of the problem to get linear forms L 1,..., L r such that with y i = L i (x 1,..., x n ) the y i are algebraically independent and A is integral (finite) over k[y 1,..., y r ]. Define L : k n k r by L = (L 1,..., L r ). The claim is that L restricted to V is surjective, so let p k r. Let ev p : k[y 1,..., y r ] k denote the evaluation at p homomorphism, and m its kernel. By the corollary and the fourth remark, we can extend m to a maximal ideal n of A, which by the Nullstellensatz is the kernel of ev q : k[x 1,..., x n ] k for some q V. I claim L(q) = p. Indeed, it suffices to trace through the y i in k[y 1,..., y r ] A evq k, whose composition is ev p (it has the same kernel as ev p, and then there s not much choice, both being k-algebra homomorphisms). That was ad hoc, but you can conceptualize this kind of argument in terms of an anti-equivalence of categories between affine varieties over an algebraically closed k and finitely generated reduced k-algebras Let k be a field, and let B be a finitely generated k-algebra. Suppose that B is a field. Then B is a finite algebraic extension of k. Proof: First, a lemma: Lemma: Let A B C be rings, with A noetherian, C finitely generated over A, and C finite over B. Then B is finitely generated over A. Proof: Suppose C = Bc Bc m, and C = A[x 1,..., x m ]. Write out the multiplication law for C over B: c i c j = k b ijkc k, and write x j = i b ij c i. Consider B = A[b ijk, b ij ] B. Then C is finite over B, generated by 1, c 1,..., c m : indeed, the set B + B c B c m is a ring since we threw in the b ijk, and then it contains C since we threw in the b ij. However, B is finitely generated over A, so by Hilbert s Basis Theorem it is noetherian; hence C, being finite, is noetherian as a B -module, so in particular B C is finite over B, hence finitely generated over A. Now we do the proof by induction on the number of generators. If this is zero, the statement is trivial. Otherwise let b 1,..., b n generate B over k. By the inductive hypothesis, we have that B is finite over k(b 1 ). Then the lemma implies that k(b 1 ) is finitely generated over k. This implies that b 1 is algebraic, though:

4 4 otherwise the function field in one variable k(x) is finitely generated over k, say by f i (x)/g i (x). But by Euclid s argument there is an irreducible polynomial p(x) in k[x] not dividing any g i (x), and 1/p(x) can t lie in the algebra generated by the f i /g i. So b 1 is algebraic, and k(b 1 )/k is finite, so by transitivity so is B/k. 6.1(i) Let M be a Noetherian A-module and u : M M a surjective module homomorphism. Then u is an isomorphism. Proof: Forget Noetherian; this is true if M is just finite. (Recall: noetherian implies finite trivially, but the converse is true only for A noetherian). Indeed, we can argue as in Cayley-Hamilton. Let m 1,..., m n generate M, and write m i = u( j a ij m j ) = j a ij u(m j ). Consider the commutative ring A[u] End A (M), and the n n matrix P over A[u] whose ij th entry is a ij u 1. Just as in the proof of C-H, we deduce that det(p ) = 0, which, when expanded out, shows that we have an equation of the form a n u n a 1 u ± 1 = 0 (as elements of End A (M)), which plainly proves that ker(u) = 0 (or plainly furnishes an inverse of u, as a polynomial in u even). 6.1 (ii) If M is Artinian and u is injective, then again u is an isomorphism. Proof: Consider the chain im(u) im(u 2 )...; by artinianity, we have im(u n ) = im(u n+1 ) for some n. Now let m M. By the previous equality we have u n (m) = u n+1 (m ) for some m, which by injectivity gives m = u(m ), as desired Let X be a noetherian topological space. Then every subspace of X is noetherian, and X is quasi-compact. Proof: Let A X. Take a chain U 1 U 2... of open subsets of A, so that we get V i open in X with U i = V i A. Consider the chain V 1 V 2... where V n = n i=1 V i. This stabilizes since X is noetherian, so we have V n = V n+k for some n and all k 0. Intersecting with A gives n i=1 U i = n+k i=1 U i, which says that U n = U n+k for all k 0 since we had a chain. So every subset is noetherian. For the second claim, let {U i } be an open cover of X. Consider the set of open subsets which are finite unions of U i, and take a maximal element by noetherianity. If this maximal element weren t the whole of X, it d miss some point, which would be in some U i ; we could add this to our union to get a contradiction Prove that the following are equivalent:

5 5 X is noetherian. Every open subspace of X is quasi-compact. Every subspace of X is quasi-compact. Proof: The first implies the third by the previous exercise, and the third trivially implies the second. So it suffices to show the second implies the first. Let U 1 U 2... be a chain of open subsets, and let U be the union. Then the cover {U i } has a finite subcover, which shows that the chain stabilizes. Problem 6.7. Prove that a noetherian space is a finite union of irreducible closed subspaces, and hence that the set of irreducible components of a noetherian space is finite. Proof: Assume the contrary, and take, by noetherianness, a minimal element A in the set of closed subspaces which are not a finite union of irreducible closed subspaces (it is unambiguous as to whether we re saying closed in X or in A). If A is irreducible, we re cool. Otherwise we have two proper closed subspaces A and A with A A = A; by minimality each of A and A is a finite union of irreducible closed subspaces; thus so is A. This is a contradiction. First we have to say what is meant by the set of irreducible components ; let s say an irreducible component is a maximal irreducible closed subspace. I claim that if X is written as a union i X i of irreducible closed subspaces, then each irreducible component is among the X i. Indeed, a direct translation of the definition of irreducible shows that if Y and Z are closed with A Y Z, we have A Y or A Z. Applying this to our situation, we see that A X i for some i, which by maximality means A = X i. The same argument, by the way, shows that if no X i contains another (which can always be arranged by throwing some out), then the X i are exactly the irreducible components. 6.8(a) Prove that if A is a noetherian ring, X = Spec(A) is a noetherian space. Proof: Indeed, by stuff we know, there s an inclusion-reversing correspondence between closed subsets of X and radical ideals of A. The ACC for radical ideals is weaker than for all ideals. 6.8(b) Give a non-noetherian A for which Spec(A) is noetherian. Example: Geometrically, we want a point with arbitrarily bad nilpotents. Let s take A = k[x 1, x 2, x 3...]/m 2, where m = (x 1, x 2,...). I claim Spec(A) has just one point, m. Indeed, this is maximal: k[x 1, x 2,...]/m k via x i 0 for all i. But also, m clearly lies inside the nilradical of A, which lies inside all primes. The only way this can work is if it s the only prime.

6 6 However, we have (x 1 ) (x 1, x 2 ) (x 1, x 2, x 3 )..., which doesn t stabilize (it s pretty easy to understand operations in A: just forget all terms of degree > 1) Deduce from Exercise 8 that the set of minimal primes in a noetherian ring is finite. Proof: By 6.7 and 6.8, the set of irreducible components of X is finite. But maximal irreducible closed subspaces of X correspond to minimal prime ideals of A: Indeed, recall that the operations I V (I) and S p S p give inclusionreversing bijections between the set of radical ideals of A and the set of closed subsets of X. So all we need to check is that primality corresponds to irreducibility. But recall that the closed subset V (I) is homeomorphic to Spec(A/I), and that by an exercise on the first problem set this is irreducible if and only if the nilradical of A/I is prime, i.e. if and only r(i) = I is prime.

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