# Department of Mechanical Engineering

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1 Department of Mechanical Engineering 2.14 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEMS Fall Term 23 Problem Set 5: Solutions Problem 1: Nise, Ch. 6, Problem 2. Notice that there are sign changes in the characteristic polynomial, indicating that there is at least one unstable pole. Construct the Routh array: s s s 3 ɛ 1 s 2 1 4ɛ ɛ -2 s 1 2ɛ2 +1 4ɛ 1 4ɛ s -2 If ɛ is a small positive quantity, there are three sign changes in the left column, indicating 3 rhppoles,andtwolhppoles. Problem 2: Nise, Ch. 6, Problem 28. The closed-loop transfer function is G cl (s) = G(s) 1+G(s)H(s) = K(s 4 s 3 +2s +2) (K +1)s 2 +2(1 K)s +(2k +1) A sufficient condition for stability of a second-order system is that all coefficients are positive or K > 1 K < 1 2K > 1 and we conclude that the system will be stable for 1 2 <K<1. Problem 3: Nise, Ch. 6, Problem 52. The closed-loop transfer function is G cl (s) = Construct the Routh array: K s s s + ( K) s s K s K s K 1

2 and we conclude that for stability <K< Problem 4: Nise, Ch. 8, Problem 49. Notice the negative sign in G 2 (s), effectively turning this into a positive feedback system. Matlab s rlocus() function will not handle positive feedback cases, and assumes that the gain K 2 is always positive. If you read Nise pp you will realize that the sketching rules change for positive feedback systems, particularly the regions on the real axis and the angles of the asymptotes. Matlab s rltool allows for positive feedback, so just to prove that the system is always unstable for K 2 >, I plotted the root locus below: 1 Editor (C) Imag Axis We can use the normal root locus methods if we define another gain say K 2 = K 2,and know that the final value of K 2 must be negative for stability. (a) I use rlocus() to sketch the root locus: >> G2=zpk(-1.6,[ ],58) Zero/pole/gain: 58 (s+1.6) (s+14) (s+4.9) (s-1.8) >> rlocus(g2) >> sgrid which generates the following plot: 2

3 (b) I used the mouse to adjust the gain to move one the closed-loop poles on to the origin (point of instability) and read the gain as K 2 =.15. I therefore conclude that the inner loop will be stable if K 2 <.15. (c) Using the lines on the sgrid as a guide, I use the cursor to find a point on the locus for ζ =.5, I find that the required gain is K 2 =.473 or K 2 =.473. (d) I use Matlab to find the closed loop transfer function of the inner loop: >> inner = feedback(.473*g2,tf(1,1)) Zero/pole/gain: (s+1.6) (s+1.9) (s^ s ) >> outeropen = inner*tf(1,[1 ]) Zero/pole/gain: (s+1.6) s (s+1.9) (s^ s ) >> rlocus(outeropen) >> sgrid generating the plot: 3

4 and I used the cursor to find that the system becomes unstable at K 1 = 16. (e) I used the cursor to find the point on the locus where the complex poles have a ζ =.45. The answer is K 1 =2.59. Problem 5: Nise, Ch. 8, Problem 52. This one is an algebraic mess! To use the root locus method we need to have a characteristic equation in the form that satisfies the angle and magnitude conditions, that is 1+KG(s) =. We can rearrange the characteristic equation of G dt (s) in the following form: 1+N 2 K HSS(J R s 2 + K LSS )(J G s 2 [τ el s +1]+K G s) J R s 2 K LSS [(J G s 2 + K HSS )(τ el s +1)+K G s] = and use N 2 as the root locus parameter. I used Matlab to do the whole thing. The following is a.m file I wrote to do it. Notice that I used the conv(a,b) function to multiply polynomials. You can to the expansion by hand if you wish: % 2.14 Fall 23 Problem Set 5, Problem 5 % Nise Chapter 4, Problem 52 % % D. Rowell % 1/7/3 % echo on % First Enter the system parameters, as defined in the problem % (compare the symbolic and numerical transfer functions): Khss=31e3; 4

5 Jr=1912; Klss=12.6e6; Jg=3.8; tau=2e-3; Kg=668; % To use the root-locus method we must write the characteristic equation % in the form % 1 + N^2 Num(s)/Den(s) = % and use N^2 as the root locus parameter. If you look at the denominator % you ll see that we can use: % Num(s) = Khss(Jr*s^2 + Klss)(Jg*s^2(tau*s+1)+Kg*s) % and Den(s) = JrKlss*s^2*((Jg*s^2 + Khss)(Tau*s+1) +Kg*s) % You can use any method you like to expand these out, I used the "conv" % function to multiply polynomials. % First define the numerator, form the coefficient arrays of the two terms a = [Jg*tau Jg Kg ]; b = [Jr Klss]; % and convolve them to form Num(s) Num = Khss*conv(a,b); % The denominator is just a little trickier: c = conv([jg Khss],[tau 1]); c(3) = c(3)+kg; Den = Jr*Klss*conv([1 ],c); % We re ready to go! Form our system object from the Num and Den % polynomials sys=tf(num,den) % and get the root locus. Note that you will need to zoom in on the plot % to examine the detail around the origin to find the zeta=.5 point. rlocus(sys) sgrid pause % Using the cursor, I guessed the value of N^2 to be about 2.17x1^3 Nsquare=2.17e3; % Now create the overall transfer function from the equation at the top of % page 492 and the bits and pieces we already have: GearTrain = tf([3.92*klss*khss*kg*nsquare ], Nsquare*Num+Den) figure; % display the poles pole(geartrain) % and plot the step response. step(geartrain) % and note that the final value comes out to You can use the % final-value theorem to show that that is correct. % 5

6 (a) The following root locus plot was generated: (b) I zoomed in on the origin to find the ζ =.5point on the dominant complex poles: On the plot I found that the required N 2 = 217, or N = 47. Although it was not asked for, I also plotted the step response of the system: 6

7 5 Step Response Amplitude Time (sec) 7

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