# Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions

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1 Chapter 8. Converter Transfer Functions 8.1. Review of Bode plots Single pole response Single zero response Right half-plane zero Frequency inversion Combinations Double pole response: resonance The low-q approximation Approximate roots of an arbitrary-degree polynomial 8.2. Analysis of converter transfer functions Example: transfer functions of the buck-boost converter Transfer functions of some basic CCM converters Physical origins of the right half-plane zero in converters 1

2 Converter Transfer Functions 8.3. Graphical construction of converter transfer functions Series impedances: addition of asymptotes Parallel impedances: inverse addition of asymptotes Another example Voltage divider transfer functions: division of asymptotes 8.4. Measurement of ac transfer functions and impedances 8.5. Summary of key points 2

3 The Engineering Design Process 1. Specifications and other design goals are defined. 2. A circuit is proposed. This is a creative process that draws on the physical insight and experience of the engineer. 3. The circuit is modeled. The converter power stage is modeled as described in Chapter 7. Components and other portions of the system are modeled as appropriate, often with vendor-supplied data. 4. Design-oriented analysis of the circuit is performed. This involves development of equations that allow element values to be chosen such that specifications and design goals are met. In addition, it may be necessary for the engineer to gain additional understanding and physical insight into the circuit behavior, so that the design can be improved by adding elements to the circuit or by changing circuit connections. 5. Model verification. Predictions of the model are compared to a laboratory prototype, under nominal operating conditions. The model is refined as necessary, so that the model predictions agree with laboratory measurements. 3

4 Design Process 6. Worst-case analysis (or other reliability and production yield analysis) of the circuit is performed. This involves quantitative evaluation of the model performance, to judge whether specifications are met under all conditions. Computer simulation is well-suited to this task. 7. Iteration. The above steps are repeated to improve the design until the worst-case behavior meets specifications, or until the reliability and production yield are acceptably high. This Chapter: steps 4, 5, and 6 4

5 7.1. Introduction Objective: maintain v(t) equal to an accurate, constant value V. There are disturbances: in v g (t) in R There are uncertainties: in element values in V g in R Power input v g (t) A simple dc-dc regulator system, employing a buck converter + transistor gate driver δ(t) δ(t) Switching converter pulse-width modulator v c (t) compensator v c dt s T s t t Controller G c (s) + v(t) voltage reference Load + v ref R v feedback connection 3 Chapter 7: AC equivalent circuit modeling

6 Buck-boost converter model From Chapter 7 L 1 : D D' : 1 Line input i(s) (V g V) d(s) v + g (s) Z in (s) Id(s) Id(s) + C Output + v(s) R Z out (s) d(s) Control input G vg (s)= v(s) v g (s) d(s)=0 G vd (s)= v(s) d(s) vg (s)=0 5

7 Bode plot of control-to-output transfer function with analytical expressions for important features 80 dbv G vd G vd G vd 60 dbv 40 dbv 20 dbv 0 dbv 20 dbv G d0 = V DD' 0 10 G vd f z /10 D' 2π LC -1/2Q Q = D'R 40 db/decade f z D' 2 R 2πDL (RHP) C L V g ω 2 D'LC DV g ω(d') 3 RC 20 db/decade dbv 10 1/2Q 10f z Hz 100 Hz 1 khz 10 khz 100 khz f MHz 6

8 Design-oriented analysis How to approach a real (and hence, complicated) system Problems: Complicated derivations Long equations Algebra mistakes Design objectives: Obtain physical insight which leads engineer to synthesis of a good design Obtain simple equations that can be inverted, so that element values can be chosen to obtain desired behavior. Equations that cannot be inverted are useless for design! Design-oriented analysis is a structured approach to analysis, which attempts to avoid the above problems 7

9 Some elements of design-oriented analysis, discussed in this chapter Writing transfer functions in normalized form, to directly expose salient features Obtaining simple analytical expressions for asymptotes, corner frequencies, and other salient features, allows element values to be selected such that a given desired behavior is obtained Use of inverted poles and zeroes, to refer transfer function gains to the most important asymptote Analytical approximation of roots of high-order polynomials Graphical construction of Bode plots of transfer functions and polynomials, to avoid algebra mistakes approximate transfer functions obtain insight into origins of salient features 8

10 8.1. Review of Bode plots Decibels Table 8.1. Expressing magnitudes in decibels G db =20log 10 G Actual magnitude Magnitude in db Decibels of quantities having units (impedance example): normalize before taking log Z db =20log 10 Z R base 1/2 6dB 1 0 db 2 6 db 5 = 10/2 20 db 6 db = 14 db 10 20dB 1000 = dB = 60 db 5Ω is equivalent to 14dB with respect to a base impedance of R base = 1Ω, also known as 14dBΩ. 60dBµA is a current 60dB greater than a base current of 1µA, or 1mA. 9

11 Bode plot of f n Bode plots are effectively log-log plots, which cause functions which vary as f n to become linear plots. Given: G = f n Magnitude in db is G db =20log 10 f Slope is 20n db/decade n =20n log 10 f Magnitude is 1, or 0dB, at frequency f = 60dB 40dB 20dB 0dB 20dB 40dB 60dB 20dB/decade 20 db/decade 40dB/decade 40dB/decade n = 2 f n = 1 n = 1 n = 2 f f f 1 2 f log scale 10

12 Single pole response Simple R-C example R v + 1 (s) C + v 2 (s) Transfer function is G(s)= v 2(s) v 1 (s) = 1 sc 1 sc + R Express as rational fraction: G(s)= 1 1+sRC This coincides with the normalized form G(s)= 1 1+ s ω 0 with ω 0 = 1 RC 11

13 G(jω) and G(jω) Let s = jω: G(jω)= 1 1+j ω ω 0 = 1 j ω ω0 1+ ω ω 0 2 Magnitude is G(jω) = Re(G(jω)) 2 + Im(G(jω)) 2 = 1 1+ ω ω 0 2 Im(G(jω)) G(jω) G(jω) G(jω) Re(G(jω)) Magnitude in db: G(jω) db = 20log ω ω 0 2 db 12

14 Asymptotic behavior: low frequency For small frequency, ω << ω 0 and f << : ω ω 0 << 1 G(jω) db G( jω) = 1 1+ ω ω 0 2 Then G(jω) becomes Or, in db, G(jω) 1 1 =1 0dB 20dB 40dB 0dB 20dB/decade f 1 G(jω) db 0dB 60dB f This is the low-frequency asymptote of G(jω) 13

15 Asymptotic behavior: high frequency For high frequency, ω >> ω 0 and f >> : ω ω 0 >> 1 G(jω) db G( jω) = 1 1+ ω ω ω ω 0 2 ω ω 0 2 0dB 0dB Then G(jω) becomes G( jω) 1 ω ω 0 2 = f 1 20dB 40dB 60dB 20dB/decade f 1 f The high-frequency asymptote of G(jω) varies as f -1. Hence, n = -1, and a straight-line asymptote having a slope of -20dB/decade is obtained. The asymptote has a value of 1 at f =. 14

16 Deviation of exact curve near f = Evaluate exact magnitude: at f = : G(jω 0 ) = 1 1+ ω 0 ω 0 2 = 1 2 G(jω 0 ) db = 20log ω 0 ω 0 2 3dB at f = 0.5 and 2 : Similar arguments show that the exact curve lies 1dB below the asymptotes. 15

17 Summary: magnitude G(jω) db 0dB 10dB 20dB 1dB 3dB 0.5 1dB 2 20dB/decade 30dB f 16

18 Phase of G(jω) Im(G(jω)) G(jω) G(jω) G(jω) Re(G(jω)) G(jω)= 1 1+j ω ω 0 = 1 j ω ω0 1+ ω ω 0 2 G(jω)= tan 1 ω ω 0 G(jω)=tan 1 Im G(jω) Re G( jω) 17

19 Phase of G(jω) G(jω) 0 0 asymptote G(jω)= tan 1 ω ω ω G(jω) asymptote ω f 18

20 Phase asymptotes Low frequency: 0 High frequency: 90 Low- and high-frequency asymptotes do not intersect Hence, need a midfrequency asymptote Try a midfrequency asymptote having slope identical to actual slope at the corner frequency. One can show that the asymptotes then intersect at the break frequencies f a = e π /2 / 4.81 f b = e π /

21 Phase asymptotes G(jω) 0-15 f a = / 4.81 f a = e π /2 / 4.81 f b = e π / f b = f 20

22 Phase asymptotes: a simpler choice G(jω) 0-15 f a = / 10 f a = /10 f b = f b = f 21

23 Summary: Bode plot of real pole 0dB G(jω) db 1dB 3dB 0.5 1dB G(s)= 1 1+ s ω dB/decade G(jω) 0 / /decade

24 Single zero response Normalized form: Magnitude: G(s)= 1+ s ω 0 G(jω) = 1+ ω ω 0 2 Use arguments similar to those used for the simple pole, to derive asymptotes: 0dB at low frequency, ω << ω 0 +20dB/decade slope at high frequency, ω >> ω 0 Phase: G(jω)=tan 1 ω ω 0 with the exception of a missing minus sign, same as simple pole 23

25 Summary: Bode plot, real zero G(s)= 1+ s ω 0 +20dB/decade dB 0dB 1dB 3dB G(jω) db /decade 45 G(jω) 0 /

26 Right half-plane zero Normalized form: Magnitude: G(s)= 1 s ω 0 G(jω) = 1+ ω ω 0 2 same as conventional (left half-plane) zero. Hence, magnitude asymptotes are identical to those of LHP zero. Phase: G(jω)= tan 1 ω ω 0 same as real pole. The RHP zero exhibits the magnitude asymptotes of the LHP zero, and the phase asymptotes of the pole 25

27 Summary: Bode plot, RHP zero G(s)= 1 s ω 0 +20dB/decade 2 0dB 1dB 3dB G(jω) db 0.5 1dB G(jω) 0 / /decade

28 Frequency inversion Reversal of frequency axis. A useful form when describing mid- or high-frequency flat asymptotes. Normalized form, inverted pole: G(s)= 1 1+ ω 0 s An algebraically equivalent form: G(s)= s ω 0 1+ s ω 0 The inverted-pole format emphasizes the high-frequency gain. 27

29 Asymptotes, inverted pole G(s)= 1 1+ ω 0 s 3dB 1dB 2 1dB 0dB 0.5 G(jω) db +20dB/decade G(jω) +90 / /decade

30 Inverted zero Normalized form, inverted zero: G(s)= 1+ ω 0 s An algebraically equivalent form: G(s)= 1+ s ω 0 s ω 0 Again, the inverted-zero format emphasizes the high-frequency gain. 29

31 Asymptotes, inverted zero G(jω) db 20dB/decade G(s)= 1+ ω 0 s 0.5 1dB 2 3dB 1dB 0dB /decade 45 G(jω) 90 /

32 Combinations Suppose that we have constructed the Bode diagrams of two complex-values functions of frequency, G 1 (ω) and G 2 (ω). It is desired to construct the Bode diagram of the product, G 3 (ω) = G 1 (ω) G 2 (ω). Express the complex-valued functions in polar form: G 1 (ω)=r 1 (ω) e jθ 1 (ω) G 2 (ω)=r 2 (ω) e jθ 2 (ω) G 3 (ω)=r 3 (ω) e jθ 3 (ω) The product G 3 (ω) can then be written G 3 (ω)=g 1 (ω) G 2 (ω)=r 1 (ω) e jθ 1 (ω) R 2 (ω) e jθ 2 (ω) G 3 (ω)= R 1 (ω) R 2 (ω) e j(θ 1 (ω)+θ 2 (ω)) 31

33 Combinations G 3 (ω)= R 1 (ω) R 2 (ω) e j(θ 1 (ω)+θ 2 (ω)) The composite phase is θ 3 (ω)=θ 1 (ω)+θ 2 (ω) The composite magnitude is R 3 (ω)=r 1 (ω) R 2 (ω) R 3 (ω) db = R 1 (ω) db + R 2 (ω) db Composite phase is sum of individual phases. Composite magnitude, when expressed in db, is sum of individual magnitudes. 32

34 Example 1: G(s)= G 0 1+ s ω 1 1+ s ω 2 with G 0 = db, f 1 = ω 1 /2π = 100 Hz, f 2 = ω 2 /2π = 2 khz G 40 db 20 db 0 db G 0 = db G 0 db f Hz 20 db/decade G 20 db 40 db G 0 f 1 /10 10 Hz f 2 / Hz 45 /decade f 2 2 khz 40 db/decade db /decade 10f 2 10f 1 1 khz 20 khz 45 /decade Hz 10 Hz 100 Hz 1 khz 10 khz 100 khz f 33

35 Example 2 Determine the transfer function A(s) corresponding to the following asymptotes: A f 2 A db f 1 A 0 db +20 db/dec 10f 1 f 2 /10 A +45 /dec /dec 0 0 f 1 /10 10f 2 34

36 Example 2, continued One solution: A(s)=A 0 1+ s ω 1 1+ s ω 2 Analytical expressions for asymptotes: For f < f 1 1+ ω s 1 A 0 1+ ω s 2 For f 1 < f < f 2 s = jω = A = A ω s 1 A 0 1+ ω s 2 s = jω = A 0 s ω1 s = jω 1 = A 0 ω ω1 = A 0 f f 1 35

37 Example 2, continued For f > f 2 A s ω s ω 2 s = jω = A 0 s ω1 s = jω s ω 2 s = jω = A 0 ω 2 ω 1 = A 0 f 2 f1 So the high-frequency asymptote is A = A 0 f 2 f1 Another way to express A(s): use inverted poles and zeroes, and express A(s) directly in terms of A 1+ ω 1 s A(s)=A 1+ ω 2 s 36

38 8.1.6 Quadratic pole response: resonance Example G(s)= v 2(s) v 1 (s) = 1 1+s L R + s2 LC L + Second-order denominator, of the form G(s)= 1 1+a 1 s + a 2 s 2 v 1 (s) + C R Two-pole low-pass filter example v 2 (s) with a 1 = L/R and a 2 = LC How should we construct the Bode diagram? 37

39 Approach 1: factor denominator G(s)= 1 1+a 1 s + a 2 s 2 We might factor the denominator using the quadratic formula, then construct Bode diagram as the combination of two real poles: G(s)= 1 1 s s 1 s with s 1 = a a 2 2a 2 2 a 1 s 1 2 s 2 = a 1 2a a 2 a 1 2 If 4a 2 a 12, then the roots s 1 and s 2 are real. We can construct Bode diagram as the combination of two real poles. If 4a 2 > a 12, then the roots are complex. In Section 8.1.1, the assumption was made that ω 0 is real; hence, the results of that section cannot be applied and we need to do some additional work. 38

40 Approach 2: Define a standard normalized form for the quadratic case G(s)= 1 1+2ζ ω s + s 2 or G(s)= 1 0 ω 1+ s + 0 Qω s 0 ω 0 2 When the coefficients of s are real and positive, then the parameters ζ, ω 0, and Q are also real and positive The parameters ζ, ω 0, and Q are found by equating the coefficients of s The parameter ω 0 is the angular corner frequency, and we can define = ω 0 /2π The parameter ζ is called the damping factor. ζ controls the shape of the exact curve in the vicinity of f =. The roots are complex when ζ < 1. In the alternative form, the parameter Q is called the quality factor. Q also controls the shape of the exact curve in the vicinity of f =. The roots are complex when Q >

41 The Q-factor In a second-order system, ζ and Q are related according to Q = 1 2ζ Q is a measure of the dissipation in the system. A more general definition of Q, for sinusoidal excitation of a passive element or system is (peak stored energy) Q =2π (energy dissipated per cycle) For a second-order passive system, the two equations above are equivalent. We will see that Q has a simple interpretation in the Bode diagrams of second-order transfer functions. 40

42 Analytical expressions for and Q Two-pole low-pass filter example: we found that G(s)= v 2(s) v 1 (s) = 1 1+s L R + s2 LC Equate coefficients of like powers of s with the standard form G(s)= 1 1+ s Qω 0 + s ω 0 2 Result: = ω 0 2π = 1 2π LC Q = R C L 41

43 Magnitude asymptotes, quadratic form In the form G(s)= 1 1+ s Qω 0 + s ω 0 let s = jω and find magnitude: 2 G( jω) = 1 1 ω ω ω 2 0 Q 2 ω0 Asymptotes are G 1 for ω << ω 0 G f 2 for ω >> ω 0 G(jω) db 0 db 20 db 40 db 60 db 0 db f 40 db/decade f 42

44 Deviation of exact curve from magnitude asymptotes G( jω) = 1 1 ω ω ω 2 0 Q 2 ω0 At ω = ω 0, the exact magnitude is G(jω 0 ) = Q or, in db: G(jω 0 ) db = Q db The exact curve has magnitude Q at f =. The deviation of the exact curve from the asymptotes is Q db G 0 db Q db 40 db/decade 43

45 Two-pole response: exact curves 10dB Q = Q = 5 Q = 2 Q = 1 Q = Q = Q = 10 Q =5 Q = 2 Q = 1 Q = 0.7 Q = 0.5 G db 0dB Q = 0.5 G -90 Q = 0.2 Q = dB Q = Q = dB f / f / 44

46 The low-q approximation Given a second-order denominator polynomial, of the form G(s)= 1 or 1+a 1 s + a 2 s 2 G(s)= 1 1+ Qω s + s 0 ω 0 2 When the roots are real, i.e., when Q < 0.5, then we can factor the denominator, and construct the Bode diagram using the asymptotes for real poles. We would then use the following normalized form: G(s)= 1 1+ s ω 1 1+ s ω 2 This is a particularly desirable approach when Q << 0.5, i.e., when the corner frequencies ω 1 and ω 2 are well separated. 45

47 An example A problem with this procedure is the complexity of the quadratic formula used to find the corner frequencies. R-L-C network example: L + G(s)= v 2(s) v 1 (s) = 1 1+s L R + s2 LC v 1 (s) + C R v 2 (s) Use quadratic formula to factor denominator. Corner frequencies are: ω 1, ω 2 = L / R ± L / R 2 4LC 2 LC 46

48 Factoring the denominator ω 1, ω 2 = L / R ± L / R 2 4LC 2 LC This complicated expression yields little insight into how the corner frequencies ω 1 and ω 2 depend on R, L, and C. When the corner frequencies are well separated in value, it can be shown that they are given by the much simpler (approximate) expressions ω 1 R L, ω 2 RC 1 ω 1 is then independent of C, and ω 2 is independent of L. These simpler expressions can be derived via the Low-Q Approximation. 47

49 Derivation of the Low-Q Approximation Given G(s)= 1 1+ s Qω 0 + s ω 0 Use quadratic formula to express corner frequencies ω 1 and ω 2 in terms of Q and ω 0 as: 2 ω 1 = ω 0 Q 1 1 4Q 2 2 ω 2 = ω 0 Q Q

50 Corner frequency ω 2 ω 2 = ω 0 Q Q 2 2 F(Q) 1 can be written in the form ω 2 = ω 0 Q F(Q) where F(Q)= 1 2 ω 2 ω 0 Q Q2 For small Q, F(Q) tends to 1. We then obtain for Q << For Q < 0.3, the approximation F(Q) = 1 is within 10% of the exact value. Q 49

51 Corner frequency ω 1 ω 1 = ω 0 Q 1 1 4Q 2 2 F(Q) 1 can be written in the form ω 1 = Q ω 0 F(Q) where F(Q)= Q2 For small Q, F(Q) tends to 1. We then obtain ω 1 Q ω 0 for Q << For Q < 0.3, the approximation F(Q) = 1 is within 10% of the exact value. Q 50

52 The Low-Q Approximation G db 0dB f 1 = Q F(Q) Q 20dB/decade f 2 = F(Q) Q Q 40dB/decade 51

53 R-L-C Example For the previous example: G(s)= v 2(s) v 1 (s) = 1 1+s L R + s2 LC = ω 0 2π = 1 2π LC Q = R C L Use of the Low-Q Approximation leads to ω 1 Q ω 0 = R ω 2 ω 0 Q = 1 LC C 1 L LC = R L 1 = R C RC 1 L 52

54 8.2. Analysis of converter transfer functions Example: transfer functions of the buck-boost converter Transfer functions of some basic CCM converters Physical origins of the right half-plane zero in converters 70

55 Example: transfer functions of the buck-boost converter Small-signal ac model of the buck-boost converter, derived in Chapter 7: L 1 : D D' : 1 i(s) + (V g V) d(s) + v + g (s) I d(s) I d(s) C v(s) R 71

56 Definition of transfer functions The converter contains two inputs, d(s) and v g (s) and one output, v(s) Hence, the ac output voltage variations can be expressed as the superposition of terms arising from the two inputs: v(s)=g vd (s) d(s)+g vg (s) v g (s) The control-to-output and line-to-output transfer functions can be defined as G vd (s)= v(s) d(s) vg (s)=0 and G vg (s)= v(s) v g (s) d(s)=0 72

57 Derivation of line-to-output transfer function G vg (s) Set d sources to zero: 1 : D D' : 1 L + v g (s) + C v(s) R Push elements through transformers to output side: v g (s) D D' + L D' 2 + C v(s) R 73

58 Derivation of transfer functions Use voltage divider formula to solve for transfer function: G vg (s)= v(s) v g (s) d(s)=0 = D D' R 1 sc sl D' 2 + R 1 sc v g (s) D D' + L D' 2 + C v(s) R Expand parallel combination and express as a rational fraction: R G vg (s)= D' D 1+sRC sl D' 2 + R 1+sRC = D D' R R + sl D' 2 + s2 RLC D' 2 We aren t done yet! Need to write in normalized form, where the coefficient of s 0 is 1, and then identify salient features 74

59 Derivation of transfer functions Divide numerator and denominator by R. Result: the line-to-output transfer function is G vg (s)= v(s) = D 1 v g (s) D' d(s)=0 1+s L D' 2 R + LC s2 D' 2 which is of the following standard form: G vg (s)=g g s Qω 0 + s ω

60 Salient features of the line-to-output transfer function Equate standard form to derived transfer function, to determine expressions for the salient features: G g0 = D D' 1 ω = LC 2 0 D' 2 ω 0 = D' LC 1 Qω 0 = L D' 2 R Q = D'R C L 76

61 Derivation of control-to-output transfer function G vd (s) In small-signal model, set v g source to zero: L + (V g V) d(s) D' : 1 I d(s) C + v(s) R Push all elements to output side of transformer: V g V D' d(s) + L D' 2 I d(s) C + v(s) R There are two d sources. One way to solve the model is to use superposition, expressing the output v as a sum of terms arising from the two sources. 77

62 Superposition With the voltage source only: V g V D' d(s) + L D' 2 C + v(s) R v(s) d(s) = V g V D' R 1 sc sl D' 2 + R 1 sc With the current source alone: I d(s) L D' 2 C + v(s) R v(s) d(s) = I sl D' 2 R 1 sc Total: G vd (s)= V g V D' R 1 sc sl D' 2 + R 1 sc + I sl D' 2 R 1 sc 78

63 Control-to-output transfer function Express in normalized form: G vd (s)= v(s) d(s) vg (s)=0 = V g V D' 2 1 s LI V g V 1+s L D' 2 R + s2 LC D' 2 This is of the following standard form: 1 s ω z G vd (s)=g d0 1+ s Qω 0 + s ω

64 Salient features of control-to-output transfer function G d0 = V g V D' = V g D' 2 = V DD' ω z = V g V LI = D' R DL (RHP) ω 0 = D' LC Q = D'R C L Simplified using the dc relations: V = D' D V g I = D' V R 80

65 Plug in numerical values Suppose we are given the following numerical values: D = 0.6 R =10Ω V g =30V L = 160µH C = 160µF Then the salient features have the following numerical values: G g0 = D' D = db G d0 = V = V 45.5 dbv DD' = ω 0 2π = D' = 400 Hz 2π LC Q = D'R C =4 12 db L f z = ω z 2π = D'2 R = 2.65 khz 2πDL 81

66 Bode plot: control-to-output transfer function 80 dbv G vd G vd G vd 60 dbv 40 dbv 20 dbv 0 dbv 20 dbv G d0 = 187 V 45.5 dbv G vd /2Q 300 Hz f z / Hz 400 Hz Q = 4 12 db 40 db/decade f z 2.6 khz RHP 20 db/decade dbv 10 1/2Q 533 Hz f 10f z 26 khz 10 Hz 100 Hz 1 khz 10 khz 100 khz MHz 82

67 Bode plot: line-to-output transfer function G vg 20 db Gg0 = db 0 db G vg 20 db Q = 4 12 db 400 Hz 40 db/decade G vg 40 db 60 db G vg /2Q Hz 0 80 db /2Q Hz Hz 100 Hz 1 khz 10 khz 100 khz f 83

68 Transfer functions of some basic CCM converters Table 8.2. Salient features of the small-signal CCM transfer functions of some basic dc-dc converters Converter G g0 G d0 ω 0 Q ω z V 1 buck D D R C LC L 1 V D' boost D' D' D'R C D' 2 R LC L L buck-boost D' D V D' DD' 2 D'R C D' 2 R LC L DL where the transfer functions are written in the standard forms G vd (s)=g d0 1 s ω z 1+ s Qω 0 + s ω 0 2 G vg (s)=g g s Qω 0 + s ω

69 Physical origins of the right half-plane zero G(s)= 1 s ω 0 1 u in (s) u out (s) s ω z phase reversal at high frequency transient response: output initially tends in wrong direction 85

70 Two converters whose CCM control-to-output transfer functions exhibit RHP zeroes i D Ts = d' i L Ts L 2 i D (t) Boost v g + i L (t) 1 C R + v i D (t) Buck-boost v g + L i L (t) C R v 86

71 Waveforms, step increase in duty cycle i L (t) i D Ts = d' i L Ts Increasing d(t) causes the average diode current to initially decrease i D (t) i D (t) Ts t As inductor current increases to its new equilibrium value, average diode current eventually increases v(t) t d = 0.4 d = 0.6 t 87

72 Transfer functions predicted by canonical model H e (s) e(s) d(s) 1 : M(D) + + L e + v g (s) + j(s) d(s) v e (s) Z in C v(s) R Z out { { Z 1 Z 2 89

73 Output impedance Z out : set sources to zero L e C R Z out { { Z 1 Z 2 Z out = Z 1 Z 2 90

74 Graphical construction of output impedance 1 ωc Z 1 = ωl e R Q = R / R 0 R 0 Z out 91

75 Graphical construction of filter effective transfer function ωl e ωl e =1 Q = R / R 0 1/ωC ωl e = 1 ω 2 L e C H e = Z out Z 1 92

76 Boost and buck-boost converters: L e = L / D 2 1 ωc R Q = R / R 0 R 0 increasing D ωl D' 2 Z out 93

77 8.5. Summary of key points 1. The magnitude Bode diagrams of functions which vary as (f / )n have slopes equal to 20n db per decade, and pass through 0dB at f =. 2. It is good practice to express transfer functions in normalized polezero form; this form directly exposes expressions for the salient features of the response, i.e., the corner frequencies, reference gain, etc. 3. The right half-plane zero exhibits the magnitude response of the left half-plane zero, but the phase response of the pole. 4. Poles and zeroes can be expressed in frequency-inverted form, when it is desirable to refer the gain to a high-frequency asymptote. 101

78 Summary of key points 5. A two-pole response can be written in the standard normalized form of Eq. (8-53). When Q > 0.5, the poles are complex conjugates. The magnitude response then exhibits peaking in the vicinity of the corner frequency, with an exact value of Q at f =. High Q also causes the phase to change sharply near the corner frequency. 6. When the Q is less than 0.5, the two pole response can be plotted as two real poles. The low- Q approximation predicts that the two poles occur at frequencies / Q and Q. These frequencies are within 10% of the exact values for Q The low- Q approximation can be extended to find approximate roots of an arbitrary degree polynomial. Approximate analytical expressions for the salient features can be derived. Numerical values are used to justify the approximations. 102

79 Summary of key points 8. Salient features of the transfer functions of the buck, boost, and buckboost converters are tabulated in section The line-to-output transfer functions of these converters contain two poles. Their controlto-output transfer functions contain two poles, and may additionally contain a right half-pland zero. 9. Approximate magnitude asymptotes of impedances and transfer functions can be easily derived by graphical construction. This approach is a useful supplement to conventional analysis, because it yields physical insight into the circuit behavior, and because it exposes suitable approximations. Several examples, including the impedances of basic series and parallel resonant circuits and the transfer function H e (s) of the boost and buck-boost converters, are worked in section Measurement of transfer functions and impedances using a network analyzer is discussed in section 8.4. Careful attention to ground connections is important when measuring small impedances. 103

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