ANSWER KEY: VOLCANOES

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1 190 ANSWER KEY: VOLCANOES Reading 1: Volcanic Eruptions (25 minutes/25 points) Read the questions first and then look for the information in the article. You do not need to write in complete sentences. 1. Where would you find this reading? Check ( ) one. textbook government document academic journal novel Skill: I 5 2. In which sections would you find the answers to the following questions? Write the number of the section next to the question. (5) Skills: P 1, U 17, U 18 IV II I V Where are volcanoes often situated? What is an example of a cinder cone? What is the definition of the word volcano? What does the Volcanic Explosivity Index measure? VI How long has Mount Etna been erupting? 3. What are the two main reasons that some volcanic eruptions turn into major human catastrophes? Settlement in risk-prone areas Skills: I 7 Human error 4. List 3 specific effects of volcanic activity since the 1980s. (3) (More than) 29,000 people killed (More than) 1 million people displaced $2,870,769,000 of economic damage ½ point for each of: people killed; people displaced; economic damage Skill: I 10

2 Give an example of a possible medical consequence of exposure to volcanic activity. Skill: U 17 One of : (skin and lung) burns; asphyxiation; conjunctivitis; acute respiratory problems; thyroid cancer 6. Complete the chart with details about the various types of volcanoes. (5) Skill: S 22 Major Types of Volcanoes Kind Composition Height Shape Example Shield Volcanoes Cinder or Scoria Cones Strato- Volcanoes or Composite Volcanoes Fluid basaltic lava flows and a small percentage of pyroclastic materials Ejected lava fragments e.g., fine ash, bombs (molten rock) Two of: (Viscous) lava (fine) ash rocks (2 points) Relatively short A broad gentlysloping cone with a flattish domical top 30 to 400 metres Cone-shaped hill with steep sides (1 point) (Often exceed) 2,500 m. (1 point) Nearly symmetrical steep-sided cone One of: Iceland The islands of the Hawaiian chain/hawaii Mauna Loa (1 point) Volcanic field near Flagstaff Arizona Mt. Etna Mt Fuji (in Japan) Mt Vesuvius (in Italy) 7. Look at the chart above. What is the major difference between a cinder cone and a stratovolcano? height Skill: S What is the definition of converging? (The plates are) moving together OR Anything else that has this meaning Skill: U List two features of the Ring of Fire. Two of: (Is a relatively narrow zone that) borders the Pacific Ocean Most stratovolcanoes are found there Has 452 volcanoes About ¾ of the world s active and dormant volcanoes (lie within its sphere) Half of Ring of Fire is in Asia Skills: U 18, I 10

3 What magnitude were the following eruptions? Mount Pinatubo: 6 (½ point) Skill: P 3, U 13 Nevado del Ruiz: 3 (½ point) 11. Why are progressively more people living on the sides of volcanoes? Beauty of the landscape Lack of living space Skill: I 9, U According to the reading, which of the following statements is most correct? Check ( ) one. Skill: I 11 A high level volcanic eruption can cause the most danger for people living nearby. A low level volcanic eruption can cause the most danger for people living nearby. _ High or low level volcanic eruptions can cause major danger for people living nearby. STOP! THIS IS THE END OF READING 1

4 193 Listening 20 minutes/35 points During this part of the test you will hear a lecture about Volcanoes. The lecture will be played only once. You must answer the questions while you are listening to the lecture. The questions follow the sequence of the lecture. Do not stop to rewrite your answers during the listening. At the end of the lecture, you will have 5 minutes to go over your answers. Take 3 minutes now to read over the questions before listening to the lecture. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS WHILE LISTENING TO THE LECTURE 1. Which issue mentioned last class will be today s topic? Check ( ) one. Volcanoes Background information on volcanic eruptions Human settlements on and near volcanoes Skill: I2 2. Name the focuses of today s lecture. Skill: I 3 Why people live near/on volcanoes Hawaii 3. How many Sicilians live on the flanks of Mount Etna? 1 in 5 Must have complete answer for 1 point. No ½ marks. Skill: I 4

5 Complete the flow chart to show how a volcanic eruption leads to fertile soil. (5) Skill: U 13 Volcanic eruption Materials such as ash(0.5), lava & rock(0.5) emitted Weathering: exposure to atmosphere causes materials to disintegrate and decompose Release of nutrients and minerals into soil Soil becomes very porous Can hold more oxygen underground Can hold water without drowning roots Fertile soil

6 Complete the chart about volcano-related jobs. (7) Skill: S 21 Jobs in the Vicinity of Volcanoes Field of work Volcano s contribution Types of Jobs Places Agriculture Fertile soil; melting snow One of: Farmer Truck driver Tourism Snow; spectacular scenery; unique features like lava flows and geysers Mining Two of (0.5 each): Copper, gold, silver, lead and zinc Industry Lava rock used in construction of roads and buildings; Ash used in making abrasive and cleansing agents; Sulphur in medicine &(making of) matches. In: Two of: hotels, restaurants, shops, national parks miner Mt Etna grow olives and fruit Iceland. Yellowstone National Park in U.S. receives about 3 million visitors a year Mt. St. Helens, U.S. New Zealand basalt and scoria used for building airport buildings & roads Electricity Geothermal energy One of: Italy, New Zealand, U.S., Iceland 6. List two beneficiaries of high employment. Two of: Local economy ) OR Economy National economy ) Country Government Skill: U 16

7 Explain what the lecturer means when she says people get blasé about volcanoes. Idea of being unconcerned/relaxed Because: Idea of volcano does not erupt frequently/people do not believe volcano will erupt in their lifetime/do not believe catastrophe will happen to them/an eruption will not be too bad/think early warning system will give them time to leave Skill: P 1 8. What are the chances of being killed by a volcano? (About) 1 in 80,000 Must have complete answer for 1 point. No ½ marks. Skill: I 4 9. List two of the reasons with which the lecturer supports the statement that people are apathetic about leaving a volcanic area. Skill: I 6 People are born in volcanic areas Families may have lived there for generations Only lifestyle they have known Would be an effort to uproot oneself and move elsewhere 10. What is the last reason the lecturer gives for not moving away from a volcano. Skill: U 16 Lack of choice OR do not have the economic resources to move OR No money to finance a move 11. Fill in the chart with the information about each of the following Hawaiian volcanoes. (5) Skill: S 21 Mauna Loa Has erupted repeatedly in the last 100 years 1984 eruption: (caused rivers of) lava to reach within 6 km of city of Hilo Kilauea Has erupted repeatedly in the last 100 years (Has been continuously) erupting since 1983 In 1990,lava covered town of Kalapana to depth of over 15 metres: residents escaped but homes incinerated damage: 181 houses and 12 km of highway destroyed Health effects from vog: respiratory (problems) (3) Hualalai Last erupted in 1801 Expected to erupt in coming decades Loihi Still 3,000 feet below ocean surface but predicted to form another island

8 Why do the people of Hawaii feel safe living on volcanoes? Eruptions not explosive (in nature) OR Eruptions are gentle outflows of very fluid lava Skill: U What does the lecturer find more troubling about the building of homes on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa since a 1950 eruption? Skill: U 12 Two of: Built (on a rift zone) where eruptions have occurred in the past 0.5 = Built on a rift zone directly downslope from potential vents lava (from vents) flow right into homes (and other buildings) 14. What was the government s response to the construction of a residential area on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa? Check ( ) one. Thought it didn t make much sense Skill: U 11 Thought it was a good idea Was happy people wanted to live there Did nothing 15. Why is the U.S. government monitoring and predicting volcanic activity in Hawaii? To provide timely warnings to local officials and to the public To help guide land-use planning decisions To determine when people need to be evacuated or roads closed Skill: U Why is the task of lessening the risk from volcanic activity becoming increasingly difficult in Hawaii? Population growing Skill: U 17 STOP! THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING

9 198 Reading 2 (25 minutes/25 points) Read the questions first and then look for the information in the article. You do not need to write in complete sentences. 1. In which volcanic zone are the volcanoes mentioned in the first four paragraphs located? Ring of Fire Skill: I 8 2. Complete the chart with details about specific volcanoes. (7) Name of Volcano Date of Eruption Previous Eruptions Human Casualties Property Damage Mt. St. Helens, United States May 18, (people) dead 200 homes destroyed 400 sq. m. of timberrich land decimated $2.7 billion Skill: S 22, P 4 Main Volcanic sources of casualties and damage Avalanche of rock, pumice and ash (poured down mountain) Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines Mt. Merapi, Indonesia Nov. 13, 1985 June 1991 Oct-Nov ,000 killed (½ point) 5,000 injured (½ point) 450 years (earlier) 2006 Has regularly erupted since killed 100,000 homeless Buried and destroyed town of Armero (73 km. from summit) $200 million damage to property Two of (½ point each): (Almost) $½ billion 4,979 homes destroyed 70,257 homes damaged 353 killed One of: (Estimated in the) billions (Over) $100 million to agriculture Lahar/river of mud & debris 0 = Plinian eruption of mixed dacite & andesite tephra 0 = flooding Lahars One of: (Flows of) pyroclastic material (Rivers of heated) mud ½ point = ash

10 What frequently causes more casualties than necessary when a volcano erupts? (It is) human behaviour (that frequently) causes more casualties than necessary. Skill: P 3 4. What period of time was there between the beginning of volcanic activity at Mt. St. Helens and its eruption? Skill: U 15 March 1980 to May 18, 1980 OR 2 months 5. List two examples of unwise human behaviour at Mount St. Helens prior to the eruption. Skill: U 13 Two of: Homes built around the base of the mountain After evacuation, homeowners were pressuring the authorities to lift the evacuation order Logging companies had successfully lobbied (the local government) to make the restricted area smaller (than recommended by the U.S. Geological Survey). 6. Complete the chart: (4) Skill: S 22 Scientists Did not read signals (that the volcano was about to explode well enough) Could not say exactly when eruption would occur The Armero Tragedy: Human Errors Governmental officials or politicians (3) Did not take warnings seriously Politicans in Colombian Congress criticized the scientists and civil defence authorities for scaremongering with hazard maps Local officials failed to give warnings (as to seriousness of situation) Mayor of Armero sought to reduce level of anxiety after ash eruption on November 13 Local and national authorities worried about monetary consequences of preventative measures such as a large-scale evacuation No evacuation Difficult to accept that a dangerous eruption might occur (last eruption 140 years before)

11 What assumption might have been made by land-use planners from knowledge of the route of the 1595 and 1845 lahars? Skill: S 20 Idea that any future lahar would also probably follow that route 1 point: A land-use plan forbidding construction of communities in the path of previous lahars might have saved many lives. 8. According to Russian volcanologists, what is the meaning of a yellow warning after a move from a period of heightened volcanic activity? Skill: S 21, I 10 1 point = Volcanic activity has decreased significantly but continues to be closely monitored for possible renewed increase. ½ point = Volcanic activity has decreased significantly 0 point = Continues to be closely monitored for possible renewed increase. 9. Are scientists able to predict the exact date, magnitude or duration of a volcano? Circle one. YES NO Skill: U Why are many of the world s active volcanoes not consistently monitored? Lack of means OR Lack of money Skill: I What was reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute? People living near Etna were more prone to thyroid cancer Skill: U Choose the best answer. Check ( ) one. It is safe to live more than 100 km from a volcano It is safe to live more than 10 km from a volcano _ Each volcano must be assessed individually to determine the safe zone Skill: S In your own words, explain why Central America is more likely than Indonesia to have a large number of fatalities from even a small volcanic eruption. Skill: S 23 Idea that Central America has more volcanoes near urban areas urban areas are dense/have a lot of people 0 points = entirely copied or almost entirely copied

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