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1 !"#$%&'$(")*&$+,)*$-"+./&'$0,1&'2&$23 $4 &/1',"3 $5 -,6$!0($789&'23 &+1$,"#$%&'$:(( ;'<#=$-'=$(1&#,+$()*,&/ 1

2 Hubble Space Telescope 2

3 ? Quantumgravity? A. Einstein W. Heisenberg 3

4 What is the total Energy density! of the Universe? Radius!<1!=1!>1 Zeit! =! " +! Matter = 73% + 27% 4

5 The standard cosmological model In this model the Universe is: spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic on large scales composed of radiation, ordinary matter (electrons, protons, neutrons and neutrinos) #4.4% cold dark matter, #23% which we know nothing about. dark energy. #73% which we know less than nothing about. Galaxies and large scale structures grew gravitationally from tiny, nearly scale-invariant adiabatic Gaussian fluctuations which we know nothing about. 5

6 CMB History T=(3.5 ± 1.0) K T=(2.728 ± 0.004) K 6

7 7 0.2 WMAP 45 times sensitivity 7

8 8

9 Supernovae Ia:! o "! e z =! e

10 Combination of Observables Spergel et al. astro-ph/ Bennett et al. astro-ph/ The cosmological parameters describing the best fitting FRW model are: Total density:! 0 = 1.02 ± 0.02 Vacuum energy density:! " = 0.73 ± 0.04 Matter density:! m = 0.27 ± 0.04 Baryon density:! b = ± Neutrino density:! $ < %CL) Hubble constant: h = 0.71 ± 0.04 Age of the universe: t 0 = (13.7 ± 0.2) Gyr Baryon/Photon ratio: % = (6.1 ± 0.3) 10-10

11 Other evidence for Cold Dark Matter? M33 stellar disk DM halo B. Moore, ETH Zürich gas?

12 Wim de Boer et al., EPS867 m 1/ 2 = 350 GeV " m = 144 GeV!

13 13

14 The AMS Experiment is based on an idea by Prof. Dr. Samuel C.C. Ting, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Nobel price 1976) 14

15 Primary particles by supernovae explosions, Secondary particles from nuclear interactions. Diffusion parameters determined from sec./prim. ratios, e.g. B/C ratio Halo size determined from radioactive isotopes e.g. 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio (!( 10 Be)= yr)

16 The AMS Collaboration Prof. Dr. S. Ting 16

17 AMS-01 Configuration on STS-91 Flight June 2-12 th, 1998 Energy Range: 100 MeV/n<E k < 300 GeV/n Electronics channels:! Power:! 1 kw Weight: 3 t 17

18 AMS-01: STS-91 Flight Results Data taking!135 hours Shuttle altitude!370 km Trigger rate Hz 100 million events recorded Energy Range: 100 MeV/n<E k < 300 GeV/n Electronics channels:! Power:! 1 kw Weight: 3 t 18

19 19

20 Stability of the Si-tracker 20

21 Search for anti-matter with AMS-01 N N He He < "! % CL) >50 contributions related to AMS-01 at ICRC 2001 in Hamburg 21

22 Search for Anti-Matter with AMS-02 Time on ISS: 3 years AMS02 statistics 10 3 AMS01 superconductivity magnet B-field: 0.15 T # 0.9 T momentum reach x 6 exclude a sphere of 1000 Mpc 22

23 AMS-02 TRD: Particle ID & 3D tracking 20 layers fleece + Xe/CO2 gas 5248 channels, 6mm straw tubes p + /e + < 10-2 from GeV Upper TOF, 2 layers, Trigger, s 125 ps Anticoincidence (VETO) counter Double sided Si-strip tracker with internal laser alignment system, CFC support structure 6 m 2 in 3 double and 2 single layers 1s charge separation up to 1 TeV Super conducting magnet (ETH Zürich) B=0.9T, V=0.6m 3, 2600 l He Lower TOF, 2 layers, 1.3 m distance p + /e + > 3 s below 2 GeV RICH AGL+NaF Radiator for A<28 and Z<29 separation > 3 s from 1-12 GeV ECAL 3D sampling lead/scint.-fibre p + /e + < 10-4 from GeV 23

24 e p Proton rejection:

25 RWTH Aachen Uni. Genf CERN, Genf 25

26 26

27 27

28 28

29 Teilchenidentifikation 29

30 AMS-02: TRD Project MIT RWTH Aachen Uni. Karlsruhe Uni. Rome 30

31 TRD Support Structure 31

32 32

33 33

34 Required mechanical accuracy < 0.1 mm Expected weight: 53 kg measured: 52 kg 34

35 35

36 36

37 FE-model measured after vibration test 1 after thermo vacuum test after vibration test 2 1. eigenfrequency [Hz] x y z

38 38

39 39

40 40

41 Wire tension measurements 41

42 TRD single Straw Test to select 5248 good straws 42

43 43

44 All straw modules have been produced & tested: Safety factor for the TRD: 8.2! 8.2 x 3 years = 24 years operation on ISS St. Schael 44

45 328 straw modules have been produced: 45

46 Detector Thermal Vacuum Test 4 layers of straw modules Gas System UHVD (FM) UFE (FM)

47 AMS-02 Transition Radiation Detector 47

48 TRD FE-electronics: 20 Watt for 5248 channels => multiplexed pulsheight only V 48

49 FE-electronic: Space Qualification Vibration test up to 6.8 g (90 s), thermo vaccum test (-30 C, +60 C) 49

50 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Test EMI Co. Munchen Octagon-Like Housing Multilayer Insulation Screen According to the "Space Station Electromagnetic Emission and Susceptibility Requirements for the Electromagnetic Compatibility" SSP30237 paragraphs RS02, RS03 and RE02 Electric field sensor EMI emitter Wave : Horizontal / Vertical Polar. Frequency range : 10 khz ~ 1 GHz Electric Field : 5 ~ 100 [V/ m] 50

51 Space Qualification Tests Electromagnetic Emission from one UFE board Acceptable Limit Line for Full TRD Acceptable Limit Line for one UFE Before shielding After appropriate shielding of cables 51

52 IEKP Karlsruhe, Prof. Dr. W. de Boer DAQ with 2x/3x redundancy UDR for data reduction (1Mbyte/s limit) R&D: Karlsruhe, RWTH, MIT, Geneva, C.A.E.N. Production: CSIST (Taiwan) 52

53 53

54 TRD Test Beam Results I 20 layer TRD detector in the test beam at CERN in 2000 we have recorded 3 million events providing signals for protons, electrons, muons and pions at energies from GeV Muon events have been used for an intercalibration of the individual straws to a relative accuracy of 2%. 54

55 TRD Testbeam Results The TRD fulfills the specification of: proton rejection > 100 at an electron efficiency of 90% up to 260 GeV 55

56 Summary AMS offers a world wide unique discovery potential for new physics to build a modern particle physics detector which can be operated in space for 3 years is a technical challenge we are looking forward to the liftoff in Summer

57 Superconducting Magnet 2500 liters superfluid He planned to last 3 years without refill Field ~1T " measurement of rigidity to a few TV 57

58 The Nation s Vision 4. Focus ISS research to support exploration goals; understanding space environment and countermeasures 5. Meet foreign commitments 17. Pursue international participation y04k412.ppt 58

59 59

60 National Council on Radiation Protection (US) recommends a career limit of 200 rem. Long term Radiation effects on Astronauts cannot be studied accurately. The best way to protect Astronauts is to reduce radiation (rem) to minimum i.e: to ~ 20 rem/y: mission dose will be only 20% of the career dose of 200 rem 60

61 61

62 Skin Dose (Rem) 62

63 AMS on ISS Accurate Understanding of Space Environment Nuclear charge 63

64 64

65 65

66 66

67 67

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