1 Chapter 12 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts
2 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts
3 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our goals for learning: What are asteroids like? Why is there an asteroid belt? How are meteorites related to asteroids?
4 What are asteroids like?
5 Name Your Asteroid Step 1: Discover a new asteroid. Step 2. Report your discovery to the Minor planet center at SAO who will give it a provisional designation (ie 2012 XA). Step 3. If it is detected on at least four succeeding oppositions it is assigned an official sequential number and you get to suggest a name for it (ie Nibiru). Most asteroids orbit the Sun at distances between 2 and 3.5 AU. This region of our solar system between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is called the asteroid belt. Asteroid Belt
6 Asteroid Facts Asteroids are rocky leftovers of planet formation. The largest is Ceres, diameter ~1000 kilometers. 150,000 in catalogs, and probably over a million with diameter >1 kilometer. Small asteroids are more common than large asteroids. All the asteroids in the solar system wouldn't add up to even a small terrestrial planet.
7 Asteroids are cratered and not round.
8 Asteroids with Moons Some large asteroids have their own moon. Asteroid Ida has a tiny moon named Dactyl.
9 Density of Asteroids Measuring the orbit of asteroid's moon tells us an asteroid's mass. Mass and size tell us an asteroid's density. Some asteroids are solid rock; others are just piles of rubble.
10 Trojan Asteroids The Lagrange points are locations in Jupiter's orbit where the combined gravitational pull from Jupiter and the Sun form stable points for captured asteroids (Trojan Asteroids).
11 Vesta as seen by the Dawn Spacecraft
12 Why is there an asteroid belt?
13 The Formation of the Asteroid Belt Orbitial resonance occurs between Jupiter and an asteroid when the ratio of their orbital periods is the ratio of integer numbers. If an asteroid and Jupiter are in orbital resonance the asteroid will experience a periodic gravitational nudge during every conjuction (line-up) with Jupiter that eventually moves the asteroid out of its orbit creating gaps (Kirkwood gaps). The asteroid belt has lost most of its original mass due to orbital resonances. Orbital resonances are thought to be the reason planetesimals did not accrete to form a planet between Mars and Jupiter.
14 Thought Question Which explanation for the belt seems the most plausible? A. The belt is where all the asteroids happened to form. B. The belt is the remnant of a large terrestrial planet that used to be between Mars and Jupiter. C. The belt is where all the asteroids happened to survive.
15 Thought Question Which explanation for the belt seems the most plausible? A. The belt is where all the asteroids happened to form. B. The belt is the remnant of a large terrestrial planet that used to be between Mars and Jupiter. C. The belt is where all the asteroids happened to survive.
16 Orbital Resonances Asteroids in orbital resonance with Jupiter experience periodic nudges. Eventually, those nudges move asteroids out of resonant orbits, leaving gaps in the asteroid belt.
17 Origin of Asteroid Belt Rocky planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter did not accrete into a planet. Jupiter's gravity, through influence of orbital resonances, stirred up asteroid orbits and prevented their accretion into a planet.
18 NEOs Asteroids that have orbits within that of Mars or orbits that bring them close to Earth are called near-earth objects or NEOs. More than 4,000 NEOs have been discovered and many more thousand are expected to exist. Collisions between asteroids produce rock fragments called meteoroids and some of these end up colliding with planets. An example of such an impact is the Barringer Crater in Arizona. It is estimated that the meteoroid was 50 m across and travelling at 11km/s. The impact left a crater 1.2 km wide and 200 m deep.
19 The Barringer Crater in Arizona.
20 How are meteorites related to asteroids?
21 Meteoroids, Meteors and Meteorites Collision between asteroids produce smaller fragments that are called meteoroids if they are smaller than ~50 m. A meteor is the bright trail seen when a meteoroid enters the Earth s atmosphere; a shooting star. A meteorite is a fragment of a meteoroid that has survived passage through the Earth s atmosphere. A very few meteorites have been identified as pieces of the Moon or Mars that were blasted off the surfaces of those worlds by asteroid impacts and eventually landed on Earth.
22 Traces of Life from Mars? The Allan Hills (ALH) meteorite became newsworthy when David McKay from NASA announced that the meteorite may contain evidence for traces of life from Mars. ALH was found in Antartica but is thought to be from Mars. - ALH appears to have fossils of bacteria-like lifeforms. - Some argue that these features are caused by contamination from earthly microorganisms. An electron microscope revealed chain structures (possibly biogenic features) in meteorite fragment ALH84001.
23 Meteorite Impact Chicago, March 26, 2003
24 Meteorite Types 1) Primitive: unchanged in composition since they first formed 4.6 billion years ago 2) Processed: younger; have experienced processes like volcanism or differentiation
25 Primitive Meteorites First type of meteorites to have formed 4.6 billion years ago making them remnants from the birth of the solar system. - Stony primitive: made up of rocks and metallic flakes. Orbital resonances are more effective at deflecting these towards Earth. - Carbon-rich primitive: contain rocks, metallic flakes, carbon compounds and water. Likely came from the outer regions of the asteroid belt where temperatures were lower.
26 Primitive Meteorites: Carbonaceous Chondrites Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that contain substantial amounts of carbon and carbon compounds, including complex organic molecules, amino acids and as much as 20% water bound into the minerals. Carbonaceous chondrites may therefore be samples of the original material from which our solar system was created. Some scientist think that carbonaceous meteorites may have played a role in the origin of life on Earth.
27 The Allende Meteorite: Clue to Our origin This carbonaceous chondrite fell near Chihuahua, Mexico, in February The meteorite s dark color is due to its high abundance of carbon. Radioactive age-dating indicates that this meteorite is 4.56 billion years old, suggesting that this meteorite is a specimen of primitive planetary material that predates the formation of the planets.
28 The Allende Meteorite: Clue to Our origin Chemical analyses of the Allende meteorite revealed a high abundance of a stable isotope of magnesium (Mg 26: 12 protons + 14 neutron), which is produced by the radioactive decay of Al 26. Al 26 (13 protons + 13 neutrons) is a radioactive unstable isotope thought to be produced in a supernova explosion. The age of the Allende meteoroid from radioactive dating is 4.56 billion years. One hypothesis posits that a nearby star underwent a supernova explosion 4.56 billion years ago. A shock wave from this supernova explosion may have formed heavy radioactive elements and compressed interstellar gas and dust and thus triggered the birth of our solar system.
29 Processed Meteorites Were once part of a larger object that processed the original material of the solar nebular. They our younger than the primitive meteorites by about a few 100 million years. Meta-rich processed: Made of iron, nickel and other metals, likely from a shattered asteroid s core. Rocky processed: Lower densities and contain rocks resembling that of terrestrial mantles and crusts.
30 Processed Meteorites Why different types of processed meteorites? After asteroids formed about 4.56 billion years ago the decay of radioactive isotopes may have melted their interiors. Asteroids larger than about 200 km may have remained molten for long enough for chemical differentiation to have occurred. Collisions between chemically differentiated asteroids would have produced fragments from the crust and core. Fragments from the core would have a high content of iron and nickel (metal-rich processed meteoroids) and fragments from the crust would have resulted in rocky-processed meteoroids.
31 Meteorites from Moon and Mars A few meteorites arrive from the Moon and Mars. Composition differs from the asteroid fragments. A cheap (but slow) way to acquire Moon rocks and Mars rocks
32 What have we learned? What are asteroids like? They are rocky, small, potato-shaped leftovers from the era of planet formation. Why is there an asteroid belt? Orbital resonances with Jupiter prevented planetesimals between Jupiter and Mars from forming a planet.
33 What have we learned? How are meteorites related to asteroids? Primitive meteorites are remnants from solar nebula. Processed meteorites are fragments of larger bodies that underwent differentiation.
34 12.2 Comets Our goals for learning: What are comets like? Where do comets come from?
35 What are comets like?
36 Comet Facts Formed beyond the frost line, comets are icy counterparts to asteroids. Nucleus of comet is a "dirty snowball." Most comets do not have tails. Most comets remain perpetually frozen in the outer solar system. Only comets that enter the inner solar system grow tails.
37 Comet Facts Comet: A small body of ice, rocks, and fine dust in orbit about the Sun. While passing near the Sun, a comet s vaporized ices give rise to a coma and tail. Properties of Comets: made of rock, fine dust and ices. (H 2 O, CH 4, NH 3, CO 2 ) Average density ~ 600 kg/m 3 typical sizes: Nucleus (solid)~ a few km Coma (gas ball) ~10 6 km Tail~10 8 km
38 Comet Facts Comets have very elliptical orbits inclined at random angles to the ecliptic. Many comets are discovered by amateur astronomers using binoculars or small telescopes. Discoverers can name their comets and achieve a measure of astronomical immortality. The nuclei of comets Halley and Tempel 1 observed with the Giotto and Deep Impact spacecrafts, respectively.
39 Anatomy of a Comet A coma is the atmosphere that comes from a comet's heated nucleus. A plasma tail is ionized gas escaping from coma, pushed by the solar wind. A dust tail is pushed by photons.
40 Comet Tails A comet s dust tail is white because it reflects sunlight, while the molecules in the ion tail emit their own light with a characteristic blue color. The solar wind and solar photons blow the comet s ions and dust particles away from the sun.
41 Growth of Tail
42 As a comet s nucleus evaporates, residual dust and rock fragments form a meteoritic swarm, a loose collection of debris that continues to circle the Sun along the comet s orbit. If the Earth s orbit happens to pass through this swarm, a meteor shower is seen as the dust particles strike the Earth s upper atmosphere.
43 Comets eject small particles that follow the comet around in its orbit and cause meteor showers when Earth crosses the comet's orbit Pearson Education, Inc.
44 Meteors in a meteor shower appear to emanate from the same area of sky because of Earth's motion through space Pearson Education, Inc.
45 Where do comets come from? 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
46 Only a tiny number of comets enter the inner solar system. Most stay far from the Sun. Oort cloud: on random orbits extending to about 50,000 AU Kuiper belt: on orderly orbits from AU in disk of solar system
47 How did they get there? Kuiper belt comets formed in the Kuiper belt: flat plane, aligned with the plane of planetary orbits, orbiting in the same direction as the planets Oort cloud comets were once closer to the Sun, but they were kicked out there by gravitational interactions with jovian planets: spherical distribution, orbits in any direction
48 What have we learned? What are comets like? Comets are like dirty snowballs. Most are far from Sun and do not have tails. Tails grow when comet nears Sun and nucleus heats up. Where do comets come from? Comets in plane of solar system come from Kuiper belt. Comets on random orbits come from Oort cloud.
49 12.3 Pluto: Lone Dog No More Our goals for learning: How big can a comet be? What are the large objects of the Kuiper belt like?
50 How big can a comet be? 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
51 Pluto's Orbit Pluto will never hit Neptune, even though their orbits cross, because of their 3:2 orbital resonance. Neptune orbits three times during the time Pluto orbits twice.
52 Is Pluto a Planet? Much smaller than the terrestrial or jovian planets Not a gas giant like other outer planets Has an icy composition like a comet Has a very elliptical, inclined orbit Has more in common with comets than with the eight major planets The International Astronomical Union (IAU) now classifies Pluto and Eris as dwarf planets. Dwarf planets have not cleared most other objects from their orbital paths.
53 Other Icy Bodies There are many icy objects like Pluto on elliptical, inclined orbits beyond Neptune. The largest of these, Eris, was discovered in summer 2005, and is even larger than Pluto Pearson Education, Inc.
54 What is Pluto like? Its moon Charon is nearly as large as Pluto itself (probably made by a major impact). Pluto is very cold (40 K). Pluto has a thin nitrogen atmosphere that will refreeze onto the surface as Pluto's orbit takes it farther from the Sun Pearson Education, Inc.
55 Hubble's View of Pluto and Its Moons 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
56 What have we learned? How big can a comet be? The Kuiper belt from which comets come contains objects as large as Pluto. What are the large objects of the Kuiper belt like? Large objects in the Kuiper belt have orbits and icy compositions like those of comets Pearson Education, Inc.
57 12.4 Cosmic Collisions: Small Bodies Versus the Planets Our goals for learning: Have we ever witnessed a major impact? Did an impact kill the dinosaurs? Is the impact threat a real danger or media hype? How do the jovian planets affect impact rates and life on Earth? 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
58 Have we ever witnessed a major impact? 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
59 Comet SL9 caused a string of violent impacts on Jupiter in 1994, reminding us that catastrophic collisions still happen. Tidal forces tore it apart during a previous encounter with Jupiter Pearson Education, Inc.
60 The black spot in this photo is a scar from the impact of an unknown object that struck Jupiter in July Pearson Education, Inc.
61 Did an impact kill the dinosaurs? 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
62 Mass Extinctions Fossil record shows occasional large dips in the diversity of species: mass extinctions. Most recent was 65 million years ago, ending the reign of the dinosaurs Pearson Education, Inc.
63 Iridium: Evidence of an Impact Iridium is very rare in Earth surface rocks but often found in meteorites. Luis and Walter Alvarez found a worldwide layer containing iridium, laid down 65 million years ago, probably by a meteorite impact. Dinosaur fossils all lie below this layer Pearson Education, Inc.
64 Iridium Layer No dinosaur fossils in upper rock layers Thin layer containing the rare element iridium Dinosaur fossils in lower rock layers
65 What killed the Dinosaurs? What may have happened: An asteroid ~10 km wide slammed into our planet igniting wildfires, killing many animals and wiping out most of Earth's vegetation. Dust and smoke from the fires would have blackened the sky for months after the impact. Dust containing iridium from the impact was ejected into the atmosphere and latter settled on the surface all over the globe. Temperatures would have originally dropped (sky blocked by dust) but later would gradually increase due to greenhouse gases. Geologists think the impact occurred at a site in Mexico that contains the 180 km Chicxulub Crater on the Yucatan peninsula.
66 Likely Impact Site Geologists have found a large subsurface crater about 65 million years old in Mexico Pearson Education, Inc.
67 Likely Impact Site A comet or asteroid about 10 kilometers in diameter approaches Earth Pearson Education, Inc.
68 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
69 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
70 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
71 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
72 Is the impact threat a real danger or media hype? 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
73 Facts about Impacts Asteroids and comets have hit Earth. A major impact is only a matter of time: not IF but WHEN. Major impacts are very rare. Extinction level events happen millions of years apart. Major damage happen tens to hundreds of years apart Pearson Education, Inc.
74 Insert Figure 12.26! Tunguska, Siberia: June 30, 1908 A ~40-meter object disintegrated and exploded in the atmosphere Pearson Education, Inc.
75 Crater made by the impact of a 1 2 meter object in Peru, Pearson Education, Inc.
76 Frequency of Impacts Small impacts happen almost daily. Impacts large enough to cause mass extinctions happen many millions of years apart.
77 The asteroid with our name on it We haven't seen it yet. Deflection is more probable with years of advance warning. Control is critical: Breaking a big asteroid into a bunch of little asteroids is unlikely to help. We get less advance warning of a killer comet.
78 What are we doing about it? Stay tuned to
79 How do the jovian planets affect impact rates and life on Earth? 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
80 Influence of Jovian Planets Jupiter has directed some comets toward Earth but has ejected many more into the Oort cloud.
81 Was Jupiter necessary for life on Earth? Impacts can extinguish life. But were they necessary for "life as we know it"?
82 What have we learned? Have we ever witnessed a major impact? The most recent major impact happened in 1994, when fragments of comet SL9 hit Jupiter. Did an impact kill the dinosaurs? Iridium layer just above dinosaur fossils suggests that an impact caused mass extinction 65 million years ago. A large crater of that age has been found in Mexico Pearson Education, Inc.
83 What have we learned? Is the impact threat a real danger or media hype? Large impacts do happen, but they are rare. They cause major extinctions about every 100 million years. How do the jovian planets affect impact rates and life on Earth? Jovian planets sometimes deflect comets toward Earth but send many more out to Oort cloud Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 12 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts
Chapter 9 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and Pluto 9.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our Goals for Learning Why is there an asteroid belt? How are meteorites related to asteroids? Asteroid Facts
MAVEN launch yesterday Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) How is Mars losing its atmosphere now? How did Mars lose its atmosphere in the past? 1. Determine the role that loss of volatiles to
Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt Asteroid Facts Asteroids are rocky leftovers of planet formation Largest is Ceres, diameter ~1,000 km (most smaller) 150,000 in
Chapter 9 Part 2 Dwarf Planets and Impacts Pluto s Orbit Pluto s orbit is tilted and significantly elliptical. Neptune orbits three times during the time Pluto orbits twice resonance prevents a collision.
Chapter 9 Part 1 Asteroids and Comets Why is there an asteroid belt? This asteroid was visited by the NEAR Shoemaker probe, which orbited it, taking extensive photographs of its surface, and, on February
Today The Little Things Rings, meteorites Asteroids & Comets Dwarf Planets Events Homework 5 Due geysers on Triton Rocky Planets versus Icy Moons Rock melts at higher temperatures. Only large rocky planets
Vagabonds of the Solar System Chapter 15 ASTR 111 003 Fall 2007 Lecture 13 Nov. 26, 2007 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I: Solar System Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-15)
Today Rings, asteroids, meteorites Events Homework 5 Due Thanksgiving next week Final Dec. 20 2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Saturn s rings Note refraction in atmosphere
Today The Little Things Comets Dwarf Planets Last Exam in last class, Thursday Dec. 7. Homework also due then. 2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Comets Fig 9.5 FROST LINE
Today The Little Things Impacts & extinctions Dwarf Planets Events Homework 5 DUE Facts About Impacts on Earth Asteroids and comets have hit the Earth. A major impact is only a matter of time: not IF but
Chapter 19: Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets Comet Superstition Throughout history, comets have been considered as portants of doom, even until very recently: Appearances of comet Kohoutek (1973), Halley
Today asteroids, meteorites, comets things that go bump Events Homework 5 Due Thanksgiving next week Exam III - Dec. 7 Lots of small asteroids number A few big asteroids apparent brightness Asteroids are
Chapter 25 Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets Guidepost In Chapter 19, we began our study of planetary astronomy by asking how our solar system formed. In the five chapters that followed, we surveyed the
Astronomy 301 - Wed. Oct. 6 Guest lectures, Monday and today: Prof. Harriet Dinerstein Monday: The outer planets & their moons Today: asteroids, comets, & the Kuiper Belt; formation of the Solar System
Lecture Outlines Chapter 14 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 14 Solar System Debris Units of Chapter 14 14.1 Asteroids What Killed the Dinosaurs? 14.2 Comets 14.3 Beyond Neptune 14.4
Chapter 25 Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets Guidepost In Chapter 19 you began your study of planetary astronomy by considering evidence about how our solar system formed. In the five chapters that followed
Chapter 4 The Solar System Comet Tempel Chapter overview Solar system inhabitants Solar system formation Extrasolar planets Solar system inhabitants Sun Planets Moons Asteroids Comets Meteoroids Kuiper
Asteroids: Introduction Name Read through the information below. Then complete the Fill-Ins at the bottom of page. Asteroids are rocky objects that orbit the Sun in our solar system. Also known as minor
Review Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Natures, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroids a) are rocky and small typically the size of a grain of rice or
Solar System Junk So far, we ve taken a brief look at the 8 planets of the solar system, their array of moons or natural satellites, and how we think such a system formed. Most of the material in the solar
Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors By: Annette Miles What is a comet? A comet is a small body which scientists sometimes call a planetesimal. They are made out of dust, ice rock, gas, and. They are kind of
Origin of the Solar System and Solar System Debris 1 Debris comets meteoroids asteroids gas dust 2 Asteroids irregular, rocky hunks small in mass and size Ceres - largest, 1000 km in diameter (1/3 Moon)
1 Lecture 16 Dwarf Planets and Comets January 8a, 2014 2 Pluto -- Basic Information Discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 Period: P orb = 248 years Distance: a = 39.5 AU 3 moons (Charon, Nix, Hydra) Demoted
1 Solar System Debris and Formation Chapters 14 and 15 of your textbook Exercises: Do all Review and Discussion and all Conceptual Self-Test 1.1 Solar System Debris Asteroids small rocky bodies Most under
Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION CHAPTER 4 The Solar System Lecture Presentation 4.0 What can be seen with the naked eye? Early astronomers knew about the Sun, Moon, stars, Mercury,
A s t e r o i d s, C o m e t s & N E O s ( B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n ) Author: Sarah Roberts Asteroids Asteroids, Comets and NEOs - Background Information Asteroids are rocky objects which
Florida Benchmarks SC.8.N.1.1 Define a problem from the eighth grade curriculum using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of
The Solar System 1star 1 star 9 8 planets 63 (major) moons asteroids, comets, meteoroids The distances to planets are known from Kepler s Laws (once calibrated with radar ranging to Venus) How are planet
U238>Pb206 Halflife: 4.5 billion years Oldest earth rocks 3.96 billion years Meteors and Moon rocks 4.6 billion years This is the time they solidified The solar system is older than this. Radioactive Dating
Today Solar System Formation a few more bits and pieces Homework due Pluto Charon 3000 km Asteroids small irregular rocky bodies Comets icy bodies Formation of the Solar System How did these things come
The Formation of the Solar System Basic Facts to be explained : 1. Each planet is relatively isolated in space. 2. Orbits nearly circular. 3. All roughly orbit in the same plane. 4. Planets are all orbiting
Solar System Debris Material leftover from the formation of the Solar System Gives important clues about its origin Composition: Asteroids and Meteoroids: rock and iron Comets: ice and dust The basic building
Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System Guiding Questions 1. Are all the other planets similar to Earth, or are they very different? 2. Do other planets have moons like Earth s Moon? 3. How do astronomers
Announce: Look at Essay 4 for next week Thursday is Einstein Movie Images of Planets Cassini Movie Review of Ch. 9 Ch. 10 Errors in Crab Lab. 11/18/08 Images of Planets Cassini Movie Ch. 9 Questions Second
Chapter 9 Section 1: Our Solar System Solar System: The solar system includes the sun, planets and many smaller structures. A planet and its moon(s) make up smaller systems in the solar system. Scientist
1) As the solar nebula contracts it 1) A) cools due to condensation. B) spins faster due to conservation of angular momentum. C) flattens out into the ecliptic plane around the Sun's poles. D) loses angular
1) Long period comets are thought to reside mainly in the 1) A) Interstellar Medium. B) asteroid belt. C) Oort Cloud. D) Kirkwood gaps. E) Kuiper Belt. 2) Pluto is most similar to 2) A) Mercury. B) Triton.
9.2 - Our Solar System Scientists describe our solar system as the Sun and all the planets and other celestial objects, such as moons, comets, and asteroids, that are held by the Sun s gravity and orbit
Part A Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian planets? Hint A.1 Major categories of ingredients in planetary composition The following
Origin of the Solar System Our theory must explain the data 1. Large bodies in the Solar System have orderly motions. 2. There are two types of planets. small, rocky terrestrial planets large, hydrogen-rich
SUMMARY Our Solar System contains numerous small bodies: dwarf planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. They are important astronomically because they give us information about the time of formation,
Meteorites A meteor that survives its fall through the atmosphere is called a meteorite Hundreds fall on the Earth every year Meteorites do not come from comets First documented case in modern times was
Chapter 4 - Group Homework Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Density is defined as A) mass times weight. B) mass per unit volume.
Astronomy 150: Killer Skies Lecture 6, January 30 Last time: Meteors Today: Asteroids and Comets Homework: HW 1 last chance! cutoff at 5pm today. HW 2 due this Friday at 1pm http://near.jhuapl.edu/iod/20000222/20000222.jpg
Uranus Chance discovery by William Herschel in 1781 Chapter 15 Uranus, Neptune and the Kuiper Belt Hershel was scanning the sky for nearby objects with measurable parallax: discovered Uranus as slightly
9. Formation of the Solar System The evolution of the world may be compared to a display of fireworks that has just ended: some few red wisps, ashes, and smoke. Standing on a cool cinder, we see the slow
Smaller Bodies of the Solar System Chapter 2 continued Small, rocky (sometimes metallic) bodies with no atmospheres. or planetoids 100,000 numbered and 12,000 named 1-1000 km in size most are small ~ 1
Chapter 11 Meteors, Asteroids and Comets Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Asteroids and Comets Orbiting the Sun are numerous small bodies the
News Exam 4/Final is Saturday December 9 at 2:00 p.m. here in Clark 107 A review session will be held on Friday December 8 at 5:15 p.m. (most likely here in this room) A sheet of review questions is available
Test 04 Chapters 15-20 Limited Copies Are available Griffith Observatory Samuel Oschin Planetarium June 4 th from 8:00 pm - 10:00 pm Covering ALL Tests Slide 1 Slide 2 Griffith Observatory Samuel Oschin
Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999 Reminder: When I write these questions, I believe that there is one one correct answer. The questions consist of all parts a e. Read the entire
Chapter 23: Touring Our Solar System The Sun The is the center of our solar system. The Sun makes up of all the mass of our solar system. The Sun s force holds the planets in their orbits around the Sun.
9/22/17 Lecture Outline 6.1 A Brief Tour of the Solar System Chapter 6: Formation of the Solar System What does the solar system look like? Our goals for learning: What does the solar system look like?
Universe Now 5. Minor planets and other small bodies in the Solar System An overview of the known Solar System The Sun 4 terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars 4 Jovian planets: Jupiter, Saturn,
The Solar System Tour of the Solar System The Sun more later 8 planets Mercury Venus Earth more later Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Various other objects Asteroids Comets Pluto The Terrestrial Planets
The Sun, with all the planets revolving around it, and depending on it, can still ripen a bunch of grapes as though it had nothing else in the Universe to do. Galileo Galilei What We Will Learn Today Where
CORNELL NOTES Directions: You must create a minimum of 5 questions in this column per page (average). Use these to study your notes and prepare for tests and quizzes. Notes will be turned in to your teacher
Key Points of Chapter 13 HNRS 227 Fall 2006 Chapter 13 The Solar System presented by Prof. Geller 24 October 2006 Planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Dwarf Planets Pluto,
What does the solar system look like? The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion. These patterns are far more important and interesting than numbers, names, and other trivia. Relative
Small Bodies in our Solar System Comets, Asteroids & Meteoroids * A Small Body is any object in the solar system that is smaller than a planet or moon, such as a comet, an asteroid, or a meteoroid. Compiled
Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens 23.1 The Solar System The Planets: An Overview The terrestrial planets are planets that are small and rocky Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The Jovian planets
Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock email@example.com Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Planetology II Key characteristics Chemical elements and planet size Radioactive dating Solar system formation Solar nebula
Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 23 Touring Our Solar System 23.1 The Solar System The Planets: An Overview The terrestrial planets are planets that are small and rocky Mercury, Venus,
23.1 The Solar System Orbits of the Planets The Planets: An Overview The terrestrial planets are planets that are small and rocky Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The Jovian planets are the huge gas giants
Comets What are they? Where do they come from? Lesson Objectives To distinguish between the orbits of planets and those of comets. To describe the likely origins of short-period and long-period comets.
Asteroids and Meteorites Announcements Reading Assignment Read Chapter 16 Term Paper Due Today Details of turnitin.com Go to www.turnitin.com Click on new users usertype student Class ID: 1868418 Password:
The Solar System Contents of the Solar System Sun Planets 9 known (now: 8) Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars ( Terrestrials ) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune ( Jovians ) Pluto (a Kuiper Belt object?) Natural
Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System Chapter Seven ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 07 Oct. 16, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17)
Chapter Outline Earth and Other Planets The Formation of the Solar System Exploring the Solar System Chapter 16 Great Idea: Earth, one of the planets that orbit the Sun, formed 4.5 billion years ago from
Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets
Ag Earth Science Chapter 23 Chapter 23.1 Vocabulary Any of the Earth- like planets, including Mercury, Venus, and Earth terrestrial planet Jovian planet The Jupiter- like planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
3.5 Explore Where in the Solar System Are Smaller Objects Found? In Learning Set 1, you read about some of the other objects in the solar system. You learned about dwarf planets and smaller solar system
7/1 VII. VIII. Uranus A. Gas Giant 1. Rings but not visible 2. HUGE axial tilt 97! 3. Mostly hydrogen and helium 4. Medium rotation rate 5. Cold 55 K at the cloud tops B. Physical characteristics 1. Mass:
Comets, Asteroids, and Meteorites Clues to the Origin of the Solar System Is Pluto a Planet? Introduction There is evidence that the small amounts of debris that we observe in our Solar System is a remnant
This lecture will help you understand: Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science Chapter 28 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Overview of the Solar System The Nebular Theory The Sun Asteroids, Comets, and
Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock firstname.lastname@example.org Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Planetology I Terrestrial and Jovian planets Similarities/differences between planetary satellites Surface and atmosphere
Comets Ancient Ideas about comets kometes = `the hairy one (hairy star) 550 BC Pythagoreans thought they were wandering planets. Draft Dec 11, 2006 Aristotle (350 BC) thought that, like meteors, they were