1 CH Be able to Explain the factors that determine the type of volcanic eruption. List the 3 types of volcanoes Describe the features of a volcano.
2 What is a Volcano? Volcanoes are sites where molten rock and other materials from Earth s mantle are released. Magma is less dense than Earth s crust so it rises to the surface.
3 Magma vs. Lava Molten rock below Earth s surface is called magma. The magma that reaches the surface and erupts out of a volcano is called lava.
4 Anatomy of a Volcano A crater is the depression at the summit of a volcano or that which is produced by a meteorite impact.
5 Anatomy of a Volcano Volcanoes also release gases (smoke) and rock fragments into the air. Pyroclastic material (tephra) fragments ejected, from the size of large rocks to dust particlesized fragments (ash).
6 Anatomy of a Volcano Below ground, magma pools in pockets called magma chambers.
7 Anatomy of a Volcano The pathway that magma takes to Earth s surface are called pipes. A vent is an opening in the surface of Earth through which molten rock and gases are released.
8 Where do volcanoes occur? About half of the Earth s active volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire. Around the Pacific Ocean.
9 Where do volcanoes occur? Most volcanic activity is found at the edges of tectonic plates. Divergent boundaries 2 oceanic plates Ocean ridge» Most magma produced Convergent boundaries 2 oceanic plates Volcanic island arc oceanic & continent plate Continent volcano arc
10 Where do Volcanoes Occur? Not at a plate boundary Intraplate volcanism A big blob of magma rises to the surface as a mantle plume and becomes a hot spot. The Hawaii Islands formed this way. ege/geo/egeo/flash/2_10.swf van/geol101/animations/55.swf
12 Factors Affecting Eruptions Factors that determine the violence of an eruption Composition of the magma (silica content) Temperature of magma Dissolved gases in the magma (%) Viscosity of magma Viscosity (stickiness) is the measure of a material's resistance to flow. Low viscosity = magma runs like water High Viscosity = magma runs like syrup
13 3 Types of Magma (1 st type ) Basaltic (mafic) Magma Contains low amounts of silica High Temperature (1200 C) Low amount of gas Low viscosity flows quickly.(like water) Gases escape easily. Results in gentle eruptions. Forms shield volcanoes
14 3 Types of Magma (2 nd type) Andersite Magma (Granite-like) Moderate silica amount Moderate Temp C Moderate amount of gas Moderate Viscosity flows slower. (like oil) Gases can t escape easily Results in moderate explosive eruptions. Eruptions will send solid particles into the air. Forms Composite volcanoes
15 3 Types of Magma (3 rd type) Rhyolitic Magma (Granite-like) High silica amount Low temperature ( ºC) High amount of gases High Viscosity flows very slow. (like honey) Gases can t escape easily Results in moderate explosive eruptions. Eruptions will send solid particles into the air. Forms Calderas, Pryoclastic Flows
17 Volcanic Types The piles of volcanic materials, known as volcanic cones, are classified into 3 main types.
18 Volcanic Types 1) Shield Volcano Volcanic cones that are broad at the base and have gentle sloping sides. Wider than tall Fluid basaltic lava More quiet lava eruptions. Example: Hawaiian Islands
19 Hot Spots Most shield volcanoes form over hot spots. The Hawaii Islands formed this way. Tip: Oldest island is Kaui ege/geo/egeo/flash/2_10.swf van/geol101/animations/55.swf
20 Volcanic Types 2) Cinder Cones Cinder cone is made of solid fragments ejected from the volcano Ejected fragments are the size of cinders. Fine ash to pea-size or walnut size particles Gas-rich basaltic magma Usually a single eruption Have very steep slopes and rarely more than a few hundred meters high. Example: Sunset Crater (AZ)
21 Volcanic Types 3) Composite Cone (Stratovolcano) Most violent type of activity Gas-rich magma High in silica High Viscosity magma Most are located around the Pacific Ocean (Ring of Fire) These volcanoes will have layers of lava and rock on top of each other. These develop into high, steep volcanic mountains. Example: Mt. Saint Helens (WA)
22 Profiles of Volcanic Landforms
23 Other Volcanic Landforms CALDERAS When the magma chamber below the volcano is emptied, the volcanic cone may collapse. Leaving a large, basinshaped depression called a caldera. Size can exceed 1 kilometer in diameter.
24 Other Volcanic Landforms Lava Plateaus Fluid basaltic lava extruded from crustal fractures called fissures. Greatest volume of volcanic material comes from fissures.
25 Columbia Plateau One of the worlds largest accumulations of lava. Over 500,000 square kilometers of the Earth's surface is covered by it. The topography here is dominated by geologically young lava flows that inundated the countryside with amazing speed, all within the last 17 million years.
26 Predicting Eruptions Small earthquakes often increase before an eruption. An increase in strength of earthquakes. A slight bulging of the surface of the volcano. Changes in composition of gases given off.
27 Etna, Italy Elevation: 10,991 feet (3,350 m)
28 Pinatubo, Philippines Elevation: 5248 ft (1600 m)
29 Mount Hood, Oregon 11,237 feet, 3,426 m
30 Paricutin, Mexico Most of the explosive activity was during the first year of the eruption when the cone grew to 1,100 feet (336 m).
31 Cotopaxi, Ecuador Elevation: 19,000ft (5,911m)
32 Mount St. Helens, WA Elevation: 8,363 feet (2,549 m)
33 Mount Rainier, Washington Elevation: 14,409 feet (4,392 m)
34 Mauna Loa Elevation: 13,681 feet (4,170 m) Island of Hawaii
35 Fuji, Honshu, Japan Elevation: 3,776 m
36 Shasta, California the second highest (14,161 feet, 4,317 m)mountain in the Cascade Range
37 Olympus Mons, Mars The volcano is nearly 27 km high(85,000 ft or 16 mi) it is over 20 times wider (320 mi) than it is tall. Thus, most of the volcano has a fairly gentle surface slope
38 Kilauea, Hawaii
39 Label the parts of the Volcano
41 CH Be able to Explain the factors that determine the type of volcanic eruption. List the 3 types of volcanoes Describe the features of a volcano.
43 Volcano Facts Mauna Kea The dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands which is, measuring from its base underwater to its tip, the tallest mountain in the world. 33,500 ft.
44 The temperature of basalt lava at Kilauea reaches 1,160 degrees Celsius (2,120 degrees Fahrenheit). How Hot is Lava
45 How fast can lava cool? Basaltic lava can form crust to walk on in min, but may take months for the entire lava flow to cool. Some may take years.
46 How high can lava shoot? Lava fountains can propel lava 1,000 to 2000 feet above the volcano.
47 How fast does lava flow? Top speeds measured of lava flowing is 40 miles per hour.
49 Volcano Jokes What did the mama volcano say to the baby volcano? Don t erupt while I m talking to you. What did one volcano say to the other volcano? I lava you.
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