Chapter 25 Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 25 Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets"

Transcription

1 Chapter 25 Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets Guidepost In Chapter 19, we began our study of planetary astronomy by asking how our solar system formed. In the five chapters that followed, we surveyed the planets, but we gained only limited insight into the origin of the solar system. The planets are big, and they have evolved as heat has flowed out of their interiors. In this chapter, we have our best look at unevolved matter left over from the solar nebula. These small bodies are, in fact, the last remains of the nebula that gave birth to the planets. This chapter is unique in that it covers small bodies. In past chapters, we have used the principles of comparative planetology to study large objects the planets. In this chapter, we see that the same principles apply to smaller bodies, but we also see that we need some new tools in order to think about the tiniest worlds in the solar system. 1

2 Outline I. Meteorites A. Meteoroid Orbits B. Meteorite Impacts on Earth C. An Analysis of Meteorites D. The Origins of Meteorites II. Asteroids A. The Asteroid Belt B. Nonbelt Asteroids C. Composition and Origin III. Comets A. Properties of Comets B. The Geology of Comet Nuclei C. The Origin of Comets Outline (continued) IV. Impacts on Earth A. Impacts and Dinosaurs B. The Tunguska Event 2

3 Meteoroids, Meteors, Meteorites Meteoroid is a small body in space. Meteor is a meteoroid colliding with Earth and producing a visible light trace in the sky. Meteorite is a meteor that survives the plunge through the atmosphere to strike the ground. Sizes from microscopic dust to a few centimeters. About 2 meteorites large enough to produce visible impacts strike the Earth every day; 40,000 tons of mass per year! Statistically, one meteorite is expected to strike a building somewhere on Earth every 16 months. Typically impact onto the atmosphere with km/s (30 times faster than a rifle bullet!). Meteor Showers Most meteors appear in showers, peaking periodically at specific dates of the year. Names of showers are for the constellation from which they appear to originate. 3

4 Radiants of Meteor Showers Tracing the tracks of meteors in a shower backwards, they appear to come from a common origin, the radiant. Similar to how railroad tracks appear to emerge from a point Meteoroid Orbits Meteoroids contributing to a meteor shower are debris particles, orbiting in the path of a comet. Debris spreads out all along the orbit of the comet. Comet may still exist or have been destroyed. Some sporadic meteors are not associated with meteor showers, but are stray material from comets or asteroids. 4

5 Meteorite Impacts on Earth Over 150 impact craters found on Earth. Barringer Crater near Flagstaff, AZ is 1.2 km diameter and 200 m deep. It formed about 50,000 years ago by a meteorite of meters in diameter. Much larger impact features exist on Earth, such as a crater km in diameter in the Yucatán peninsula from about 65 million years ago. The impact caused a drastic change of Earth s climate and possibly responsible for extinction of dinosaurs. What Does a Meteorite Look Like? 3 broad categories: 5

6 Finding Meteorites Most meteorites are small and don t produce significant craters. Antarctica is a good place to find meteorites on white snow. Iron meteorites are easy to recognize they are heavy, dense lumps of iron-nickel steel) more likely to be found and collected. Falls are meteorites observed to fall to the ground. Finds are meteorites with unknown fall time. The Allende Meteorite Fell in 1969 near Pueblito de Allende, Mexico Showered an area about 50 km x 10 km with over 4 tons of fragments. Fragments containing calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions. Extremely temperatureresistant materials. Allende meteorite is a very old sample of solar-nebula material! 6

7 The Origins of Meteorites Probably formed in the solar nebula, about 4.6 billion years ago. Almost certainly not from comets (in contrast to meteors in meteor showers!). Probably fragments of stony-iron planetesimals that may have melted by heat produced in radioactive decay. Radioactive elements may be from a nearby supernova around the time of formation of the solar system. Large planetesimals cool and differentiate. Collisions eject material with different compositions and temperatures. Meteorites broken up from planetesimals not very long ago so remains of planetesimals should still exist asteriods! Asteroids Last remains of planetesimals that built the planets 4.6 billion years ago! 7

8 The Asteroid Belt Small, irregular objects, mostly in the apparent gap between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Thousands of asteroids with accurately determined orbits known today. Sizes and shapes of the largest asteroids, compared to the moon Kirkwood s Gaps The asteroid orbits are not evenly distributed throughout the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. There are several gaps where no asteroids are found called Kirkwood s gaps (purple bars below) These gaps correspond to resonances of the orbits with the orbit of Jupiter. 8

9 Non-Belt Asteroids Not all asteroids orbit within the asteroid belt. Apollo-Amor Objects: Asteroids with elliptical orbits, reaching into the inner solar system. Trojans: Sharing stable orbits along the orbit of Jupiter: Trapped in Some the potentially could collide Lagrangian with Mars or points of Earth! Jupiter. NASA s Dawn Mission will visit asteroid Vesta in 2011 (and dwarf planet Ceres in 2015) The Origin of Asteroids Old theory: asteroids are remains of a broken up planet. New theory: asteroids are broken planetesimals formed during solar nebula/planet building Other complex features found: Images of the Asteroid Vesta show a complex surface, including a large impact crater. Vesta shows evidence for impact crater and lava flows. Heat for existence of lava flows probably from radioactive decay of 26 Al. Meteorite probably fragmented from Vesta 9

10 Comets of History Throughout history, comets have been considered as portents of doom, even very recently: Appearances of comet Kohoutek (1973), Halley (1986), and Hale-Bopp (1997) caused concern among superstitious. Comet Hyakutake in 1996 Comet Hale Bopp (1997) Comet Kohoutek 1973 Comet Ikeya-Seki 1965 Two Types of Tails Ion tail: Ionized gas pushed away from the comet by the solar wind, pointing straight away from the sun. Dust tail: Dust set free from vaporizing ice in the comet; carried away from the comet by the pressure of sunlight, lagging behind the comet along its trajectory. 10

11 Gas and Dust Tails of Comet Mrkos in 1957 Build A Comet (SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY) 11

12 2/4/11 Dust Jets from Comet Nuclei Jets of dust are ejected radially from the nuclei of comets. Comet Hale-Bopp, with uniform corona digitally removed from the image. Comet dust material can be collected by spacecraft above Earth s atmosphere. Fragmenting Comets Comet Linear apparently completely vaporized during its sun passage in Only small rocky fragments remained. 12

13 The Geology of Comet Nuclei Comet nuclei contain ices of water, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia - materials likely condensed from the outer solar nebula. Those compounds sublime (transition from solid directly to gas phase) as comets approach the sun. Densities of comet nuclei about g/cm 3 Not solid ice balls, but fluffy material with significant amounts of empty space. Fragmentation of Comet Nuclei Comet nuclei are very fragile and are easily fragmented. Comet Shoemaker-Levy was disrupted by tidal forces of Jupiter Two chains of impact craters on Earth s moon and on Jupiter s moon Callisto may have been caused by fragments of a comet. 13

14 The Origin of Comets Long period comets are believed to originate in the Oort cloud a spherical group of several trillion icy bodies, about 10, ,000 AU from the sun. 10, ,000 AU Oort Cloud Gravitational influence of occasional passing stars may perturb some orbits and draw long period comets towards the inner solar system. Interactions with planets may perturb orbits further, capturing short period comets in orbit. The Kuiper Belt Most short period comets are thought to originate from the Kuiper Belt a group small, icy bodies in the plane of the outer solar system about AU from the sun. A few Kuiper belt objects can be observed directly by Hubble Space Telescope. Pluto, Charon, and Triton may be captured Kuiper belt objects. 14

15 Impacts on Earth Comet nucleus impact producing the Chicxulub crater about 65 million years ago may have caused major climate change, leading to the extinction of many species, including dinosaurs. Gravity map shows the extent of the crater hidden below limestone deposited since the impact. The Tunguska Event Area of destruction from the Tunguska event superimposed on a map of Washington, D.C. and surrounding beltway. The Tunguska event in Siberia in 1908 destroyed an area the size of a large city! Explosion of a large object, probably an Apollo asteroid of m in diameter, a few km above the ground. Energy release comparable to a 12- megaton nuclear weapon! 15

16 Impacts on Earth (SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY) New Terms radiant sporadic meteor fall find iron meteorite selection effect Widmanstätten pattern stony meteorite chondrite chondrule carbonaceous chondrite CAI achondrite stony-iron meteorite Kirkwood s gaps Apollo Amor objects Trojan asteroids Hirayama families gas (type I) tail dust (type II) tail coma Oort cloud Kuiper belt 16

Chapter 19: Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets

Chapter 19: Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets Chapter 19: Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets Comet Superstition Throughout history, comets have been considered as portants of doom, even until very recently: Appearances of comet Kohoutek (1973), Halley

More information

Chapter 25. Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets

Chapter 25. Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets Chapter 25 Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets Guidepost In Chapter 19 you began your study of planetary astronomy by considering evidence about how our solar system formed. In the five chapters that followed

More information

Griffith Observatory Samuel Oschin Planetarium. Griffith Observatory Samuel Oschin Planetarium. Griffith Observatory Samuel Oschin Planetarium

Griffith Observatory Samuel Oschin Planetarium. Griffith Observatory Samuel Oschin Planetarium. Griffith Observatory Samuel Oschin Planetarium Test 04 Chapters 15-20 Limited Copies Are available Griffith Observatory Samuel Oschin Planetarium June 4 th from 8:00 pm - 10:00 pm Covering ALL Tests Slide 1 Slide 2 Griffith Observatory Samuel Oschin

More information

11/16/2015. Uranus. Chapter 15. Uranus, Neptune and the Kuiper Belt. The Atmosphere of Uranus. The Motion of Uranus. Cloud Structure of Uranus

11/16/2015. Uranus. Chapter 15. Uranus, Neptune and the Kuiper Belt. The Atmosphere of Uranus. The Motion of Uranus. Cloud Structure of Uranus Uranus Chance discovery by William Herschel in 1781 Chapter 15 Uranus, Neptune and the Kuiper Belt Hershel was scanning the sky for nearby objects with measurable parallax: discovered Uranus as slightly

More information

Vagabonds of the Solar System

Vagabonds of the Solar System Vagabonds of the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How and why were the asteroids first discovered? 2. Why didn t the asteroids coalesce to form a single planet? 3. What do asteroids look like? 4. How

More information

12/3/14. Guiding Questions. Vagabonds of the Solar System. A search for a planet between Mars and Jupiter led to the discovery of asteroids

12/3/14. Guiding Questions. Vagabonds of the Solar System. A search for a planet between Mars and Jupiter led to the discovery of asteroids Guiding Questions Vagabonds of the Solar System 1. How and why were the asteroids first discovered? 2. Why didn t the asteroids coalesce to form a single planet? 3. What do asteroids look like? 4. How

More information

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 15

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 15 Vagabonds of the Solar System Chapter 15 ASTR 111 003 Fall 2007 Lecture 13 Nov. 26, 2007 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I: Solar System Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-15)

More information

Astr 1050 Wed., March. 22, 2017

Astr 1050 Wed., March. 22, 2017 Astr 1050 Wed., March. 22, 2017 Today: Chapter 12, Pluto and Debris March 24: Exam #2, Ch. 5-12 (9:00-9:50) March 27: Mastering Astronomy HW Chapter 11 & 12 1 Chapter 12: Meteorites, Asteroids, Comets

More information

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice. Asteroid Facts. NEAR Spacecraft: Asteroid Eros

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice. Asteroid Facts. NEAR Spacecraft: Asteroid Eros Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt Asteroid Facts Asteroids are rocky leftovers of planet formation Largest is Ceres, diameter ~1,000 km (most smaller) 150,000 in

More information

Lecture 39. Asteroids/ Minor Planets In "Gap" between Mars and Jupiter: 20,000 observed small objects, 6000 with known orbits:

Lecture 39. Asteroids/ Minor Planets In Gap between Mars and Jupiter: 20,000 observed small objects, 6000 with known orbits: Lecture 39 Interplanetary Matter Asteroids Meteorites Comets Oort Cloud Apr 28, 2006 Astro 100 Lecture 39 1 Asteroids/ Minor Planets In "Gap" between Mars and Jupiter: 20,000 observed small objects, 6000

More information

Chapter 11. Meteors, Asteroids and Comets. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 11. Meteors, Asteroids and Comets. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 11 Meteors, Asteroids and Comets Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Asteroids and Comets Orbiting the Sun are numerous small bodies the

More information

Chapter 11. Meteors, Asteroids and Comets. YT: If a meteor hits the Earth

Chapter 11. Meteors, Asteroids and Comets. YT: If a meteor hits the Earth Chapter 11 Meteors, Asteroids and Comets YT: If a meteor hits the Earth Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Asteroids and Comets Orbiting the

More information

Smaller Bodies of the Solar System Chapter 2 continued

Smaller Bodies of the Solar System Chapter 2 continued Smaller Bodies of the Solar System Chapter 2 continued Small, rocky (sometimes metallic) bodies with no atmospheres. or planetoids 100,000 numbered and 12,000 named 1-1000 km in size most are small ~ 1

More information

Images of Planets 11/18/08. Cassini Movie

Images of Planets 11/18/08. Cassini Movie Announce: Look at Essay 4 for next week Thursday is Einstein Movie Images of Planets Cassini Movie Review of Ch. 9 Ch. 10 Errors in Crab Lab. 11/18/08 Images of Planets Cassini Movie Ch. 9 Questions Second

More information

Chapter 4 The Solar System

Chapter 4 The Solar System Chapter 4 The Solar System Comet Tempel Chapter overview Solar system inhabitants Solar system formation Extrasolar planets Solar system inhabitants Sun Planets Moons Asteroids Comets Meteoroids Kuiper

More information

Solar System Junk however, a large number of bodies were left over as Junk or the debris of planet building

Solar System Junk however, a large number of bodies were left over as Junk or the debris of planet building Solar System Junk So far, we ve taken a brief look at the 8 planets of the solar system, their array of moons or natural satellites, and how we think such a system formed. Most of the material in the solar

More information

1 Solar System Debris and Formation

1 Solar System Debris and Formation 1 Solar System Debris and Formation Chapters 14 and 15 of your textbook Exercises: Do all Review and Discussion and all Conceptual Self-Test 1.1 Solar System Debris Asteroids small rocky bodies Most under

More information

Origin of the Solar System

Origin of the Solar System Origin of the Solar System and Solar System Debris 1 Debris comets meteoroids asteroids gas dust 2 Asteroids irregular, rocky hunks small in mass and size Ceres - largest, 1000 km in diameter (1/3 Moon)

More information

Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 3 Lesson 6 Small Bodies in the Solar System. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Florida Benchmarks SC.8.N.1.1 Define a problem from the eighth grade curriculum using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of

More information

1star 1 star 9 8 planets 63 (major) moons asteroids, comets, meteoroids

1star 1 star 9 8 planets 63 (major) moons asteroids, comets, meteoroids The Solar System 1star 1 star 9 8 planets 63 (major) moons asteroids, comets, meteoroids The distances to planets are known from Kepler s Laws (once calibrated with radar ranging to Venus) How are planet

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Natures, Orbits, and Impacts. Chapter 12 Review Clickers

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Natures, Orbits, and Impacts. Chapter 12 Review Clickers Review Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Natures, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroids a) are rocky and small typically the size of a grain of rice or

More information

6. (11.2) What shape are typical asteroids and how do we know? Why does Ceres not have this shape?

6. (11.2) What shape are typical asteroids and how do we know? Why does Ceres not have this shape? SUMMARY Our Solar System contains numerous small bodies: dwarf planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. They are important astronomically because they give us information about the time of formation,

More information

1 of 5 5/2/2015 5:50 PM

1 of 5 5/2/2015 5:50 PM 1 of 5 5/2/2015 5:50 PM 1. A comet that has a semi-major axis of 100 AU must have a period of about 10 years. 20 years. 100 years. 1000 years. 2. Astronomers believe chondrite meteorites are about 4.6

More information

Solar System Debris. Asteroids 11/28/2010. Large rocky debris orbiting the Sun. Ceres, the largest asteroid. Discovering Asteroids

Solar System Debris. Asteroids 11/28/2010. Large rocky debris orbiting the Sun. Ceres, the largest asteroid. Discovering Asteroids Solar System Debris Material leftover from the formation of the Solar System Gives important clues about its origin Composition: Asteroids and Meteoroids: rock and iron Comets: ice and dust The basic building

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 14. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 14. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 14 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 14 Solar System Debris Units of Chapter 14 14.1 Asteroids What Killed the Dinosaurs? 14.2 Comets 14.3 Beyond Neptune 14.4

More information

Chapter 9 Remnants of Rock and Ice. Asteroids, Comets, and Pluto

Chapter 9 Remnants of Rock and Ice. Asteroids, Comets, and Pluto Chapter 9 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and Pluto 9.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our Goals for Learning Why is there an asteroid belt? How are meteorites related to asteroids? Asteroid Facts

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 26

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 26 ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Class 26 Asteroids Friday, March 9 and Comets Ceres: Basic characteristics Mass = 9.46 10 20 kg Diameter = 920 km Density = 2,080 kg/m³ Sidereal

More information

GET-WISE Presentation on Collisions in the Solar System Dr. Jeffrey Morgenthaler

GET-WISE Presentation on Collisions in the Solar System Dr. Jeffrey Morgenthaler When Worlds Collide GET-WISE Presentation on Collisions in the Solar System Dr. Jeffrey Morgenthaler Copyright, 1996 Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. Introduction This talk is about impacts between objects

More information

Asteroids Physical Properties. Solar System Debris. Missions to Asteroids. Types of Asteroids (based on composition)

Asteroids Physical Properties. Solar System Debris. Missions to Asteroids. Types of Asteroids (based on composition) Solar System Debris Asteroids Physical Properties Spacecraft Missions Origin Orbits Risk to Earth Tens to hundreds of km in diameter Comets History Structure Orbits Origin Missions Meteoroids & Meteor

More information

The Formation of the Solar System

The Formation of the Solar System The Formation of the Solar System Basic Facts to be explained : 1. Each planet is relatively isolated in space. 2. Orbits nearly circular. 3. All roughly orbit in the same plane. 4. Planets are all orbiting

More information

Brooks Observatory telescope observing

Brooks Observatory telescope observing Brooks Observatory telescope observing Mon. - Thurs., March 22 55, 8:30 to about 9:45 PM See the class web page for weather updates. This evening s session has been cancelled. Present your blue ticket

More information

Physics Homework 5 Fall 2015

Physics Homework 5 Fall 2015 1) As the solar nebula contracts it 1) A) cools due to condensation. B) spins faster due to conservation of angular momentum. C) flattens out into the ecliptic plane around the Sun's poles. D) loses angular

More information

Physics Homework 5 Fall 2015

Physics Homework 5 Fall 2015 1) Long period comets are thought to reside mainly in the 1) A) Interstellar Medium. B) asteroid belt. C) Oort Cloud. D) Kirkwood gaps. E) Kuiper Belt. 2) Pluto is most similar to 2) A) Mercury. B) Triton.

More information

Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999

Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999 Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999 Reminder: When I write these questions, I believe that there is one one correct answer. The questions consist of all parts a e. Read the entire

More information

Asteroid/Comet/Meteor Reading Homework Instructions: Read pages and answer the following questions.

Asteroid/Comet/Meteor Reading Homework Instructions: Read pages and answer the following questions. Name Date Block: Due Date: Asteroid/Comet/Meteor Reading Homework Instructions: Read pages 333-358 and answer the following questions. Page 333 1. What are 4 examples of minor bodies in our solar system?

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts. Chapter 12 Lecture

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts. Chapter 12 Lecture Chapter 12 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts

More information

Two significant figures are enough! You can round your calculations to 2 significant figures. Hopefully this will prevent some of the sloppy

Two significant figures are enough! You can round your calculations to 2 significant figures. Hopefully this will prevent some of the sloppy Homework Issues Two significant figures are enough! You can round your calculations to 2 significant figures. Hopefully this will prevent some of the sloppy mistakes. The speed of light is 299,792,458

More information

What are they? Where do they come from?

What are they? Where do they come from? Comets What are they? Where do they come from? Lesson Objectives To distinguish between the orbits of planets and those of comets. To describe the likely origins of short-period and long-period comets.

More information

Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION

Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION CHAPTER 4 The Solar System Lecture Presentation 4.0 What can be seen with the naked eye? Early astronomers knew about the Sun, Moon, stars, Mercury,

More information

This asteroid was visited by the NEAR Shoemaker probe, which orbited it, taking extensive photographs of its

This asteroid was visited by the NEAR Shoemaker probe, which orbited it, taking extensive photographs of its Chapter 9 Part 1 Asteroids and Comets Why is there an asteroid belt? This asteroid was visited by the NEAR Shoemaker probe, which orbited it, taking extensive photographs of its surface, and, on February

More information

Comets, Asteroids, and Meteorites. Clues to the Origin of the Solar System

Comets, Asteroids, and Meteorites. Clues to the Origin of the Solar System Comets, Asteroids, and Meteorites Clues to the Origin of the Solar System Is Pluto a Planet? Introduction There is evidence that the small amounts of debris that we observe in our Solar System is a remnant

More information

At this point of its orbit, any solar satellite such as a comet or a planet is farthest away from the sun. What is the aphelion?

At this point of its orbit, any solar satellite such as a comet or a planet is farthest away from the sun. What is the aphelion? At this point of its orbit, any solar satellite such as a comet or a planet is farthest away from the sun. What is the aphelion? These small, rocky worlds orbit the sun generally between the orbits of

More information

Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System

Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System Guiding Questions 1. Are all the other planets similar to Earth, or are they very different? 2. Do other planets have moons like Earth s Moon? 3. How do astronomers

More information

Lecture 16 Dwarf Planets and Comets January 8a, 2014

Lecture 16 Dwarf Planets and Comets January 8a, 2014 1 Lecture 16 Dwarf Planets and Comets January 8a, 2014 2 Pluto -- Basic Information Discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 Period: P orb = 248 years Distance: a = 39.5 AU 3 moons (Charon, Nix, Hydra) Demoted

More information

Astronomy Wed. Oct. 6

Astronomy Wed. Oct. 6 Astronomy 301 - Wed. Oct. 6 Guest lectures, Monday and today: Prof. Harriet Dinerstein Monday: The outer planets & their moons Today: asteroids, comets, & the Kuiper Belt; formation of the Solar System

More information

Small Bodies in our Solar System. Comets, Asteroids & Meteoroids

Small Bodies in our Solar System. Comets, Asteroids & Meteoroids Small Bodies in our Solar System Comets, Asteroids & Meteoroids * A Small Body is any object in the solar system that is smaller than a planet or moon, such as a comet, an asteroid, or a meteoroid. Compiled

More information

The Solar System. Sun. Rotates and revolves around the Milky Way galaxy at such a slow pace that we do not notice any effects.

The Solar System. Sun. Rotates and revolves around the Milky Way galaxy at such a slow pace that we do not notice any effects. The Solar System Sun Center of the solar system About 150,000,000 km from the Earth An averaged sized, yellow star Spherical in shape due to gravity Made of about ¾ hydrogen and ¼ helium, both of which

More information

The solar system pt 2 MR. BANKS 8 TH GRADE SCIENCE

The solar system pt 2 MR. BANKS 8 TH GRADE SCIENCE The solar system pt 2 MR. BANKS 8 TH GRADE SCIENCE Dwarf planets Following the discovery of multiple objects similar to Pluto (and one that was even bigger than Pluto) a new classification for planets

More information

What s in our solar system?

What s in our solar system? What s in our solar system? *Sun *Planets Terrestrial Jovian Dwarf Smaller objects *Meteoroids *Comets Dust http://www.techastronomy.com/userfiles/2007/7/22/solar_system4(1).jpg *Sun a. Most of mass (>99%)

More information

Solar System Debris: Comets and Asteroids

Solar System Debris: Comets and Asteroids 1 Solar System Debris: Comets and Asteroids Primarily found in two zones in the solar system. The Asteroid Belt (rocky, between Jupiter and Mars) The Edgeworth/Kuiper Belt (beyond Neptune) and Oort Cloud

More information

Asteroids. Titius-Bode Law (1766) updated May 16, Orbit of 1 Ceres. Ceres Discovered Structure of Ceres. Ceres (Hubble Space Telescope)

Asteroids. Titius-Bode Law (1766) updated May 16, Orbit of 1 Ceres. Ceres Discovered Structure of Ceres. Ceres (Hubble Space Telescope) Asteroids Titius-Bode Law (1766) 2 The distances between the planets gets bigger as you go out. Johann Daniel Titius ( 1729 1796) Johann Elert Bode (1747-1826) updated May 16, 2013 Titius & Bode came up

More information

Exploring Our Solar System

Exploring Our Solar System Exploring Our Solar System Our Solar System What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with the statement

More information

Exploring Our Solar System

Exploring Our Solar System CHAPTER 21 Exploring Our Solar System LESSON 1 Our Solar System What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. ASTRO 102/104 Prelim #3 Name Section MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) This is version E of the exam. Please fill in (E) A) This

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. ASTRO 102/104 Prelim #3 Name Section MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) This is version A of the exam. Please fill in (A) A) This

More information

Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System. Chapter Seven

Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System. Chapter Seven Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System Chapter Seven ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 07 Oct. 16, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17)

More information

News. Exam 4/Final is Saturday December 9 at 2:00 p.m. here in Clark 107

News. Exam 4/Final is Saturday December 9 at 2:00 p.m. here in Clark 107 News Exam 4/Final is Saturday December 9 at 2:00 p.m. here in Clark 107 A review session will be held on Friday December 8 at 5:15 p.m. (most likely here in this room) A sheet of review questions is available

More information

Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors. By: Annette Miles

Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors. By: Annette Miles Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors By: Annette Miles What is a comet? A comet is a small body which scientists sometimes call a planetesimal. They are made out of dust, ice rock, gas, and. They are kind of

More information

The Little Things. Today. Rings, meteorites. Asteroids & Comets. Dwarf Planets Events. Homework 5. Due

The Little Things. Today. Rings, meteorites. Asteroids & Comets. Dwarf Planets Events. Homework 5. Due Today The Little Things Rings, meteorites Asteroids & Comets Dwarf Planets Events Homework 5 Due geysers on Triton Rocky Planets versus Icy Moons Rock melts at higher temperatures. Only large rocky planets

More information

Meteorites. A Variety of Meteorite Types. Ages and Compositions of Meteorites. Meteorite Classification

Meteorites. A Variety of Meteorite Types. Ages and Compositions of Meteorites. Meteorite Classification Meteorites A meteor that survives its fall through the atmosphere is called a meteorite Hundreds fall on the Earth every year Meteorites do not come from comets First documented case in modern times was

More information

Ch. 6: Smaller Bodies in the Solar System

Ch. 6: Smaller Bodies in the Solar System Ch. 6: Smaller Bodies in the Solar System FIGURE 9-1 (Discovering the Universe) Different Classifications of Solar System Objects Some of the definitions of the different types of objects in the solar

More information

Bit of Administration.

Bit of Administration. Bit of Administration. Washburn Observatory Thursday, 8:30-9:30 Portfolios Due Thursday, April 29,, because of possible TAA strike Put in box outside 6522 Sterling All 5 must be securely bound together,

More information

Asteroids, Comets and Meteorites. What is an Asteroid? Asteroids discovered. Asteroid facts. Example Asteroids

Asteroids, Comets and Meteorites. What is an Asteroid? Asteroids discovered. Asteroid facts. Example Asteroids Asteroids, Comets and Meteorites Perseid meteor shower courtesy NASA Eros: courtesy NASA What is an Asteroid? View from 50 km ~1.5 1.5 km Comet McNaught in 2007 by Aberdeen Astronomical Society member

More information

Unit 12 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System?

Unit 12 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System? Unit 12 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System? The Solar System Earth, other planets, and the moon are part of a solar system. A solar system is made up of a star and the planets and other

More information

Earth in the Universe Unit Notes

Earth in the Universe Unit Notes Earth in the Universe Unit Notes The Universe - everything everywhere, 15-20 billion years old Inside the universe there are billions of Galaxies Inside each Galaxy there are billions of Solar Systems

More information

Asteroids, Comets and Meteorites

Asteroids, Comets and Meteorites Asteroids, Comets and Meteorites Perseid meteor shower courtesy NASA Eros: courtesy NASA Comet McNaught in 2007 by Aberdeen Astronomical Society member Phil Hart, in Melbourne What is an Asteroid? View

More information

Chapter 12 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts

Chapter 12 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Chapter 12 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts

More information

Radioactive Dating. U238>Pb206. Halflife: Oldest earth rocks. Meteors and Moon rocks. 4.5 billion years billion years

Radioactive Dating. U238>Pb206. Halflife: Oldest earth rocks. Meteors and Moon rocks. 4.5 billion years billion years U238>Pb206 Halflife: 4.5 billion years Oldest earth rocks 3.96 billion years Meteors and Moon rocks 4.6 billion years This is the time they solidified The solar system is older than this. Radioactive Dating

More information

Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian

Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian Part A Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian planets? Hint A.1 Major categories of ingredients in planetary composition The following

More information

UNIT 3: Chapter 8: The Solar System (pages )

UNIT 3: Chapter 8: The Solar System (pages ) CORNELL NOTES Directions: You must create a minimum of 5 questions in this column per page (average). Use these to study your notes and prepare for tests and quizzes. Notes will be turned in to your teacher

More information

Astronomy. physics.wm.edu/~hancock/171/ A. Dayle Hancock. Small 239. Office hours: MTWR 10-11am. Page 1

Astronomy.  physics.wm.edu/~hancock/171/ A. Dayle Hancock. Small 239. Office hours: MTWR 10-11am. Page 1 Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock adhancock@wm.edu Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Planetology I Terrestrial and Jovian planets Similarities/differences between planetary satellites Surface and atmosphere

More information

Astronomy 150: Killer Skies Lecture 6, January 30

Astronomy 150: Killer Skies Lecture 6, January 30 Astronomy 150: Killer Skies Lecture 6, January 30 Last time: Meteors Today: Asteroids and Comets Homework: HW 1 last chance! cutoff at 5pm today. HW 2 due this Friday at 1pm http://near.jhuapl.edu/iod/20000222/20000222.jpg

More information

Notes: The Solar System

Notes: The Solar System Notes: The Solar System The Formation of the Solar System 1. A gas cloud collapses under the influence of gravity. 2. Solids condense at the center, forming a protostar. 3. A falttened disk of matter surrounds

More information

Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids

Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids Bode s Law In 1772 Johann Bode, a German astronomer, created a mathematical formula now called Bode s Law. This formula determines the pattern that describes the distances

More information

The Solar System. Tour of the Solar System

The Solar System. Tour of the Solar System The Solar System Tour of the Solar System The Sun more later 8 planets Mercury Venus Earth more later Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Various other objects Asteroids Comets Pluto The Terrestrial Planets

More information

2010 Pearson Education, Inc. MAVEN launch yesterday

2010 Pearson Education, Inc. MAVEN launch yesterday MAVEN launch yesterday Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) How is Mars losing its atmosphere now? How did Mars lose its atmosphere in the past? 1. Determine the role that loss of volatiles to

More information

Astro 1: Introductory Astronomy

Astro 1: Introductory Astronomy Astro 1: Introductory Astronomy David Cohen Class 16: Thursday, March 20 Spring 2014 large cloud of interstellar gas and dust - giving birth to millions of stars Hubble Space Telescope: Carina Nebula

More information

10/3/18 east side of Revelle Plaza https://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/sio15 scroll down to table handwritten or printed submission before class 10/8 outside lecture hall no late/online submission 1 https://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/sio15

More information

Contents of the Solar System

Contents of the Solar System The Solar System Contents of the Solar System Sun Planets 9 known (now: 8) Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars ( Terrestrials ) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune ( Jovians ) Pluto (a Kuiper Belt object?) Natural

More information

Impacts from Above. Mass Extinctions: Death and Destruction

Impacts from Above. Mass Extinctions: Death and Destruction Impacts from Above 50,000 yr old Meteor Crater, AZ Watching the skies for potential catastrophes Mass Extinctions: Death and Destruction Five Big Mass Extinctions When (End of ) ~440 Myrs Ordovician ~360

More information

The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS. Scientific Language. Name Test Date Hour

The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS. Scientific Language. Name Test Date Hour Name Test Date Hour Astronomy#3 - Notebook The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS I can describe the objects that make up our solar system. I can identify the inner and outer planets. I can explain the difference

More information

Outline. Pluto s Surface. Last Homework before Exam (HW#4) is due Friday at 11:50am. Nighttime observing has 4 more nights. Check the webpage.

Outline. Pluto s Surface. Last Homework before Exam (HW#4) is due Friday at 11:50am. Nighttime observing has 4 more nights. Check the webpage. Last Homework before Exam (HW#4) is due Friday at 11:50am. Nighttime observing has 4 more nights. Check the webpage. 1 st exam is October 10 th 1 week away! Justin will have an extra office hour Thursday

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 4 - Group Homework Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Density is defined as A) mass times weight. B) mass per unit volume.

More information

Astronomy. physics.wm.edu/~hancock/171/ A. Dayle Hancock. Small 239. Office hours: MTWR 10-11am

Astronomy.  physics.wm.edu/~hancock/171/ A. Dayle Hancock. Small 239. Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock adhancock@wm.edu Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Planetology II Key characteristics Chemical elements and planet size Radioactive dating Solar system formation Solar nebula

More information

9.2 - Our Solar System

9.2 - Our Solar System 9.2 - Our Solar System Scientists describe our solar system as the Sun and all the planets and other celestial objects, such as moons, comets, and asteroids, that are held by the Sun s gravity and orbit

More information

Astronomy 3. Earth Movements Seasons The Moon Eclipses Tides Planets Asteroids, Meteors, Comets

Astronomy 3. Earth Movements Seasons The Moon Eclipses Tides Planets Asteroids, Meteors, Comets Astronomy 3 Earth Movements Seasons The Moon Eclipses Tides Planets Asteroids, Meteors, Comets Earth s Movements Orbit- the path in which an object travels around another object in space Revolution the

More information

Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System. Chapter Seven

Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System. Chapter Seven Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System Chapter Seven ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 07 Oct. 16, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17)

More information

Solar System. Sun, 8 planets, hundred moons, thousand.dwarf.planets million asteroids, billion comets etc.

Solar System. Sun, 8 planets, hundred moons, thousand.dwarf.planets million asteroids, billion comets etc. Solar System Sun, 8 planets, hundred moons, thousand.dwarf.planets million asteroids, billion comets etc. Comparative Planetology Compares planets and other solar system bodies to help understand how they

More information

A s t e r o i d s, C o m e t s & N E O s ( B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n )

A s t e r o i d s, C o m e t s & N E O s ( B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n ) A s t e r o i d s, C o m e t s & N E O s ( B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n ) Author: Sarah Roberts Asteroids Asteroids, Comets and NEOs - Background Information Asteroids are rocky objects which

More information

Pluto s orbit is tilted and significantly elliptical. Neptune orbits three times during the time Pluto orbits twice resonance prevents a collision.

Pluto s orbit is tilted and significantly elliptical. Neptune orbits three times during the time Pluto orbits twice resonance prevents a collision. Chapter 9 Part 2 Dwarf Planets and Impacts Pluto s Orbit Pluto s orbit is tilted and significantly elliptical. Neptune orbits three times during the time Pluto orbits twice resonance prevents a collision.

More information

Chapter 15: The Origin of the Solar System

Chapter 15: The Origin of the Solar System Chapter 15: The Origin of the Solar System The Solar Nebula Hypothesis Basis of modern theory of planet formation: Planets form at the same time from the same cloud as the star. Planet formation sites

More information

~15 GA. (Giga Annum: Billion Years) today

~15 GA. (Giga Annum: Billion Years) today ~15 GA (Giga Annum: Billion Years) today ~ 300,000 years after the Big Bang The first map of the Universe. Not homogeneous. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy. First detected by the COBE DMR

More information

Rings, asteroids, meteorites. Homework 5 Due. Thanksgiving next week. Final Dec. 20

Rings, asteroids, meteorites. Homework 5 Due. Thanksgiving next week. Final Dec. 20 Today Rings, asteroids, meteorites Events Homework 5 Due Thanksgiving next week Final Dec. 20 2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Saturn s rings Note refraction in atmosphere

More information

Chapter Outline. Earth and Other Planets. The Formation of the Solar System. Clue #1: Planetary Orbits. Clues to the Origin of the Solar System

Chapter Outline. Earth and Other Planets. The Formation of the Solar System. Clue #1: Planetary Orbits. Clues to the Origin of the Solar System Chapter Outline Earth and Other Planets The Formation of the Solar System Exploring the Solar System Chapter 16 Great Idea: Earth, one of the planets that orbit the Sun, formed 4.5 billion years ago from

More information

Starting from closest to the Sun, name the orbiting planets in order.

Starting from closest to the Sun, name the orbiting planets in order. Chapter 9 Section 1: Our Solar System Solar System: The solar system includes the sun, planets and many smaller structures. A planet and its moon(s) make up smaller systems in the solar system. Scientist

More information

HW #2. Solar Nebular Theory. Predictions: Young stars have disks. Disks contain gas & dust. Solar System should contain disk remnants

HW #2. Solar Nebular Theory. Predictions: Young stars have disks. Disks contain gas & dust. Solar System should contain disk remnants Astronomy 330: Extraterrestrial Life This class (Lecture 9): Next Class: Planet Formation Zachary Brewer Quinn Calvert Exoplanets Itamar Allali Brian Campbell-Deem HW #3 due Sunday night. Music: Another

More information

Lab 5: An Investigation of Meteorites Geology 202: Earth s Interior

Lab 5: An Investigation of Meteorites Geology 202: Earth s Interior Lab 5: An Investigation of Meteorites Geology 202: Earth s Interior Asteroids and Meteorites: What is the difference between asteroids and meteorites? Asteroids are rocky and metallic objects that orbit

More information

OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. James Martin. Facebook.com/groups/AstroLSSC Twitter.com/AstroLSSC

OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. James Martin. Facebook.com/groups/AstroLSSC Twitter.com/AstroLSSC OUR SOLAR SYSTEM James Martin Facebook.com/groups/AstroLSSC Twitter.com/AstroLSSC It s time for the human race to enter the solar system. -Dan Quayle Structure of the Solar System Our Solar System contains

More information

Asteroids: Introduction

Asteroids: Introduction Asteroids: Introduction Name Read through the information below. Then complete the Fill-Ins at the bottom of page. Asteroids are rocky objects that orbit the Sun in our solar system. Also known as minor

More information

IX. Dwarf Planets A. A planet is defined to be an object that is large enough to coalesce into a sphere and to have cleared its orbit of other

IX. Dwarf Planets A. A planet is defined to be an object that is large enough to coalesce into a sphere and to have cleared its orbit of other 7/1 VII. VIII. Uranus A. Gas Giant 1. Rings but not visible 2. HUGE axial tilt 97! 3. Mostly hydrogen and helium 4. Medium rotation rate 5. Cold 55 K at the cloud tops B. Physical characteristics 1. Mass:

More information