# Math 581 Problem Set 3 Solutions

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1 Math 581 Problem Set 3 Solutions 1. Prove that complex conjugation is a isomorphism from C to C. Proof: First we prove that it is a homomorphism. Define : C C by (z) = z. Note that (1) = 1. The other properties of a homomorphism follow from properties of complex conjugation proved last term, namely, we have and (z + w) = z + w = z + w (zw) = zw = (z) + (w) = z w = (z)(w). Thus, is a homomorphism. To see is surjective, let z C. Then (z) = z = z. The fact that is injective follows from the fact that z = 0 if and only if z = 0. Thus, is an isomorphism. 2. Let a, b R and suppose a = b. What can we conclude about a and b? Note that since the ideals are equal, we have a b and b a, i.e., b a and a b. This is equivalent to the statement that there exists k, l R so that a = bk and b = al. Substituting, we have a = alk. Similarly, we have b = bkl. Thus we have a(1 R lk) = 0 R and b(1 R kl) = 0 R. Thus, either a and re zero divisors, or kl = 1 R. If kl = 1 R, then k and l are units and we can say a and b differ by a unit. 3. Find all ideals in the ring Z/12Z. Note that in problem 6 we will show that Z/12Z is a PID, so we only need to decide which of the principal ideals are equal. Recall that if a Z is relatively prime to 12 then a is a unit in Z/12Z. (You should be able to prove this fact!) We also have seen that if an ideal contains a unit, the ideal must be the entire ring. Therefore, the ideals 1, 5, 7, and 11 are all

2 2 equal to Z/12Z. We also have the ideals: This is a complete list of the ideals. 2 = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, 3 = {0, 3, 6, 9}, 4 = {0, 4, 8}, 6 = {0, 6}, 8 = {0, 4, 8} = 4, 10 = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10} = Prove that the map : Z/pZ Z/pZ defined by (x) = x p is a ring homomorphism for p a prime. Find ker. Proof: Note first that (1) = 1. We also have (xy) = (xy) p = x p y p = (x)(y) where we have used that Z/pZ is commutative. To see that respects addition, observe that (x + y) = (x + y) p = x p + y p = (x) + (y) where we have used that p divides the binomial coefficients. Thus is a homomorphism. Let x ker. Then x p = 0. However, Z/pZ is a field, so there are no zero-divisors. Thus it must be that x = 0. One should also note that since these are finite sets with the same number of elements, an injective function must also be surjective. Thus, is actually an isomorphism! 5. Use the ring homomorphism : Z Z/mZ for an appropriate value of m to prove that the equation x 2 5y 2 = 2 has no solution for x, y Z. Proof: Suppose that (x, y) Z Z is a solution to the equation. Applying to the equation x 2 5y 2 = 2 with m = 5 and using that is a homomorphism gives the equation (x) 2 = (2) = 2. However, it is easy to check that there is no element in Z/5Z that squares to give 2. Thus, there can be no such (x, y). 6. Let R and S be commutative rings, and let : R S be a ring homomorphism. (a) Give an ideal J S, define 1 (J) = {r R : (r) J} R.

3 3 Prove that 1 (J) is an ideal. Proof: Note that since is a homomorphism, 0 R 1 (J) since O S is necessarily in J. Let a, b 1 (J). Then we have (a), (b) J by definition. Since J is an ideal, (a) + (b) J. But is a homomorphism, so (a+b) = (a)+(b) J. Thus, a+b 1 (J). Let r R. Then since J is an ideal, (r)(a) J. Since is a homomorphism, (ra) = (r)(a) J. Thus, ra 1 (J). Thus 1 (J) is an ideal. (b) Given an ideal I R, prove that is an ideal if is surjective. (I) = {(r) : r I} S Proof: Note that O S (I) since is a homomorphism and 0 R I necessarily. Let c, d (I). By definition there exists a, b I so that (a) = c and (b) = d. Since I is an ideal, a + b I. Thus, c + d = (a) + (b) = (a + b) (I). Now let s S. Since is surjective, there exists an r R so that (r) = s. Then one has cs = (a)(r) = (ar) (I) since ar I (I an ideal). Thus we have that (I) is an ideal. If is not surjective this is not necessarily true. For example, consider the map : Z Q that is the identity, i.e., (n) = n. Let I = 2. Then one has (I) = I in Q. However, in Q this is no longer an ideal as 1 2 Q and 2 I but 1 / I. (c) Prove that every ideal in Z/mZ is principal. Proof: Let I be an ideal in Z/mZ. By part (a) we know that 1 (I) is an ideal in Z. Since Z is a PID, there exists n Z so that 1 (I) = n. Let a I. Observe that there exists b 1 (I) so that (b) = a. Since b 1 (I) we have n b. Thus there exists r Z so that rn = b. Applying we have (r)(n) = a. This shows that any element of I is divisible by (n), i.e., I = (n). One should also observe that this same proof works to show that if ψ : R S is a ring homomorphism from a PID to a ring, then (R) is a PID as well. 7. If gcd(m, n) = 1 in Z, prove that m n is the ideal mn. Proof: Recall that a = {ax : x Z}. Let mnx mn. Then mnx m and mnx n for all x Z, so mn m n. Now let a m n,

4 4 i.e., a m and a n. Thus, m a and n a. As we saw in a previous homework problem, since gcd(m, n) = 1, we have mn a. Thus, a mn. Combining this with the above containment gives m n = mn, as claimed. 8. Let : R S be an isomorphism. Prove that: (a) (u) is a unit if and only if u is a unit Proof: Let u R be a unit, i.e., there exists t R so that ut = 1 R = tu. Applying we see this is equivalent to the statement that (ut) = 1 S = (tu). Since is a homomorphism, we obtain (u)(t) = 1 S = (t)(u). Thus, if u is a unit then (u) is a unit. Now suppose (u) is a unit, i.e., there exists an s S so that (u)s = 1 S = s(u). Here we use that is surjective to conclude that there exists a t R so that (t) = s. Thus, (ut) = 1 S = (1 R ). Now use that is injective to conclude that ut = 1 R and similarly for tu. Thus, u is a unit. (b) (b) is a zero-divisor if and only if b is a zero-divisor Proof: Let b R be a zero-divisor, i.e., there exists an a R with a 0 R so that ab = 0 R = ba. As above, we apply to obtain (a)(b) = 0 S = (b)(a). Here it is important to note that since is an isomorphism, it is injective so that (a) 0 S and so (a) and (b) are zero-divisors. Now suppose that (b) is a zero-divisor, i.e., there exists a 0 c S so that (b)c = 0 S = c(b). Since is surjective, there exists a R so that (a) = c. Thus (ab) = (ba) = 0 S. Since is injective we have that a 0 R and ab = 0 R = ba. Thus, b is a zero-divisor. 9. Using the first isomorphism theorem, prove that Q[x]/ x 2 +x+1 = Q[ω] where ω is a third root of unity. Proof: Recall that Q[ω] = {f(ω) : f(x) Q[x]}. This leads one to define : Q[x] Q[ω] by (f(x)) = f(ω). Clearly is surjective. To see is a homomorphism, observe that (f(x)g(x)) = f(ω)g(ω) = (f(x))(g(x))

5 5 and (f(x) + g(x)) = f(ω) + g(ω) = (f(x)) + (g(x)). It is also clear that (1) = 1. Now we just need to prove that ker = x 2 + x + 1. Since ω 2 + ω + 1 = 0, one sees that x 2 + x + 1 ker. Since Q[x] is a PID and x 2 + x + 1 is irreducible (degree 2 polynomial with no rational roots!), we must have ker = x 2 + x + 1. (See Corl 1.3!) Thus, by the 1 st isomorphism theorem we have that Q[x]/ x 2 + x + 1 = Q[ω]. 10. Is (Z/3Z) (Z/3Z) = Z/9Z? Be sure to justify your answer. Proof: Suppose these two rings are isomorphic. Then there exists an isomorphism : Z/9Z (Z/3Z) (Z/3Z). Since is an isomorphism, we know that (1) = (1, 1). Thus, (2) = (1 + 1) = (1) + (1) = (1, 1) + (1, 1) = (2, 2). Similarly, (3) = (2 + 1) = (2) + (1) = (2, 2) + (1, 1) = (3, 3) = (0, 0). This is a contradiction however as then 3 ker, but being an isomorphism means that is injective and has trivial kernel. Thus there can be no such isomorphism. 11. Let p be a prime number. (a) Prove that Q[ p] = Q[x]/ x 2 p. Proof: Define : Q[x] Q[ p] by (f(x)) = f( p). Now one uses the first isomorphism theorem just as in problem 9. The only difference it concluding that x 2 p is irreducible by Eisenstein s criterion with p. (b) Prove that Q[ {( ) } p] a pb = : a, b Q. {( ) } a pb Proof: Set A = : a, b Q. Define the map : A Q[ p] by

6 6 (( )) a pb = a + b (( )) 1 0 p. Note that = 1. We also have 0 1 (( ) ( )) + d c (( )) a + c p(b + d) = b + d a + c = (a + c) + (b + d) p = (a + b p) + (c + d p) (( )) (( )) = +. d c and (( ) ( )) d c (( )) ac + pbd p(ad + bc) = ad + bc ac + pbd = ac + pbd + (ad + bc) p = (a + b p)(c + d p) (( )) (( )) =. d c Thus we have that is a homomorphism. Now we just need to show is surjective and injective. Let a + b p Q[ p]. To see is surjective, (( )) a pb just observe that = a + b p. To see is injective, suppose = 0. Then, 0 = a + b p so a = b = 0 and thus (( )) a pb ( ) ( ) a pb 0 0 = so so ker = 0. Thus, is an isomorphism. 0 0

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