# Chapter 7. Electricity. Teacher Answer Key. Broughton High School of Wake County

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1 Teacher Answer Key Broughton High School of Wake County 1 Chapter 7 Electricity

2 Physical Science Vocabulary 2 Vocabulary for Chapter 7 Electricity Vocabulary Word Definition 1. Charging by Contact 2. Charging by Induction 3. Circuit 4. Conductor 5. Electric Current 6. Electric Power 7. Insulator 8. Law of Conservation of Charge 9. Ohm s Law 10. Parallel Circuit 11. Resistance 12. Series Circuit 13. Static Electricity 14. Voltage Difference +

3 Section 1: - Electric Charge Broughton High School of Wake County Note-Taking Electricity A. Protons have electric charge; electrons have electric charge. 1. In most atoms, the charges of the protons and electrons cancel each other out and the atom has no. 2. Atoms become charged by gaining or losing. 3. Static electricity the accumulation of excess on an object. B. Electrically charged objects obey the following rules: 1. Law conservation of charge charge may be transferred from object to object, but it cannot be or. 2. Opposite charges, and like charges. 3. Charges can act on each other even at a, because any charge that is placed an electric field will be pushed or pulled by the field. 4. Electrons move more easily through conductors, like. 5. Electrons do not move easily through, such as plastic, wood, rubber, and glass. C. Transferring electric charge 1. Charging by. a. The process of transferring charge by or. b. Example: static electricity from your feet the carpet. 2. Charging by. a. The rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused by a nearby object. b. Example: a negatively charged balloon near your sleeve causes an area of your sleeve to become charged. 3. Static. a. A transfer of charge through the between two objects because of a buildup of static electricity. b. Example:. 4. Grounding using a to direct an electric charge into the ground. D. The presence of electric charges can be detected by an. 3 What is an Electroscope?

4 4 Section 2: - Electric Current A. The flow of charges through a wire or conductor is called electric. 1. Current is usually the flow of. 2. Electric current is measured in (A). 3. Charges flow from voltage to voltage. a. A voltage difference is the that causes charges to move. b. Voltage difference is measured in (V). 4. For charges to flow, the wire must always be connected in a closed path, or. B. Sources of electricity: 1. A battery produces a voltage difference between its zinc container and its carbon suspension rod, causing current to flow between them. 2. A battery contains two connected plates made of different metals in a conducting solution. 3. have voltage difference across the two holes of an electrical outlet, and a generator at a power plant provides the voltage difference. C. Resistance the tendency for a material to oppose the flow of electrons, changing electrical energy into energy and. 1. All materials have some electrical. 2. Resistance is measured in (Ω). 3. Making wires thinner, longer, or hotter the resistance. D. Ohm s Law the current in a circuit equals the voltage difference divided by the. Section 3: - Electric Circuits A. Circuits rely on generators at power plants to produce a voltage difference across the outlet, causing the charge to when the circuit is complete. 1. Series circuit the current has only one to flow through. a. The parts of a series circuit are wired one after another, so the amount of current is the through every part. b. - if any part of a series circuit is disconnected, no current flows through the circuit. c. Example: strings of. 2. Parallel circuit contains two or more for current to move through. a. Individual parts can be without affecting the entire circuit. b. Example: the electrical system in a. What s wrong with this electrical outlet?

5 5 Section 3: - Electric Circuits B. Household circuits use circuits connected in a logical network. 1. Each branch receives the standard from the electric company. 2. Electrical energy enters your home at the breaker or box and branches out to wall sockets, major appliances, and lights. 3. Guards against overheating electric wires: a. - contains a small piece of metal that melts if the current becomes too high, opening the circuit and stopping the flow of current. b. - contains a small piece of metal that bends when it gets hot, opening the circuit and stopping the flow of current. C. Electrical energy is easily converted to mechanical, thermal, or energy. 1. Electrical power the rate at which energy is converted to another form of energy. a. Electrical power is expressed in (W). b. Power = current X. c. P (watts) = I (amperes) X. 2. To calculate the amount of energy an appliance uses: a. The unit of electrical energy is the, which equals 1000 watts of power used for one hour. b. Energy = power X. c. E (kwh) = P (kw) X. Find your way to the water?

6 6 Section 4 Static Electricity In the diagram below show the positive and negative particles in the balloon and the girl s hair after they are rubbed together. 1. The flow of electrons:. 2. When an object is positively charged it has more than. 3. When an object is negatively charged it has more than. 4. When two objects, each having more electrons than protons, are brought close to each other, they will each other. Write the word or phrase from column B in the space below before its description in column A. Column A a. Electrical charges at rest Static b. Objects having more + than charges Neutron c. Produces a form of electricity Positively charged d. No positive or negative electrical charge Negatively charged e. Objects having more than + charges Friction 5. Identify the following as: Positive (+), Negative (-), or Neutral (0) Is attracted to an electron. Most objects we encounter. An object that has 514 electrons and 275 protons. Something that is repelled by an object that has gained electrons. Will not attract or repel anything. An object with 5 more protons than electrons. An object that will take electrons from the earth when it is grounded. Calculate the total charge in each circle. Column B _ Positive Charges (+) = Positive Charges (+) = Positive Charges (+) = Positive Charges (+) = Negative Charges (-) = Negative Charges (-) = Negative Charges (-) = Negative Charges (-) = Net Charges = Net Charges = Net Charges = Net Charges =

7 7 Section 5 Ohm s Law Complete the following memory circle AND the chart below. V I R Letter stands for Units 1. What voltage produces a current of 50.0 amps with a resistance of 20 Ω? 2. What is the current produced with a 9-V battery through a resistance of 100Ω? 3. What resistance would produce a current of 200 A with a potential difference of 2000 Volts? 4. A 12-Volt battery produces a current of 25 A (amperes). What is the resistance? 5. Silver has a resistance of Ω. What voltage would produce a current 100 amps (amperes)?

8 8 Section 5 Ohm s Law 6. What voltage produces a current of amps with a resistance of 2.0 Ω? V = IR (150 Amps) (2 Ohms) = 300 Volts 7. What is the current produced with a 9-V battery through a resistance of 1,000Ω? I = V/R 9V / 1000 Ohms = Amps 8. What resistance would produce a current of 250 A with a potential difference of 24,000 Volts? R = V / I 24,000 V / 250 A = 96 Ohms 9. A 12-Volt battery produces a current of 35 A (amperes). What is the resistance? R = V / I 12 V / 35 A = Ohms 10. Silver has a resistance of Ω. What voltage would produce a current 150 amps (amperes)? V = IR (150 Amps) ( Ohms) = Volts

9 Section 6 - Electricity Problems Broughton High School of Wake County 9 1. A circuit has a resistance of 4Ω. What voltage difference will cause a current of 1.4A to flow in the circuit? V = IR (1.4 A) (4 Ohms) = 5.6 Volts 2. How many amperes of current will flow in a circuit if the voltage difference is 9V and the resistance in the circuit is 3Ω? I = V/R 9V / 3 Ohms = 3A 3. If the voltage difference of 3V causes a 1.5A current to flow in a circuit, what is the resistance in the circuit? R = V/I 3V / 1.5 A = 2 Ohms 4. The circuit in an appliance is 3A and the voltage difference is 120V. How much power is being supplied to the appliance? P = VI (3A) (120 V) = 360 Watts 5. What is the current into a microwave oven that requires 700W of power if the voltage difference is 120V? I = V/P 120 V / 700 W = A 6. What is the voltage difference in a circuit that uses 2420 W of power if 11A of current flows into the circuit? V = P/I 2420 W / 11 A = 220 V

10 10 Section 6 - Electricity Problems 7. How much energy is used when an 110kW appliance is used for 3 hours? E = Pt (110 KW) (3 hr) = 330 KWhr 8. What is the resistance of a light bulb that draws 0.5 amps of current when plugged into a 120-V outlet? R = V/I 120 V / 0.5 AMPS = 240 Ohms 9. A circuit has a resistance of 6Ω. What voltage difference will cause a current of 2.1 A to flow in the circuit? V = IR (2.1 A) / (6 Ohms) = 12.6 Volts 10. How many amperes of current will flow in a circuit if the voltage difference is 5V and the resistance in the circuit is 2Ω? I = V/R (5V) / (2 Ohms) = 2.5 Amps 11. The circuit in an appliance is 7A and the voltage difference is 120V. How much power is being supplied to the appliance? P = IV (7A) (120 V) = 840 Watts 12. What is the current into a microwave oven that requires 700W of power if the voltage difference is 120V? I = V / P 120 V / 700 Watts = Amps What type of aquatic organism genertates electicity? Electric Eel generates 860 Volts Elecrtic Eel uses the Hunter's Organ & Sach's Organ to generate electricity

11 11 Section 6 - Electricity Problems 13. What is the voltage difference in a circuit that uses 2,420 W of power if 11A of current flows into the circuit? V = P / I 2,420 W / 11 A = 220 Volts 14. A microwave oven with a power rating of 1,200 Watts is used for 0.25 hours. How much electrical energy does the microwave use? E = Pt (1,200 W) (0.25 hr X 1 Kw / 1000W ) = 0.30 KWh 15. The current in an electric clothes dryer is 15A when it is plugged into a 240-volt outlet. How much power does the clothes dryer use? P =IV (15 A) (240 V) = 3,600 Watts 16. A toaster oven is plugged into an outlet that provides a voltage difference of 120V. What power does the oven use if the current is 10A? P = IV (10 A) (120 V) = 1,200 Watts 17. A flashlight bulb uses 2.4 W of power when the current in the bulb is 0.8A. What is the voltage difference? V = P/I 2.4 W / 0.8 A = 3 Volts How much electrical energy does a vending Machine use? E = Pt E = (1,650 W) (8 hrs) (1 KW / 1000W) = 13.2 KWh P = (15 A) (110 V ) = 1,650 Watts

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14 Section 10: Completion Broughton High School of Wake County 14 Measurement Unit Symbol 35. Ohm 36. kwh 37. Electrical power 38. Voltage difference 39. Amperes 40. Calculate the resistance between points A and B (R AB ) for the following resistor networks: Figure 1: R AB = 500 Ω Figure 2: R AB = 750 Ω Figure 4: R AB = 940 Ω Figure 5: R AB = 880 Ω Figure 3: R AB = kω Figure 6: R AB = Ω 41. What is the current flowing through this circuit? 42. What is the power consumed by the light bulb in this circuit? 43. The illustration shows a. a. broken circuit b. open circuit c. parallel circuit d. series circuit

15 Section 10: Completion Broughton High School of Wake County The total current flow in this circuit is. a A b A c. A d. 1.9 A Find the Following Words 1. ampere - measure of current 2. amplifier - signal booster 3. battery - storage device 4. diode - lets current flow only in one direction 5. Edison - famed inventor 6. franklin - he used a kite to demonstrate that lightning is a form of electricity 7. frequency - measure of the rate of oscillation in alternating currents 8. generator - electrical power maker 9. laser - device that generates an extremely narrow light beam 10. Marconi - inventor who first demonstrated wireless communication 11. microphone - converts sound to electricity 12. microwave - form of energy used in a common kitchen appliance 13. nuclear - controversial way of producing electricity 14. ohms - measure of electrical resistance 15. rheostat - electrical control device 16. speaker - converts electricity to sound 17. switch - on-off device 18. transformer - device used to change current or voltage in ac circuits 19. transistor - miniature marvel of electronics 20. vacuum tube - old device used in radio, tv, etc., now obsolete 21. voltage - measure of electrical potential 22. watt - Scottish inventor whose name is used as a measure of power

16 16 Part I. Solve all of the following problems using Ohm s Law and your Power Equation 23. A circuit has a resistance of 35Ω. What voltage difference will cause a current of 2.5 A to flow in the circuit? 24. How many amperes of current will flow in a circuit if the voltage difference is 6V and the resistance in the circuit is 12Ω? 25. The circuit in an appliance is 8A and the voltage difference is 120V. How much power is being supplied to the appliance? 26. What is the current into a microwave oven that requires 5,100W of power if the voltage difference is 120V? 27. What is the voltage difference in a circuit that uses 2,420 W of power if 12A of current flows into the circuit? 28. What is the voltage in a dryer if the dryer uses 4,250 W of power when plugged into a 22.0-A wall outlet?

17 29. What is the current in a toaster if the toaster uses 7,500 W of power when plugged into a 110-V wall outlet? A series circuit has a current of 13A. The circuit contains a 150 resister. What is the voltage of the circuit? 31. This diagram represents a closed circuit. How much current flows through this circuit? 32. A flashlight bulb connected to a 6-V battery draws a 0.35 A current. What is the power used by the flashlight bulb? 33. A light bulb with a resistance of 50 ohms is plugged into a 120-volt outlet.. What is the current flowing through the bulb? What field of science are these people possibly studying?

18 A motor has a current of 4A flowing through it when it is powered with a 12-V battery. What is the power used by the motor? 35. A series circuit has a 6-V battery and 2 ohms of resistance. How much current will flow through the circuit?. 36. What voltage is required to run a 45-watt light bulb if the current is 0.9 ampere? 37. How much current is used by a 120-V refrigerator that uses 750 W of power?

19 19 Part II. Answer the following questions about Circuits 38. A path that allows only one route for an electric current is called a. Circuit A Circuit B 39. Circuit is wired in series. 40. Circuit is wired in parallel. 41. Circuit represents the way homes are usually wired so that when one part of the circuit is interrupted the entire circuit is not broken. 42. Circuit is the type of circuit that causes an entire string of decorative lights to go out when one of the bulbs burns out. 43. This diagram represents a closed circuit with three light bulbs and a 10 Volt battery. If bulb #3 burns out in the circuit, what will most likely happen? 44. Which is the correct diagram for a parallel circuit with three light bulbs powered by a 24-V battery?

20 45. The diagrams represent two complete circuits. A 9-V battery is connected to two light bulbs as shown Which statement best describes what will happen? a. the light from circuit B will be dimmer because each light bulb must share its current with the other light bulb b. the light from circuit A will be brighter because each light bulb adds its current to the other light bulb c. the light from circuit B will be brighter because each light bulb has a direct path to both poles of the battery d. The light from Circuit A will be dimmer because each light bulb has a direct path to both poles of the battery. 47. Which best describes a circuit is series? a. electrons have only one path at all times b. current values are different at various points in the circuit. c. electrons may take several paths. d. different parts are on separate branches. 48. Which statement is true about parallel circuits? a. they cease to function when one part of the circuit is disconnected. b. they are usually called open circuits. c. they provide one path through which current can flow. d. they contain separate branches through which current can flow 49. Which of the following DOES NOT provide a voltage or potential difference in a circuit? a. wet cell c. wires b. electrical outlet d. dry cell or battery 50. Resistance in wires causes electrical energy to be converted into which form of energy? a. chemical energy c. sound b. nuclear energy d. thermal energy 51. One source of constant electric current is a _. a. transformer c. switch b. dry cell (battery) d. coulomb 52. Which of the following is a device designed to open an overloaded circuit and prevent overheating. a. circuit breaker c. resistor b. magnet d. transformer 53. Current that does not reverse direction is called. a. alternating current b. a fused current c. circuit current d. direct current 54. Currents that reverse direction in a regular pattern is called. a. alternating current b. direct current c. circuit current d. magnetic current

21 Part III Answer the following questions about Electromagnets 55. A student performed an experiment to determine the number of paper clips that are attracted to an electromagnet as the amount of current changes Which graph best describes the relationship between magnetism and electrical current? 57. A magnet is moved back and forth through a loop of wire as shown below. What will happen as the magnet is moved back and forth as shown? a. the wire will attract the magnet c. the galvanometer needle will move back and forth b. the magnet will attract the wire d. the galvanometer needle will be on A student coiled wire around a nail, attached both ends to a 2.5-V battery, and attempted to lift paper clips with the nail. What is a valid conclusion for this investigation? a. increasing voltage increases electromagnetic strength b. increasing the number of turns of wire decreases the electromagnetic strength c. increasing the number of turns of wire has no effect on electromagnetic strength d. increasing the number of turns of wire increases the electromagnetic strength

22 22 Part IV Answer the following questions about Static Electricity and Charges 59. If the leaves of an electroscope spread apart, it indicates that. 60. Electric charge that has accumulated on an object is referred to as. 61. A static discharge differs from an electric current in that a static discharge. 62. The diagram shows a negatively charged balloon. When the balloon is brought near some paper, the papers are attracted to the balloon by means of and become. 63. When a plastic rod is rubbed with fur, the plastic rod becomes charged. Electrons are transferred from the to the. 64. How do electrically charged objects affect neutral objects when they come in contact? a. Protons move from negatively charged objects to neutral objects b. Protons move from neutral objects to negatively charged objects c. Electrons move from positively charged objects to neutral objects d. Electrons move from neutral objects to positively charged objects 65. Lighting is a large. 66. The electric force between two charged objects depends on which of the following? a. their masses and their distance of separation b. their speeds c. their charge and their distance of separation d. their masses and their charge 67. An object becomes positively charged when it. 68. The drawing shows two uncharged lightweight plastic balls suspended by thin, insulating threads. Ball 1 is given a positive charge. Ball 2 is given an equivalent negative charge. 69. Which diagram best shows how the balls will react after becoming charged?

23 70. Which statement BEST explains why there could be a force of attraction between two electrically charged objects? a. because they have like charges c. because they have the same number of electrons b. because they have unlike charges d. because they have the same number of protons 71. The diagram shows two copper spheres. Sphere 1 is negatively charged, and Sphere 2 is neutral. What will be the result when the two spheres touch? 23 a. sphere 1 will become positively charged b. sphere 2 will become positively charged c. both spheres will become negatively charged equal to the initial charge of sphere 1 d. both spheres will become negatively charged less than the initial charge of sphere 1. Part V Answer the following questions about Magnetism 72. The location of the strongest magnetic forces is the 73. Objects that keep their magnetic properties for a long time are called. 74. The atoms in a magnet are. 75. Which magnetic pole is located in Northern Canada? 76. A sheet of paper is positioned to completely cover a bar magnet. Iron fillings are then gently sprinkled on the paper. 47. How could 3 magnets be arranged end-to-end so that there will be no attraction between them? Make a sketch. Which Magnet is stronger?

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