# All Division I students, START HERE. All Division II students, skip the first ten questions, begin on question 11.

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1 ATTENTION: All Division I students, START HERE. All Division II students, skip the first ten questions, begin on question A standard centimeter ruler is shown. Which recorded value is the most correct for the location of the shaded object s right end? (a) 10 cm (b) 10. cm (c) 10.0 cm (d) cm (e) cm 2. How thick is the average page of a physics textbook in micrometers? (a) 0.1 (b) 1 (c) 10 (d) 100 (e) Two automobiles are 150 kilometers apart and traveling toward each other. One automobile is moving at 60 km/h and the other is moving at 40 km/h. In how many hours will they meet? (a) 1.5 (b) 1.75 (c) 2.0 (d) 2.5 (e) A particle moves on the x-axis. When the particle s acceleration is positive and increasing (a) its velocity must be positive. (b) its velocity must be negative. (c) it must be slowing down. (d) it must be speeding up. (e) none of the above must be true. 5. The position-time, y vs. t, graph for the motion of an object is shown. What would be a reasonable equation for the acceleration a that would account for this motion? (a) a = 0 (b) a = positive constant (c) a = negative constant (d) a = positive constant times t (e) a = negative constant times t Division I only 2 Division I only

2 6. A 500-kg car is moving at 28 m/s. The driver sees a barrier ahead. If the car takes 95 meters to come to rest, what is the magnitude of the minimum average net force necessary to stop? (a) 47.5 N (b) 1400 N (c) 2060 N (d) N (e) N 7. A mass connected to a string swings back and forth as a pendulum with snapshots of the motion seen in the figure. Ignore the friction in the system. Which of the following statements about the pendulum-earth A system is correct? E (a) The total mechanical energy in the system is constant. B (b) The total mechanical energy in the system is maximum at B. (c) The potential energies at A and C are equal. (d) The kinetic energies at C and D are equal. (e) The kinetic energy at E equals the kinetic energy at C. C D 8. What does one obtain by dividing the distance of 12 Mm by the time of 4 Ts? (a) 3 nm (b) s 3 µ m (c) s 3 mm (d) s 3 km (e) s 3 Gm s 9. A block rests on an incline that makes the angle φ with the horizontal. The block remains at rest as φ is slowly increased. The magnitudes of the normal force and the static frictional force of the incline on the block (a) both increase. (b) both decrease. (c) both remain the same. (d) increase and decrease, respectively. (e) decrease and increase, respectively. 10. Contact forces are examples of which of the fundamental forces? (a) Strong (b) Electromagnetic (c) Weak (d) Gravitational (e) None of these A TTENTION: All Division I students, turn page and continue through question 40. Division I only 3 Division I only

3 ATTENTION: All Division I students, continue through question 40. All Division II students, START HERE. Numbers 1-10 on your answer sheet should remain blank. Your first answer should be number A cart is initially moving at 0.5 m/s along a track. The cart comes to rest after traveling 1 m. The experiment is repeated on the same track, but now the cart is initially moving at 1 m/s. How far does the cart travel before coming to rest? (a) 1 m (b) 2 m (c) 3 m (d) 4 m (e) 8 m 12. The definition of average velocity is (a) the average acceleration multiplied by the time. (b) distance traveled divided by the time. 1 (c) ( v f + v0 ). 2 (d) radius multiplied by angular velocity. (e) displacement divided by the time. 13. A student weighing 500 N stands on a bathroom scale in the school s elevator. When the scale reads 520 N, the elevator must be (a) accelerating upward. (b) accelerating downward. (c) moving upward at a constant speed. (d) moving downward at a constant speed. (e) at rest. 14. An object moves to the East across a frictionless surface with constant speed. A person then applies a constant force to the North on the object. What is the resulting path that the object takes? (a) A straight line path partly Eastward, partly Northward (b) A straight line path totally to the North (c) A parabolic path opening toward the North (d) A parabolic path opening toward the East (e) An exponential path opening upward toward the North Both Divisions I and II 4 Both Division I and II

4 Two identical mass objects are launched with the same speed from the same starting location. Object 1 is launched at an angle of 30 0 above the horizontal while Object 2 is 0 launched at an angle of 60 above the horizontal. Ignore air resistance and consider the flight of each object from launch until it returns to the same launch height above the ground. Questions 15 and 16 refer to this situation. 15. Which object returns to the starting height with the greatest speed? (a) Object 1 since it keeps a lower trajectory. (b) Object 2 since it is in the air for a longer time. (c) Object 2 since there is more work done on the object during flight (d) The speeds are the same. (e) It cannot be determined without more information. 16. Which object experiences the greatest change in the linear momentum? (a) Object 1 since it has a higher final speed. (b) Object 2 since it has a higher final speed. (c) Object 2 since it is in the air for a longer time. (d) The change in momentum is the same for each. (e) It cannot be determined without more information. 17. A toy car moves along the x-axis according to the velocity versus time curve shown to the right. When does the car have zero acceleration? (a) at 2 and 4 seconds (b) at approximately 3.0 seconds (c) at approximately 3.3 and 5.1 seconds (d) the acceleration is always zero (e) at no time 18. In which one of the following situations is the net force constantly zero on the object? (a) A mass attached to a string and swinging like a pendulum. (b) A stone falling freely in a gravitational field. (c) An astronaut floating in the International Space Station. (d) A snowboarder riding down a steep hill. (e) A skydiver who has reached terminal velocity. Both Divisions I and II 5 Both Division I and II

5 19. What net force is necessary to keep a 1.0 kg puck moving in a circle of radius 0.5 m on a horizontal frictionless surface with a speed of 2.0 m/s? (a) 0 N (b) 2.0 N (c) 4.0 N (d) 8.0 N (e) 16 N 20. A large wedge rests on a horizontal frictionless surface, as shown. A block starts from rest and slides down the inclined surface of the wedge, which is rough. During the motion of the block, the center of mass of the block and wedge system (a) does not move. (b) moves vertically with increasing speed. (c) moves horizontally with constant speed. (d) moves horizontally with increasing speed. (e) moves both horizontally and vertically. 21. A box slides to the right across a horizontal floor. A person called Ted exerts a force T to the right on the box. A person called Mario exerts a force M to the left, which is half as large as the force T. Given that there is friction f and the box accelerates to the right, rank the sizes of these three forces exerted on the box. (a) f < M < T (b) M < f < T (c) M < T < f (d) f = M < T (e) It cannot be determined. 22. A mass m is pulled outward until the string of length L to which it is attached makes a 90-degree angle with the vertical. The mass is released from rest and swings through a circular arc. What is the tension in the string when the mass swings through the bottom of the arc? (a) 0 (b) mg (c) 2mg (d) 3mg (e) It cannot be determined. 23. The period of a mass-spring system undergoing simple harmonic oscillation is T. If the amplitude of the mass-spring system s motion is doubled, the period will be (a) ¼ T (b) ½ T (c) T (d) 2T (e) 4T Both Divisions I and II 6 Both Division I and II

6 24. A resonance occurs with a tuning fork and an air column of size 39 cm. The next highest resonance occurs with an air column of 65 cm. What is the frequency of the tuning fork? Assume that the speed of sound is 343 m/s. (a) Hz (b) Hz (c) Hz (d) Hz (e) 1319 Hz 25. If two protons are spaced by a distance R, what is the ratio of the gravitational force that one proton exerts on the other to the electric force that one proton exerts on the other? That is, F gravity F electric = (a) (b) 10 (c) (d) (e) q 26. For the diagram shown below, what is the ratio of the charges 2, where the q 1 diagram shown has a representation of the field lines in the space near the charges. (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) (d) 3 3 (e) 1 2 Both Divisions I and II 7 Both Division I and II

7 27. A junior Thomas Edison wants to make a brighter light bulb. He decides to modify the filament. How should the filament of a light bulb be modified in order to make the light bulb produce more light at a given voltage? (a) Increase the resistivity only. (b) Increase the diameter only. (c) Decrease the diameter only. (d) Decrease the diameter and increase the resistivity. (e) Increase the length only. 28. Which statement about a system of point charges that are fixed in space is necessarily true? (a) If the potential energy of the system is negative, net positive work by an external agent is required to take the charges in the system back to infinity. (b) If the potential energy of the system is positive, net positive work is required to bring any new charge not part of the system in from infinity to its final resting location. (c) If the potential energy of the system is zero, no negative charges are in the configuration. (d) If the potential energy of the system is negative, net positive work by an external agent was required to assemble the system of charges. (e) If the potential energy of the system is zero, then there is no electric force anywhere in space on any other charged particle not part of the system. 29. In the circuit diagram below, all of the bulbs are identical. Which bulb will be the brightest? (a) A (b) B 10 V (c) C (d) D (e) The bulbs all have the same brightness. A B D C 30. In the following circuit diagram, which one of the bulbs will not light? (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D (e) They all light. A B C Both Divisions I and II D 8 Both Division I and II

8 31. James Clerk Maxwell's great contribution to electromagnetic theory was his idea that (a) work is required to move a magnetic pole through a closed path surrounding a current. (b) a time-changing electric field acts as a current and produces a magnetic field. (c) the speed of light could be determined from simple electrostatic and magnetostatic experiments and finding the values of µ o and ε o. (d) the magnetic force on a moving charge particle is perpendicular to both its velocity and the magnetic field. (e) magnetism could be explained in terms of circulating currents in atoms. 32. What does LASER stand for? (a) Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation (b) Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (c) Light Amplification by Simultaneous Emission of Radiation (d) Light Amplification by Systematic Emission of Radiation (e) Light Amplification by Serendipitous Emission of Radiation 33. For the circuit shown, the ammeter reading is initially I. The switch in the circuit then is closed. Consequently: (a) The ammeter reading decreases. (b) The potential difference between E and F increases. (c) The potent ial difference between E and F stays the same. (d) Bulb #3 lights up more brightly. (e) The power supplied by the battery decreases. 34. For the solenoids shown in the diagram (which are assumed to be close to each other), the resistance of the left-hand circuit is slowly increased. In which direction does the galvanometer needle in the righthand circuit move in response to this change? (a) The needle deflects to the left. (b) The needle deflects to the right. (c) The needle oscillates back and forth. (d) The needle rotates in counterclockwise circles. (e) The needle never moves. Both Divisions I and II 9 Both Division I and II

9 35. Two objects labeled K and L have equal mass but densities 0.95D 0 and D 0, respectively. Each of these objects floats after being thrown into a deep swimming pool. Which is true about the buoyant forces acting on these objects? (a) The buoyant force is greater on Object K since it has a lower density and displaces more water. (b) The buoyant force is greater on Object K since it has lower density and lower density objects always float higher in the fluid. (c) The buoyant force is greater on Object L since it is denser than K and therefore heavier. (d) The buoyant forces are equal on the objects since they have equal mass. (e) Without knowing the specific gravity of the objects, nothing can be determined. 36. A driveway is 22.0 m long and 5.0 m wide. If the atmospheric pressure is 1.0 x 10 5 Pa, what force does the atmosphere exert on the driveway? (a) 9.09 x 10-8 N (b) 1.1 x 10-3 N (c) 909 N (d) 4545 N (e) 1.1 x 10 7 N 37. A place of zero displacement on a standing wave is called (a) an antinode. (b) a node. (c) the amplitude. (d) the wavenumber. (e) the harmonic. 38. Absolute zero is best described as that temperature at which (a) water freezes at standard pressure. (b) water is at its triple point. (c) the molecules of a substance have a maximum kinetic energy. (d) the molecules of a substance have a maximum potential energy. (e) the molecules of a substance have minimum kinetic energy. Both Divisions I and II 10 Both Division I and II

10 0 39. A mass of material exists in its solid form at its melting temperature 10 C. The following processes then occur to the material: Process 1: An amount of thermal energy Q is added to the material and ¾ of the material melts. Process 2: An identical additional amount of thermal energy Q is added to the material and the material is now a liquid at 50 0 C. What is the ratio of the latent heat of fusion to the specific heat of the liquid for this material? 0 C (a) 80 (b) 60 0 C (c) 40 0 C (d) 20 0 C (e) More information is needed to answer this question. 40. Which is not true of an isochoric process on an enclosed ideal gas in which the pressure decreases? (a) The work done is zero. (b) The internal energy of the gas decreases. (c) The heat is zero. (d) The rms speed of the gas molecules decreases. (e) The gas temperature decreases. Both Divisions I and II 11 Both Division I and II

11 ATTENTION: All Division I students, STOP HERE. Your last answer should be number 40. Numbers should remain blank for Division I students. All Division II students, continue to question For the diagram shown, what is the magnitude of the torque from the applied force as measured from the center of the disk? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0 Fd sin30 0 Fd tan30 0 Fd sin90 0 Fd sin120 0 Fd cos A solid spherical conductor has charge + Q and radius R. It is surrounded by a solid spherical shell with charge Q, inner radius 2 R, and outer radius 3R. Which of the following statements is true for the labeled points in the diagram? Assume these objects are isolated in space and that the electric potential is zero as the distance from the spheres approaches infinity. Point A is at the center of the inner sphere, Point B is located at r = R + δ, Point D is located at r = 3R + δ and Point C is located at r = 2R δ where δ is an infinitesimal amount and all distances are from the center of the inner sphere. (a) The electric potential has a maximum magnitude at C and the electric field has a maximum magnitude at A. (b) The electric potential has a maximum magnitude at D and the electric field has a maximum magnitude at B. (c) The electric potential at A is zero and the electric field has a maximum magnitude at D. (d) The electric potential at A is zero and the electric field has a maximum magnitude at B. (e) Both the electric potential and electric field achieve a maximum magnitude at B. Division II only 12 Division II only

12 43. Which of the following best represents the ray diagram construction for finding the image formed for the virtual object shown? The solid dots on either side of the lens locate the equal magnitude foci of the lens. 44. A person vibrates the end of a string sending transverse waves down the string. If the person then doubles the rate at which he vibrates the string, the speed of the waves (a) doubles and the wavelength is unchanged (b) doubles and the wavelength doubled (c) doubles while the wavelength is halved (d) is unchanged while the wavelength is doubled (e) is unchanged while the wavelength is halved. 45. If the temperature of a material doubles on the Kelvin scale, by how much does the time-rate at which energy is radiated from the material change? (a) It is unchanged (b) It is doubled (c) It is 4 times greater (d) It is 8 times greater (e) It is 16 times greater Division II only 13 Division II only

13 46. An ideal gas undergoes a reversible isothermal expansion at T = 300 K. The total change in entropy of the gas is 2.5 J/K. How much work was done by the environment on the gas during this process? (a) -750 J (b) -120 J (c) 120 J (d) 750 J (e) More information is required to answer this question. 47. Two spaceships travel along paths that are at right angles to each other. Each ship travels at 0.60c where c is the speed of light in a vacuum according to a stationary observer. If one of the ships turns on a green laser and aims it at a right angle to the direction of its travel, with what speed does the other speed record the speed of the green light? (a) 0.40 c (b) 0.85 c (c) 1.00 c (d) 1.17 c (e) More information is required about the direction that the light is traveling in order to answer the question. 48. How fast must an observer move so that a stationary object appears to be one-half of its proper length? (a) 0.50 c (b) 0.67 c (c) 0.75 c (d) 0.87 c (e) 0.93 c 49. The ratio λ 1 /λ 2 of the debroglie wavelengths of two non-relativistic particles with masses m 1 and m 2 and the same kinetic energy, is equal to (a) m 2 / m 1 (b) m 1 / m 2 (c) m / m (d) m / m (e) A gas undergoes radioactive decay with time constant τ. A sample of particles is put into a container. After one time constant has passed, the experimenter places another particles into the original container. How much time passes from the addition of the particles until the container of gas reaches total particles again? (a) ( 0.405)τ (b) (.500)τ 0 (c) (.693) τ 0 (d) τ (e) 2 τ Division II only 14 Division II only

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