Volcano - A Volcano is an opening in the Earth s surface through which molten material or volcanic gases are erupted.

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1

2 What is a Volcano?

3 Volcano - A Volcano is an opening in the Earth s surface through which molten material or volcanic gases are erupted.

4 A volcano can either be a classic volcanic cone..

5 Mt. St. Helens, pre-1980

6 Mount Ranier

7 a crack in the ground, through which lava erupts

8 Or a simple volcanic vent.

9 How Magma Rises

10 Where are volcanoes located?

11 Major Volcanoes Around the World

12 Volcanic Settings

13 How and Where Volcanoes Form Volcanic activity takes place primarily at subduction boundaries, 1. Water in the subducted rock is released into the asthenosphere. 4. Some of the magma reaches Earth s surface, and volcanoes form on the overriding continental plate. Oceanic lithosphere Continental lithosphere Asthenosphere 2. The water lowers the melting temperatures of materials in the asthenosphere, leading to magma formation. 3. The magma is less dense than its surroundings, so it rises.

14 Ocean- Continental Subduction Pacific Northwest Volcanoes

15 Ocean- Ocean Subduction

16 Ocean- Ocean Subduction

17 Diverging Boundary Volcano

18

19 Hot Spot Volcano

20 How and Where Volcanoes Form Direction of Plate Movement Magma and volcanoes also form at Kauai Oahu Molokai Lanai Maui Hawaii hot spots. The Hawaiian Islands formed over a hot spot.

21 Major Hotspots of the World

22 Plate Tectonics and Magma Generation

23 Tectonic Settings and Volcanic Activity

24 Volcanoes are classified as either Active, Extinct or Dormant

25 Active

26

27

28 Mt. Ranier Dormat

29 Vesuvius

30 Extinct

31

32 Magma and Erupted Materials Parameters of volcanism: 1.Viscosity 2.Chemistry of Magma 3.Gases within the magma 4.Water content of magma

33 Magma and Erupted Materials Magma and Erupted Materials VOCABULARY viscosity lava pahoehoe aa pillow lava pyroclastic material pyroclastic flow Viscosity: Viscosity is a measure of how thick (viscous) and sticky a liquid is.

34 Types of Magma

35 Felsic Magma Characteristics: -light in color -high viscosity: means it is very thick and flows very slowly. -Associated with composite type volcanoes and continential hotspots -Found along continental-ocean subduction boundaries.

36

37 Mafic Magma Characteristics: -dark in color -low viscosity: means it is thinner and flows much faster -Associated with shield volcanoes, rift zones, and oceanic hotspots -Found at divergent boundaries and oceanic hotspots

38

39 Gases in Magma Water Vapor Carbon- Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Sulfur- Dioxide Hydrogen- Sulfide

40 Types of Lava

41 Pahoehoe Lava

42

43

44 Aa Lava Aa Lava

45

46

47 Pillow Lava

48

49 Types of Lava Fragments

50 Ash

51 Ash Layers

52

53 Pyroclastic Rock- Tephra

54

55 Pyroclastic Rock- Pumice

56 Cinder

57

58 Bombs

59

60 Blocks Blocks

61 Volcanic Blocks

62 Pyroclastic Flows

63 There are three types of volcanic cones: Cinder explosive eruptions, small but steep slopes, pyroclastics. Shield non-explosive eruptions, fluid basaltic lava, gentle broad slopes. Composite alternating between lava and pyroclastics, explosive and non-explosive eruptions, steep and tall.

64 Volcano Types

65 Volcanoes Volcanic Landforms VOCABULARY shield volcano cinder cone composite volcano lahar caldera lava plateau A volcano s shape and structure depend on how it erupts and what materials are released. Shield volcanoes are formed by basaltic lava that flows long distances before hardening. Shield Volcano

66 Shield and Composite Volcanoes

67 Volcanoes Volcanic Landforms Cinder cones are formed when molten lava is thrown into the air from a vent and breaks into drops. These drops harden into cinders that form a steep cone around the vent. Cinder Cone

68 Volcanoes Volcanic Landforms Composite volcanoes are formed by layers of pyroclastic materials and lava that have erupted in the past. Composite Volcano

69 Composite volcanoes

70 Debris Avalanche and Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

71 Nuee ardente: pyroclastic flow, of searing superheated gas and incandescent volcanic ash and dust Mount Pelee, on the Carribean island of Martinique, 1902 eruption. All but 2 of the more than 20,000 people in the town of St. Pierre were killed.

72 Lava Plateau

73 Volcanoes Volcanic Landforms A caldera is a large crater-shaped basin that forms when the top of a volcano collapses.

74 Formation of Crater Lake

75 EFFUSIVE ERUPTIONS Generally at hots spots, spreading centers Mantle comes directly to surface Hot lava; low viscosity, very mafic, flows easily, gases escape easily Forms shields, flood basalts

76 EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS Found at subduction zones Magma low temp (800 degrees C), high viscosity, does not flow easilty, more felsic mineralogy, gases trapped, hard to predict explosions Forms composite volcanoes, cinder cones, calderas, aerial bombs, nuee ardente gas flows, very destructive

77

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