2 Atoms to Operational Amplifiers The goal of this course is to teach the fundamentals of non-linear circuit elements including diodes, and transistors (BJT and FET), how they are used in circuits and real world applications. The course takes an atoms to opamps approach in which you learn about the fundamentals of electron movement in semiconductor materials and develop this basic knowledge into how we can construct devices from these materials that can control the flow of electrons in useful ways. We then extend this knowledge to how these devices can be used to form circuits that perform useful functions on electrical signals.
3 ... Atoms to Everything Else in Optoelectronics The goal of this course is to teach the fundamentals of non-linear circuit elements including diodes, and transistors (BJT and FET), how they are used in circuits and real world applications. The course takes an atoms to opamps approach in which you learn about the fundamentals of electron movement in semiconductor materials and develop this basic knowledge into how we can construct devices from these materials that can control the flow of electrons in useful ways. We then extend this knowledge to how these devices can be used to form circuits that perform useful functions on electrical signals. Nakamura, S. et al., High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes, Appl. Phys. Lett 67, 1868 (1995).
4 Modern amplifiers consist of extremely small devices Transistors in the above image are only a few microns ( m or 1e-6 meters) on a side. Modern devices have lateral dimensions that are only fractions of a micron (~0.1 m) and vertical dimensions that may be only a few atoms tall.
5 Control of Conductivity is the Key to Modern Electronic Devices Conductivity,, is the ease with which a given material conducts electricity. Ohms Law: V=IR or J= E where J is current density and E is electric field. Metals: High conductivity Insulators: Low Conductivity Semiconductors: Conductivity can be varied by several orders of magnitude. It is the ability to control conductivity that make semiconductors useful as current/voltage control elements. Current/Voltage control is the key to switches (digital logic including microprocessors etc ), amplifiers, LEDs, LASERs, photodetectors, etc...
6 Classifications of Electronic Materials Example: Silicon n=1 (2 s), n=2 (2 s and 6 p) and n=3 (2 s and 2 p with 4 unoccupied p states) Atoms contain various orbitals, levels or shells of electrons labeled as n=1, 2, 3, 4, etc or K, L, M, or N etc The individual allowed electrons states are simply allowed positions (energy and space) within each orbital/level/shell for which an electron can occupy. Electrons fill up the levels (fill in the individual states in the levels) from the smallest n shell to the largest occupying states (available orbitals) until that orbital is completely filled then going on to the next higher orbital. The outer most orbital/level/shell is called the Valence orbital. This valence orbital si the only one that participated in the bonding of atoms together to form solids.
7 Classifications of Electronic Materials The areas around these identical atoms are equally charged For metals, the electrons can jump from the valence orbits (outermost core energy levels of the atom) to any position within the crystal (free to move throughout the crystal) with no extra energy needed to be supplied For insulators, it is VERY DIFFICULT for the electrons to jump from the valence orbits and requires a huge amount of energy to free the electron from the atomic core. For semiconductors, the electrons can jump from the valence orbits but does require a small amount of energy to free the electron from the atomic core.
8 Classifications of Electronic Materials For metals, the electrons can jump from the valence orbits (outermost core energy levels of the atom) to any position within the crystal (free to move throughout the crystal) with no extra energy needed to be supplied For insulators, it is VERY DIFFICULT for the electrons to jump from the valence orbits and requires a huge amount of energy to free the electron from the atomic core. For semiconductors, the electrons can jump from the valence orbits but does require a small amount of energy to free the electron from the atomic core.
9 Classifications of Electronic Materials Valence Electrons Valence electrons can gain energy (thermal, electrical, magnetic or optical energy) and break away from the crystal. New Hole created (empty valence state) that can also move Conduction Electrons (free to move throughout the crystal) Semiconductor materials are a sub-class of materials distinguished by the existence of a range of disallowed energies between the energies of the valence electrons (outermost core electrons) and the energies of electrons free to move throughout the material. The energy difference (energy gap or bandgap) between the states in which the electron is bound to the atom and when it is free to conduct throughout the crystal is related to the bonding strength of the material, it s density, the degree of ionicity of the bond, and the chemistry related to the valence of bonding. High bond strength materials (diamond, SiC, AlN, GaN etc...) tend to have large energy bandgaps. Lower bond strength materials (Si, Ge, etc...) tend to have smaller energy bandgaps.
10 Example: Solar Cells Why do the electrons flow when light is present but not flow when light is not present? Answer, Energy Bandgap (very important concept).
11 Classifications of Electronic Materials More formally, the energy gap is derived from the Pauli exclusion principle, where no two electrons occupying the same space, can have the same energy. Thus, as atoms are brought closer towards one another and begin to bond together, their energy levels must split into bands of discrete levels so closely spaced in energy, they can be considered a continuum of allowed energy. Strongly bonded materials tend to have small interatomic distances between atoms. Thus, the strongly bonded materials can have larger energy bandgaps than do weakly bonded materials.
12 Material Classifications based on Bonding Method Bonds can be classified as metallic, Ionic, Covalent, and van der Waals.
13 Consider the case of the group 4 elements, all** covalently bonded Element Atomic Radius/Lattice Constant Bandgap (How closely spaced are the atoms?) C 0.91/3.56 Angstroms 5.47 ev Si 1.46/5.43 Angstroms 1.12 ev Ge 1.52/5.65 Angstroms 0.66 ev -Sn 1.72/6.49 Angstroms ~0.08 ev* Pb 1.81/** Angstroms Metal *Only has a measurable bandgap near 0K **Different bonding/crystal Structure due to unfilled higher orbital states
14 Classifications of Electronic Materials Types of Semiconductors: Elemental: Silicon or Germanium (Si or Ge) Compound: Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), Indium Phosphide (InP), Silicon Carbide (SiC), CdS and many others Note that the sum of the valence adds to 8, a complete outer shell. I.E. 4+4, 3+5, 2+6, etc...
15 Compound Semiconductors: Offer high performance (optical characteristics, higher frequency, higher power) than elemental semiconductors and greater device design flexibility due to mixing of materials. Binary: GaAs, SiC, etc... Classifications of Electronic Materials Ternary: Al x Ga 1-x As, In x Ga 1-x N where 0<=x<=1 Quaternary: In x Ga 1-x As y P 1-y where 0<=x<=1 and 0<=y<=1 Half the total number of atoms must come from group III (Column III) and the other half the atoms must come from group V (Column V) (or more precisely, IV/IV, III/V, or II/VI combinations) leading to the above reduced semiconductor notation. Example: Assume a compound semiconductor has 25% atomic concentrations of Ga, 25% atomic In and 50% atomic of N. The chemical formula would be: Ga 0.25 In 0.25 N 0.5 But the correct reduced semiconductor formula would be: Ga 0.5 In 0.5 N
16 Classifications of Electronic Materials Material Classifications based on Crystal Structure Amorphous Materials No discernible long range atomic order (no detectable crystal structure). Examples are silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), amorphous-si, silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ), and others. Though usually thought of as less perfect than crystalline materials, this class of materials is extremely useful. Polycrystalline Materials Material consisting of several domains of crystalline material. Each domain can be oriented differently than other domains. However, within a single domain, the material is crystalline. The size of the domains may range from cubic nanometers to several cubic centimeters. Many semiconductors are polycrystalline as are most metals. Crystalline Materials Crystalline materials are characterized by an atomic symmetry that repeats spatially. The shape of the unit cell depends on the bonding of the material. The most common unit cell structures are diamond, zincblende (a derivative of the diamond structure), hexagonal, and rock salt (simple cubic).
17 Crystalline Order Water Molecules, H 2 O, forming Snowflakes Atoms forming a Semiconductor Need two volunteers (demo on how a crystal forms naturally due to repulsive electronic bonds)
18 Crystal Growth: How do we get Single Crystalline Material? The vast majority of crystalline silicon produced is grown by the Czochralski growth method. In this method, a single crystal seed wafer is brought into contact with a liquid Silicon charge held in a crucible (typically SiO 2 but may have a lining of silicon-nitride or other material). The seed is pulled out of the melt, allowing Si to solidify. The solidified material bonds to the seed crystal in the same atomic pattern as the seed crystal.
19 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy Repeating a crystalline structure by the atom by atom addition. Chemistry controls the epitaxy to insure that, for example, Ga bonds only to N and not Ga-Ga or N-N bonds*.
20 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
21 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
22 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
23 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
24 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
25 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
26 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
27 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
28 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
29 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
30 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy
31 How do we create Bandgap Engineered Structures? Epitaxy E c E v GaN AlGaN AlGaN AlN GaN GaN GaN GaN
32 MBE Partially disassembled MBE system for clarity RHEED Gun Effusion Furnaces Gas Source (oxygen) Shutter mechanism
33 Commercial Veeco MBE
34 Alternative Methods: MOCVD Primarily used for II-VI, and III-V semiconductors, special metallic oxides and metals. Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) Many materials that we wish to deposit have very low vapor pressures and thus are difficult to transport via gases. One solution is to chemically attach the metal (Ga, Al, Cu, etc ) to an organic compound that has a very high vapor pressure. Organic compounds often have very high vapor pressure (for example, alcohol has a strong odor). The organic-metal bond is very weak and can be broken via thermal means on wafer, depositing the metal with the high vapor pressure organic being pumped away. Care must be taken to insure little of the organic byproducts are incorporated. Carbon contamination and unintentional Hydrogen incorporation are sometimes a problem. Human Hazard: As the human body absorbs organic compounds very easily, the metal organics are very easily absorbed by humans. Once in the body, the weak metal-organic bond is easily broken, thus, poisoning the body with heavy metals that often can not be easily removed by normal bodily functions. In extreme cases, blood transfusion is the only solution (if caught in time). Luckily, such poisoning is rare as the pyrophoric (flammable in air) nature of most metal organic means the victim is burned severely before he/she can be contaminated.
35 Commercial Thomas Swan MOCVD
36 Engineered Energy Behavior in Compound Semiconductors The potential distributions we will use in this class are all possible/common in device structures. Some may represent grown in potentials (quantum wells, etc...) or naturally occurring potentials (parabolic potentials often occur in nature lattice vibrations for example) including periodic potentials such as lattice atoms. E c Kinetic Energy Potential Energy E v E=-qV Arbitrary Reference Energy
37 So much for the introduction. Now on to the meat of the course.
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