Electrical equations calculations


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1 Task Use the following equations to answer the questions. You may need to rearrange the equations and convert the units. An example has been done for you. P = I x V V = I x R P = I 2 x R E = P x t E = Q x V Q = I x t power, P (watts, W) current, I (amperes, A) potential difference, V (volts, V) resistance, R (ohms, Ω) energy, E (joules, J) charge flow, Q (Coulombs, C) time, t (seconds, s) Example question A 6 V battery delivers 0.5 A of current. What is the power rating of the circuit? Step 1 Write down the variables you are given. V = 6 I = 0.5 P =? Step 2 Choose the formula that has those variables. Step 3 Substitute the numbers into the equation. P = I x V P = 0.5 x 6 3 W Step 4 Give the answer with the correct units. Questions 1. How much energy can an electric motor produce when it is plugged into a 110 V outlet with a total charge of 50 C passing through the motor? 2. If 80 J of energy is transformed over 1 hour by a button battery, what is its power? 3. If a light on a dolls house draws a current of 0.83 A, and has a resistance of 3.6 Ω, what is its power? Page 1 of 5
2 4. In a lightning flash, the potential difference between a cloud and the ground is 1.5 x 10 9 V and the amount of charge transferred is 25 C, calculate the change in energy. 5. If a light bulb has a power of 4 W and the voltage is 230 V, what is the current flowing through it? 6. A heater has 230 V running through it and uses 8.3 A. a. How many watts is this heater? b. What is its resistance? (to 2 significant figures) 7. If a generator produces 120 V with a charge of 60 C, how much energy is produced? 8. Calculate the power dissipated in a circuit that contains a 20 Ω and 4 A of current J of energy (work) is required to transfer 2 C of charge from X to Y. What is the potential difference between these two points? 10. What is the power in a circuit if the current is 3 A and the potential difference is 12 V? 11. How much energy is used in 2 minutes by a 50 W motor? 12. If a stage light is rated at 500 W and has a supply of 250 V. Calculate: a. The current flowing through it. b. The resistance of the bulb. 13. Now calculate the current and resistance through a 24 W, 12 V car headlight. Compare this with the stage light in question If 1.25 kj of energy is used to transfer 1500 C, what is the potential difference? Page 2 of 5
3 15. How many volts would it take to power a television if it draws 2 A and is rated at 160 W? 16. Work out the power if the energy supplied is 1200 J over 12 s. 17. What is the current if the power is 120 W and the voltage is 240 V? 18. If the current through an oven is 55 A, what charge flows in 60 s? 19. How many watts would a mobile phone charger be rated at if it was supplied with 0.5 A and 5 V? What would its resistance be? 20. What is the voltage of a wire that supplies 2 A to a 250 W light bulb? 21. What current flows through a 5 Ω lamp rated at 80 W? 22. What is the power rating of the light bulb in this circuit? 200 Ω 36 volts 23. Calculate the power of a washing machine if the current is 80 A and the potential difference is 200 V. 24. A lamp in a circuit has a potential difference of 12 V when the current is 2 A. a. Calculate the charge flow through the lamp in 300 s. b. The energy supplied to the lamp in 300 s. Brain teaser: A kitchen contains three 2 A light bulbs, one 10 A microwave, a gas stove, one 6 A toaster and one 8 A kettle. Everything is powered by 120 V. How many watts of electricity are consumed if someone boils some water on the stove in the dark? Page 3 of 5
4 Answer help sheet Step 1 Write down the variables you are given V = 6 I = 0.5 P =? Step 2 Choose the formula that has those variables Step 3 Substitute the numbers into the equation P = I x V P = 0.5 x 6 3 W Step 4 Give the answer with the correct units Page 4 of 5
5 Answers J W (0.02 W) W x J A 6. a W b. 28 Ω J W 9. 5 V W J (6 kj) 12. a. 2 A b. 125 Ω A, 6 Ω. Same current, much lower resistance V V W A C W, 10 Ω V A W W (16 kw) 24. a. 600 C b J Brain teaser none, no electricity is being used! Page 5 of 5
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