3 Statics Principles The laws of motion describe the interaction of forces acting on a body Newton s First Law of Motion (law of inertia): An object in a state of rest or uniform motion will continue to be so unless acted upon by another force. Newton s Second Law of Motion: Force = Mass x Acceleration istockphoto.com
4 Statics Principles Newton s Third Law of Motion: For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force. istockphoto.com
5 Equilibrium Static Equilibrium: A condition where there are no net external forces acting upon a particle or rigid body and the body remains at rest or continues at a constant velocity SUM OF ALL FORCES EQUALS ZERO istockphoto.com
6 Structural Member Properties Centroid: center of gravity or center of mass. Object is in state of equilibrium if balanced along its centroid Moment of Inertia: Stiffness of an object related to its shape. a higher Moment of Inertia produces a greater resistance to deformation. Modulus of Elasticity Ratio of stress to strain. Inherent to the material.
7 Right Triangle Review SOHCAHTOA Sin q = O/H Cos q = A/H Tan q = O/A Be able to use Right triangle properties or Pythagorean s Theorem to solve for a hypotenuse
8 Vectors: have magnitude, direction and sense y - axis lbs F x = F * cos q F x = 100lbs * cos 30 F x = 87 lbs x - axis The vector has a magnitude of 100 lbs, a direction of 30 degrees CCW from the positive x axis. Its sense is up and to the right. F y = F * sin q F y = 100lbs * sin 30 F y = 50 lbs
9 Forces in Tension and Compression A force is a push or pull exerted by one object on another. A tensile force expands or lengthens the object it is acting on. A compressive force compresses or shortens the object it is acting on.
10 A moment of a force is a measure of its tendency to cause a body to rotate about a point or axis. It is the same as torque. A moment (M) is calculated using the formula: Moment = Force * Distance M = F * D Always use the perpendicular distance between the force and the point!
11 Typically it is assumed: A moment with a tendency to rotate counter clockwise (CCW) is considered to be a positive moment. A moment with a tendency to rotate clockwise (CW) is considered to be a negative moment.
12 FBDs are used to illustrate and calculate forces acting upon a given body. Roller: F y Pin Connection: Fixed Support: M o F y F y F x F x
13 Draw a FBD of the pin at point A: T AB A B T AC T AD T AE C D E Pin-Connected Pratt Through Truss Bridge Free Body Diagram of pin A (If you consider the third dimension, then there is an additional force acting on point A into the paper: The force of the beam that connects the front of the bridge to the back of the bridge.)
14 Steps for finding Reaction Forces 1. Draw a FBD of the entire system 2. F X = 0 3. F Y = 0 4. M = 0 You may need to sum moments about more than 1 point 5. Use the above equations to solve for reaction forces (substitute back into 2 or 3) 6. Redraw the FBD with reaction forces
15 Step 1: FBD of system B Each block is 1 by 1 A C C Ay Cy
16 Step 2: Sum Forces in X direction = to zero B 50 lb + Cx = 0 Cx = -50 lbs Therefore, Cx = 50 lb pointing left, not right A C C Cy
17 Step 3: Sum Forces in Y direction = to zero B -100 lb + Ay + Cy = 0 I can not solve this further A C C Cy
18 Step 4: Sum Moments = to zero Sum mom. about C = 0 B -Ay* lb* lb * 4 = 0 Each block is 1 by 1-6 Ay +150 = 0 Ay = 25 lb A C C Cy
19 Step 5: Use other equations to find unknowns B -100 lb + Ay + Cy = lb + Cy = 0 Cy = 75 lb A C C Cy
20 Step 6: Redraw FBD B A C 50 lb 75 lb
21 Truss Review
22 Steps for finding Truss Forces 1. Solve for Reaction forces a. Draw a FBD of the entire system b. F X = 0; F Y = 0; M = 0 c. Use the above equations to solve for reaction forces 2. FBD of each joint (use vector properties) 3. F X = 0; F Y = 0 at each joint 4. Solve for forces 5. Draw final FBD
23 Truss Example B A C C Ay Cy
24 Truss FBD with solved Reaction Forces B A C 50 lb 75 lb
25 Steps for finding Truss Forces 1. Solve for Reaction forces a. Draw a FBD of the entire system b. F X = 0; F Y = 0; M = 0 c. Use the above equations to solve for reaction forces 2. FBD of each joint (use vector properties) 3. F X = 0; F Y = 0 at each joint 4. Solve for forces 5. Draw final FBD
26 Joint A Fab Fbc Joint C A Fac Fac C 50 lb 25 lb 50 lb Fab 100 lb Joint B B Fbc 75 lb
27 Steps for finding Truss Forces 1. Solve for Reaction forces a. Draw a FBD of the entire system b. F X = 0; F Y = 0; M = 0 c. Use the above equations to solve for reaction forces 2. FBD of each joint (use vector properties) 3. F X = 0; F Y = 0 at each joint 4. Solve for forces 5. Draw final FBD
28 Joint A Fab FIND q For Joint A Fab B 5 A Fac A q Fac 2 25 lb 25 lb Find q: Tan q = O/A Tan q = 5/2 q = 68.2 deg
29 Joint A A Fab Fac Redraw Joint In X and Y Components 25 lb Fab Y = F sin q = F sin 68.2 A Fab X = F Cos q = F cos 68.2 Fac 25 lb
30 Joint A Fab Sum Forces in X and Y directions A 25 lb Fac Sum forces in y = 0 F sin lb = F = -25 lb Fab = lb Fab = 26.9 lb in compression Fab Y = F sin q = F sin 68.2 Sum forces in x = 0 Fcos F ac = * cos 68.2 = -Fac -10 = -Fac Fac = 10 lb in tension A 25 lb Fab X = F Cos q = F cos 68.2 Fac
31 B FIND q For Joint C 5 4 q Joint C Find q: Tan q = O/A Tan q = 5/4 q = 51.3 deg
32 Redraw Joint In X and Y Components Fac Fbc Joint C C 50 lb Fbc Y = F sin q = F sin lb Fbc X = F cos q = F cos 51.3 Fac = 10 lbs 50 lb 75 lb
33 Sum Forces in X and Y directions Fbc Joint C Sum forces in x = 0-50 lb 10 lb - Fcos 51.3 = 0-60 lb =.625Fbc -96 = Fbc Fbc = 96 lb in compression Fac Fbc Y = F sin q = F sin 51.3 C 75 lb 50 lb Fbc X = F cos q = F cos 51.3 Sum forces in y = 0 F sin lb = 0 Fac = 10 lbs 75 lb 50 lb 0.78 F = -75 lb Fbc = -96 lb Fab = 96 lb in compression
34 Material Properties
35 What Are Materials? Materials: Substances out of which all things are made Materials are consist of pure elements and are categorized by physical and chemical properties Elements Metals Nonmetals Metalloids
36 Material Composition - Elements Metal Elements Distinguishing Characteristics Good conductors of heat and electricity, hard, shiny, reflect light, malleable, ductile, typically have one to three valence electrons
37 Material Composition - Elements Nonmetal Elements Distinguishing Characteristics Most are gases at room temperature Solids are dull, brittle, and powdery; electrons are tightly attracted and restricted to one atom; poor conductors of heat and electricity
38 Material Composition - Elements Metalloids Distinguishing Characteristics Possess both metallic and nonmetallic properties
39 Material Composition Compounds and Mixtures Compounds: created when two or more elements are chemically combined Most substances are compounds Mixtures: Non-chemical combination of any two or more substances Elements within the mixture retain their identity
40 Material Classification Common material classification categories: Metallic Materials Ceramic Materials Organic Materials Polymeric Materials Composite Materials
41 Metallic Materials Distinguishing Characteristics Pure metal elements (Not commonly found or used) Metal element compounds (alloy) (Commonly used due to the engineered properties of the compound) Thermal and electrical conductors Mechanical properties include strength and plasticity
42 Ceramic Materials Distinguishing Characteristics Compounds consisting of metal and nonmetal elements Thermal and electrical insulators Mechanical properties include high strength at high temperatures and brittleness
43 Organic Materials Distinguishing Characteristics Are or were once living organisms Consist of mostly carbon and hydrogen Genetically alterable Renewable Sustainable
44 Polymeric Materials Distinguishing Characteristics Compounds consist of mostly organic elements Low density Mechanical properties include flexibility and elasticity Polymeric Subgroups Plastics Elastomers
45 Composite Materials Distinguishing Characteristics Composed of more then one material Designed to obtain desirable properties from each individual material
46 Material Selection Refined material selection based upon: Mechanical Physical Thermal Electromagnetic Chemical Should also include recyclability and cost when choosing appropriate materials for a design
47 Mechanical Properties Material Selection Deformation and fracture as a response to applied mechanical forces Strength Hardness Ductility Stiffness
48 Material Selection Thermal Properties Affected by heat fluxes and temperature changes Thermal Capacity Heat storage capacity of a material Thermal Conductivity Capacity of a material to transport heat Thermal Expansion How a material expands or contracts if the temperature is raised or lowered
49 Electrical Properties Material Selection Material response to electromagnetic fields Electrical Conductivity Insulators, dielectrics, semiconductors, semimetals, conductors, superconductors Thermoelectric Electrical stimuli provoke thermo responses; thermo stimuli provoke electrical responses
50 Chemical Properties Material Selection Response and impact of environment on material structures Oxidation and Reduction Occur in corrosion and combustion Toxicity The damaging effect a material has on other materials Flammability The ability of a material to ignite and combust
51 Manufacturing Process Product Creation Cycle Design Material Selection Process Selection Manufacture Inspection Feedback Typical product cost breakdown
52 Manufacturing Processes Raw Materials undergo various manufacturing processes in the production of consumer goods
53 Material Testing
54 Material Testing Engineers use a design process and formulas to solve and document design problems. Engineers use destructive and nondestructive testing on materials for the purpose if identifying and verifying the properties of various materials. Materials testing provides reproducible evaluation of material properties
55 Stress- Strain Curve: created from tensile testing data E = = Stress Strain E is the Elastic Modulus. E is the slope of the line in the elastic region.
56 Using data points, you can identify and calculate material properties: -Modulus of elasticity -Elastic limit -Resilience -Yield point -Plastic deformation -Ultimate strength -Failure -Ductility
57 Stress: average amount of force exerted per unit area
58 Strain: a measurement of deformation in a structure due to applied forces. Strain is calculated from: Strain = or ε= / L Deformation Original Length Strain is deformation per unit length, a dimensionless quantity
59 Proportional Limit: greatest stress a material is capable of withstanding without deviation from straight line proportionality between the stress and strain. If the force applied to a material is released, the material will return to its original size and shape. Yield Point: The point at which a sudden elongation takes place, while the load on the sample remains the same or actually drops. If the force applied to the material is released, the material will not return to its original shape.
60 Ultimate Strength: The point at which a maximum load for a sample is achieved. Beyond this point elongation of the sample continues, but the force exerted decreases.
61 Modulus of Elasticity: A measure of a material s ability to regain its original dimensions after the removal of a load or force. The modulus is the slope of the straight line portion of the stress-strain diagram up to the proportional limit. Modulus of Resilience: A measure of a material s ability to absorb energy up to the elastic limit. This modulus is represented by the area under the stress vs. strain curve from 0-force to the elastic limit.
62 Modulus of Toughness: A measure of a material s ability to plastically deform without fracturing. Work is performed by the material absorbing energy by the blow or deformation. This measurement is equal to the area under the stress vs. strain curve from its origin through the rupture point.
63 Calculate Ultimate stress, stress at proportional limit, and modulus of elasticity given an initial length of 3 inches and a cross sectional area of 0.02 in 2.
65 A 1 diameter piece of steel is 15 feet long. If the total tensile load in the steel is 125,000 pounds and the modulus of elasticity is 30,000,000 psi, calculate using the 5 step engineering process: a) The tensile stressb) The total elongation caused by the loadc) The unit elongation-
66 A 1 diameter piece of steel is 15 feet long. If the total tensile load in the steel is 125,000 pounds and the modulus of elasticity is 30,000,000 psi, calculate using the 5 step engineering process: a) The tensile stressb) The total elongation caused by the loadc) The unit elongation- Stress = P/A = 125,000 lbs/ (pi* 0.5 in* 0.5in) = 159,155 psi Elongation = P*L / (A*E) = 125,000 lbs * 15 feet / (pi* 0.5 in* 0.5in* 30,000,000 psi) = 0.08 ft or 0.96 inches. Unit Elongation is Strain, or deformation divided by length. =0.08 feet/15 feet =
67 A 2 by 6 rectangular steel beam is 60 feet long and supports an axial load of 15, 000 lbs. Calculate using the 5 step engineering process: a) The maximum unit tensile stress in the rod. b) The maximum allowed load (P) if the unit tensile stress must not exceed 20,000 psi. c) The total elongation if = 30,000,000 psi using the maximum allowed load from part B.
68 A 2 by 6 rectangular steel beam is 60 feet long and supports an axial load of 15, 000 lbs. Calculate using the 5 step engineering process: a) The maximum unit tensile stress in the rod. b) The maximum allowed load (P) if the unit tensile stress must not exceed 20,000 psi. c) The total elongation if = 30,000,000 psi using the maximum allowed load from part B. Area = 2 * 6 = 12 in^2 Stress = P/A = lbs /12in^2 = 1,250 psi Stress = P/A 20,000 psi = P/12 in^2 P = 240,000 lbs Elongation is (P*L)/(A*E) = 240,000 lbs * 60 feet / (12 in^2 * 30,000,000 psi) = 0.04 feet or 0.48 in.
69 Deflection of Rod under Axial Load = P * L A * E Deflection is measure of the deformation in a structure. Where: P is the applied load L is the length A A is the cross section area E is the elastic modulus L P
70 Stress/ Strain Example 1 A sample of material is ¼ diameter and must be turned to a smaller diameter to be able to be used in a tensile machine. The target breaking point for the material is 925 pounds. The tensile strength of the material is 63,750 psi. What diameter would the sample have to be turned to in order to meet the specified requirements?
71 Stress/ Strain Example 1 Knowns: Unknowns: Load = 925 lb Dia final =? Stress = 63,750 psi
72 Drawing: Stress/ Strain Example 1 Equations: A = 2 D σ = = D 4 P A
73 Stress/ Strain Example 1 Substitution: psi = 925lbs.7854D 2 Solve: D 2 = 925lbs (.7854in)(63750psi) in in 2 D = = 0.136
74 Stress/ Strain Example 2 A strand of wire 1,000 ft. long with a cross-sectional area of 3.5 sq. inches must be stretched with a load of 2000 lb. The modulus of Elasticity of this metal is 29,000,000 psi. What is the unit deformation of this material?
75 Drawing: Stress/ Strain Example 2 Equations: = ε = PL AE L
76 Stress/ Strain Example 2 Knowns: L = 1000 = A = 3.5 in 2 P = 2000 lb E = 29 x 10 6 psi Unknowns: Unknowns: ε
77 Stress/ Strain Example 2 Substitution/Solve: = PL = (2000lb)(12000in) =0.236 in AE (3.5in )(29x10 psi) ε = = = in L.236in 12000in 2 6
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