ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS"

Transcription

1 ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS Third Edition JOHN NEWMAN and KAREN E. THOMAS-ALYEA University of California, Berkeley ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY SERIES WILEY- INTERSCIENCE A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC PUBLICATION

2 PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION xv PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xvii PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xix 1 INTRODUCTION Definitions / Thermodynamics and Potential / Kinetics and Rates of Reaction / Transport / Concentration Oveipotential and the Diffusion Potential / Overall Cell Potential / 21 Problems / 25 Notation / 25 v

3 Vi CONTENTS PART A THERMODYNAMICS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS 27 2 THERMODYNAMICS IN TERMS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL POTENTIALS Phase Equilibrium / Chemical Potential and Electrochemical Potential / Definition of Some Thermodynamic Functions / Cell with Solution of Uniform Concentration / Transport Processes in Junction Regions / Cell with a Single Electrolyte of Varying Concentration / Cell with Two Electrolytes, One of Nearly Uniform Concentration / Cell with Two Electrolytes, Both of Varying Concentration / Standard Cell Potential and Activity Coefficients / Pressure Dependence of Activity Coefficients / Temperature Dependence of Cell Potentials / 70 Problems / 72 Notation / 82 References / 83 3 THE ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The Electrostatic Potential / Intermolecular Forces / Outer and Inner Potentials / Potentials of Reference Electrodes / The Electric Potential in Thermodynamics / 94 Notation / 96 References / 97 4 ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS Ionic Distributions in Dilute Solutions / Electrical Contribution to the Free Energy / Shortcomings of the Debye-ffiickel Model / Binary Solutions / Multicomponent Solutions / Measurement of Activity Coefficients / 116

4 VII 4.7 Weak Electrolytes /119 Problems / 122 Notation / 127 References / REFERENCE ELECTRODES Criteria for Reference Electrodes / Experimental Factors Affecting The Selection of Reference Electrodes / The Hydrogen Electrode / The Calomel Electrode and Other Mercury-Mercurous Salt Electrodes / The Mercury-Mercuric Oxide Electrode / Silver-Silver Halide Electrodes / Potentials Relative to a Given Reference Electrode / 142 Notation / 147 References / POTENTIALS OF CELLS WITH JUNCTIONS Nernst Equation / Types of Liquid Junctions / Formulas for Liquid-Junction Potentials / Determination of Concentration Profiles / Numerical Results / Cells with Liquid Junction / Error in the Nernst Equation / Potentials Across Membranes / 162 Problems / 163 Notation / 167 References / 167 PART В ELECTRODE KINETICS AND OTHER INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA STRUCTURE OF THE ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER Qualitative Description of Double Layers / Gibbs Adsorption Isotherm / 177

5 7.3 The Lippmann Equation / The Diffuse Part of the Double Layer / Capacity of the Double Layer in the Absence of Specific Adsorption / Specific Adsorption at an Electrode-Solution Interface / 195 Problems / 195 Notation / 199 References / 200 ELECTRODE KINETICS Heterogeneous Electrode Reactions / Dependence of Current Density on Surface Overpotential / Models for Electrode Kinetics / Effect of Double-Layer Structure / The Oxygen Electrode / Methods of Measurement / Simultaneous Reactions / 230 Problems / 233 Notation / 236 References / 237 ELECTROKINETIC PHENOMENA Discontinuous Velocity at an Interface / Electro-Osmosis and the Streaming Potential / Electrophoresis / Sedimentation Potential / 256 Problems / 257 Notation / 260 References / 261 ELECTROCAPILLARY PHENOMENA Dynamics of Interfaces / Electrocapillary Motion of Mercury Drops / Sedimentation Potentials for Falling Mercury Drops / 266 Notation / 267 References / 268

6 ix PART С TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN ELECTROLYTIC SOLUTIONS INFINITELY DILUTE SOLUTIONS Transport Laws / Conductivity, Diffusion Potentials, and Transference Numbers / Conservation of Charge / The Binary Electrolyte / Supporting Electrolyte / Multicomponent Diffusion by Elimination of the Electric Field / Mobilities and Diffusion Coefficients / Electroneutrality and Laplace's Equation / Moderately Dilute Solutions / 289 Problems / 291 Notation / 294 References / CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS Transport Laws / The Binary Electrolyte / Reference Velocities / The Potential / Connection with Dilute-Solution Theory / Multicomponent Transport / Liquid-Junction Potentials /310 Problems /311 Notation /313 References / THERMAL EFFECTS Thermal Diffusion / Heat Generation, Conservation, and Transfer / Heat Generation at an Interface / Thermogalvanic Cells / 326 Problems / 330

7 X CONTENTS Notation / 332 References / TRANSPORT PROPERTIES Infinitely Dilute Solutions / Solutions of a Single Salt / Multicomponent Solutions / Integral Diffusion Coefficients for Mass Transfer / 340 Problem / 343 Notation / 343 References / FLUID MECHANICS Mass and Momentum Balances / Stress in a Newtonian Fluid / Boundary Conditions / Fluid Flow to a Rotating Disk / Magnitude of Electrical Forces / Turbulent Flow / Mass Transfer in Turbulent Flow / 363 Problem / 366 Notation / 366 References / 368 PART D CURRENT DISTRIBUTION AND MASS TRANSFER IN ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS Transport in Dilute Solutions / Electrode Kinetics / 374 Notation / CONVECTIVE-TRANSPORT PROBLEMS Simplifications for Convective Transport / The Rotating Disk / The Graetz Problem / 382

8 Xi 17.4 The Annulus / Two-Dimensional Diffusion Layers in Laminar Forced Convection / Axisymmetric Diffusion Layers in Laminar Forced Convection / A Flat Plate in a Free Stream / Rotating Cylinders / Growing Mercury Drops / Free Convection / Combined Free and Forced Convection / Limitations of Surface Reactions / Binary and Concentrated Solutions / 404 Problems / 406 Notation /413 References / APPLICATIONS OF POTENTIAL THEORY Simplifications for Potential-Theory Problems / Primary Current Distribution / Secondary Current Distribution / Numerical Solution by Finite Differences / Principles of Cathodic Protection / 430 Problems / 449 Notation / 456 References / EFFECT OF MIGRATION ON LIMITING CURRENTS Analysis / Correction Factor for Limiting Currents / Concentration Variation of Supporting Electrolyte / Role of Bisulfate Ions / Paradoxes with Supporting Electrolyte / Limiting Currents for Free Convection / 480 Problems / 486 Notation / 488 References / 489

9 XII CONTENTS 20 CONCENTRATION OVERPOTENTIAL Definition / Binary Electrolyte / Supporting Electrolyte / Calculated Values / 495 Problems / 496 Notation / 497 References / CURRENTS BELOW THE LIMITING CURRENT The Bulk Medium / The Diffusion Layers / Boundary Conditions and Method of Solution / Results for the Rotating Disk / 506 Problems /510 Notation /512 References / POROUS ELECTRODES Macroscopic Description of Porous Electrodes / Nonuniform Reaction Rates / Mass Transfer / Battery Simulation / Double-Layer Charging and Adsorption / Flow-Through Electrochemical Reactors / 553 Problems 558 Notation 561 References SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRODES Nature of Semiconductors / Electric Capacitance at the Semiconductor-Solution Interface / Liquid-Junction Solar Cell / Generalized Interfacial Kinetics / Additional Aspects / 592

10 XÜi Problems / 596 Notation / 599 References / 600 APPENDIX A PARTIAL MOLAR VOLUMES 603 APPENDIX В VECTORS AND TENSORS 605 APPENDIX С NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF COUPLED, ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 611 INDEX 635

ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS

ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS Third Edition JOHN NEWMAN and KAREN E. THOMAS-ALYEA University of California, Berkeley ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY SERIES WILEY- INTERSCIENCE A JOHN WILEY &

More information

Principles and Applications of Electrochemistry

Principles and Applications of Electrochemistry Principles and Applications of Electrochemistry Fourth edition D. R. CROW Professor of Electrochemistry and Dean of Research University of Wolverhampton BLACKIE ACADEMIC & PROFESSIONAL An Imprint of Chapman

More information

Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces

Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces Hans Jürgen Butt, Karlheinz Graf, and Michael Kappl Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces Second, Revised and Enlarged Edition WILEY- VCH WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA Contents Preface XI 1 Introduction

More information

Principles of Electrochemistry Second Edition

Principles of Electrochemistry Second Edition Principles of Electrochemistry Second Edition Jiri Koryta Institute of Physiology, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague HKJin Dvorak Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University,

More information

Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry

Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry Volume 1: The Double Layer Edited by J. O'M. Bockris Texas A&M University College Station, Texas Brian E. Conway University of Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

More information

Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics

Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics Third Edition Stanley I. Sandler University of Delaware John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto Contents NOTATION xv CHAPTER1

More information

Foundations of. Colloid Science SECOND EDITION. Robert J. Hunter. School of Chemistry University of Sydney OXPORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

Foundations of. Colloid Science SECOND EDITION. Robert J. Hunter. School of Chemistry University of Sydney OXPORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Foundations of Colloid Science SECOND EDITION Robert J. Hunter School of Chemistry University of Sydney OXPORD UNIVERSITY PRESS CONTENTS 1 NATURE OF COLLOIDAL DISPERSIONS 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Technological

More information

CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER

CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER THIRD EDITION Adrian Bejan J. A. Jones Professor of Mechanical Engineering Duke University Durham, North Carolina WILEY JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. CONTENTS Preface Preface to the

More information

ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY

ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY MARK E. ORAZEM University of Florida BERNARD TRIBOLLET Universite Pierre et Marie Curie WILEY A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION Contents Contents Preface Acknowledgments

More information

PRINCIPLES OF PLASMA DISCHARGES AND MATERIALS PROCESSING

PRINCIPLES OF PLASMA DISCHARGES AND MATERIALS PROCESSING PRINCIPLES OF PLASMA DISCHARGES AND MATERIALS PROCESSING Second Edition MICHAEL A. LIEBERMAN ALLAN J, LICHTENBERG WILEY- INTERSCIENCE A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC PUBLICATION CONTENTS PREFACE xrrii PREFACE

More information

Contents. I Background 1. Contents... Preface... Acknowledgments... The Blind Men and the Elephant... xxi. History of Impedance Spectroscopy...

Contents. I Background 1. Contents... Preface... Acknowledgments... The Blind Men and the Elephant... xxi. History of Impedance Spectroscopy... Contents Contents...................................... Preface....................................... Acknowledgments................................. v xv xix The Blind Men and the Elephant.......................

More information

V. Electrostatics. MIT Student

V. Electrostatics. MIT Student V. Electrostatics Lecture 26: Compact Part of the Double Layer MIT Student 1 Double-layer Capacitance 1.1 Stern Layer As was discussed in the previous lecture, the Gouy-Chapman model predicts unphysically

More information

Boundary-Layer Theory

Boundary-Layer Theory Hermann Schlichting Klaus Gersten Boundary-Layer Theory With contributions from Egon Krause and Herbert Oertel Jr. Translated by Katherine Mayes 8th Revised and Enlarged Edition With 287 Figures and 22

More information

FLUID FLOW FOR THE PRACTICING CHEMICAL ENGINEER

FLUID FLOW FOR THE PRACTICING CHEMICAL ENGINEER FLUID FLOW FOR THE PRACTICING CHEMICAL ENGINEER J. Patrick Abulencia Louis Theodore WILEY A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION PREFACE INTRODUCTION xvii xix I INTRODUCTION TO FLUID FLOW 1 II History

More information

PRINCIPLES AND MODERN APPLICATIONS OF MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS

PRINCIPLES AND MODERN APPLICATIONS OF MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS PRINCIPLES AND MODERN APPLICATIONS OF MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS Jaime Benitez iwiley- INTERSCIENCE A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION Preface Nomenclature xiii xv 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF MASS TRANSFER 1

More information

Table of Contents. Foreword... xiii. Preface... xv

Table of Contents. Foreword... xiii. Preface... xv Table of Contents Foreword.... xiii Preface... xv Chapter 1. Fundamental Equations, Dimensionless Numbers... 1 1.1. Fundamental equations... 1 1.1.1. Local equations... 1 1.1.2. Integral conservation equations...

More information

INTRODUCTION TO MODERN THERMODYNAMICS

INTRODUCTION TO MODERN THERMODYNAMICS INTRODUCTION TO MODERN THERMODYNAMICS Dilip Kondepudi Thurman D Kitchin Professor of Chemistry Wake Forest University John Wiley & Sons, Ltd CONTENTS Preface xiii PART I THE FORMALIS1VI OF MODERN THER1VIODYNAMICS

More information

INTRODUCTION TO CATALYTIC COMBUSTION

INTRODUCTION TO CATALYTIC COMBUSTION INTRODUCTION TO CATALYTIC COMBUSTION R.E. Hayes Professor of Chemical Engineering Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Alberta, Canada and S.T. Kolaczkowski Professor of Chemical

More information

INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Electrochemical techniques are used for the production of aluminum and chlorine, the conversion of energy in batteries and fuel cells, sensors, electroplating, and the protection

More information

Charged Interfaces & electrokinetic

Charged Interfaces & electrokinetic Lecture Note #7 Charged Interfaces & electrokinetic phenomena Reading: Shaw, ch. 7 Origin of the charge at colloidal surfaces 1. Ionization Proteins acquire their charge by ionization of COOH and NH 2

More information

Basic Concepts of Electrochemistry

Basic Concepts of Electrochemistry ELECTROCHEMISTRY Electricity-driven Chemistry or Chemistry-driven Electricity Electricity: Chemistry (redox): charge flow (electrons, holes, ions) reduction = electron uptake oxidation = electron loss

More information

Chemical, Biochemical, and Engineering Thermodynamics

Chemical, Biochemical, and Engineering Thermodynamics Chemical, Biochemical, and Engineering Thermodynamics Fourth Edition Stanley I. Sandler University of Delaware John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Contents CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The Central Problems of Thermodynamics

More information

TRANSPORT PHENOMENA FOR CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN

TRANSPORT PHENOMENA FOR CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN TRANSPORT PHENOMENA FOR CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN Laurence A. Belfiore Department of Chemical Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

More information

Contents. 1 Introduction and guide for this text 1. 2 Equilibrium and entropy 6. 3 Energy and how the microscopic world works 21

Contents. 1 Introduction and guide for this text 1. 2 Equilibrium and entropy 6. 3 Energy and how the microscopic world works 21 Preface Reference tables Table A Counting and combinatorics formulae Table B Useful integrals, expansions, and approximations Table C Extensive thermodynamic potentials Table D Intensive per-particle thermodynamic

More information

Electrochemical Cell - Basics

Electrochemical Cell - Basics Electrochemical Cell - Basics The electrochemical cell e - (a) Load (b) Load e - M + M + Negative electrode Positive electrode Negative electrode Positive electrode Cathode Anode Anode Cathode Anode Anode

More information

In all electrochemical methods, the rate of oxidation & reduction depend on: 1) rate & means by which soluble species reach electrode surface (mass

In all electrochemical methods, the rate of oxidation & reduction depend on: 1) rate & means by which soluble species reach electrode surface (mass Voltammetry Methods based on an electrolytic cell Apply potential or current to electrochemical cell & concentrations change at electrode surface due to oxidation & reduction reactions Can have 2 or 3

More information

HEAT TRANSFER THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONICS YOUNES SHABANY. C\ CRC Press W / Taylor Si Francis Group Boca Raton London New York

HEAT TRANSFER THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONICS YOUNES SHABANY. C\ CRC Press W / Taylor Si Francis Group Boca Raton London New York HEAT TRANSFER THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONICS YOUNES SHABANY C\ CRC Press W / Taylor Si Francis Group Boca Raton London New York CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

More information

Principles of Convective Heat Transfer

Principles of Convective Heat Transfer Massoud Kaviany Principles of Convective Heat Transfer Second Edition With 378 Figures Springer Contents Series Preface Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Acknowledgments vii ix

More information

IV. Transport Phenomena. Lecture 23: Ion Concentration Polarization

IV. Transport Phenomena. Lecture 23: Ion Concentration Polarization IV. Transport Phenomena Lecture 23: Ion Concentration Polarization MIT Student (and MZB) Ion concentration polarization in electrolytes refers to the additional voltage drop (or internal resistance ) across

More information

NON-EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMICS

NON-EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMICS NON-EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMICS S. R. DE GROOT Professor of Theoretical Physics University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands E MAZUR Professor of Theoretical Physics University of Leiden, The Netherlands DOVER

More information

Physical Chemistry of Surfaces

Physical Chemistry of Surfaces Physical Chemistry of Surfaces Fifth Edition ARTHUR W. ADAMSON Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California Los Angeles, California >) A WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PUBLICATION John Wiley &. Sons,

More information

Modeling of Liquid Water Distribution at Cathode Gas Flow Channels in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC

Modeling of Liquid Water Distribution at Cathode Gas Flow Channels in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC Modeling of Liquid Water Distribution at Cathode Gas Flow Channels in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC Sandro Skoda 1*, Eric Robalinho 2, André L. R. Paulino 1, Edgar F. Cunha 1, Marcelo Linardi

More information

CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS

CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS Basic Theory and Methods Sixth Edition IRVING M. KLOTZ Morrison Professor Emeritus Northwestern University ROBERT M. ROSENBERG MacMillen Professor Emeritus Lawrence University Visiting

More information

CARBON. Electrochemical ond Physicochemicol Properties KIM KINOSHITA. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Berkeley, California

CARBON. Electrochemical ond Physicochemicol Properties KIM KINOSHITA. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Berkeley, California CARBON Electrochemical ond Physicochemicol Properties KIM KINOSHITA Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Berkeley, California A Wiley-Interscience Publicotion JOHN WILEY & SONS New York / Chichester / Brisbane

More information

TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS CINDAS Data Series on Material Properties Volume 1-1 TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS Thermal Conductivity, Viscosity, and Diffusion Coefficient Edited by С. Y. Ho Director, Center for Information and Numerical

More information

Prof. Mario L. Ferrari

Prof. Mario L. Ferrari Sustainable Energy Mod.1: Fuel Cells & Distributed Generation Systems Dr. Ing. Mario L. Ferrari Thermochemical Power Group (TPG) - DiMSET University of Genoa, Italy Lesson II Lesson II: fuel cells (electrochemistry)

More information

Chemical Reactor flnolysis

Chemical Reactor flnolysis Introduction to Chemical Reactor flnolysis SECOND EDITION R.E. Hayes J.P. Mmbaga ^ ^ T..,«,,.«M.iirti,im.' TECHNISCHE INFORMATIONSBIBLIOTHEK UNWERSITATSBIBLIOTHEK HANNOVER i ii ii 1 J /0\ CRC Press ycf*

More information

Contents. 2. Fluids. 1. Introduction

Contents. 2. Fluids. 1. Introduction Contents 1. Introduction 2. Fluids 3. Physics of Microfluidic Systems 4. Microfabrication Technologies 5. Flow Control 6. Micropumps 7. Sensors 8. Ink-Jet Technology 9. Liquid Handling 10.Microarrays 11.Microreactors

More information

Contents. 1 Matter: Its Properties and Measurement 1. 2 Atoms and the Atomic Theory Chemical Compounds Chemical Reactions 111

Contents. 1 Matter: Its Properties and Measurement 1. 2 Atoms and the Atomic Theory Chemical Compounds Chemical Reactions 111 Ed: Pls provide art About the Authors Preface xvii xvi 1 Matter: Its Properties and Measurement 1 1-1 The Scientific Method 2 1-2 Properties of Matter 4 1-3 Classification of Matter 5 1-4 Measurement of

More information

THERMODYNAMICS THERMOSTATISTICS AND AN INTRODUCTION TO SECOND EDITION. University of Pennsylvania

THERMODYNAMICS THERMOSTATISTICS AND AN INTRODUCTION TO SECOND EDITION. University of Pennsylvania THERMODYNAMICS AND AN INTRODUCTION TO THERMOSTATISTICS SECOND EDITION HERBERT B. University of Pennsylvania CALLEN JOHN WILEY & SONS New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto Singapore CONTENTS PART I GENERAL

More information

Chemical and Biological Engineering Department University of Wisconsin-Madison

Chemical and Biological Engineering Department University of Wisconsin-Madison Transport Phenomena Revised Second Edition R. Byron Bird Warren E. Stewart Edwin N. Lightfoot Chemical and Biological Engineering Department University of Wisconsin-Madison John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New

More information

Contents. Preface XI Symbols and Abbreviations XIII. 1 Introduction 1

Contents. Preface XI Symbols and Abbreviations XIII. 1 Introduction 1 V Contents Preface XI Symbols and Abbreviations XIII 1 Introduction 1 2 Van der Waals Forces 5 2.1 Van der Waals Forces Between Molecules 5 2.1.1 Coulomb Interaction 5 2.1.2 Monopole Dipole Interaction

More information

THE PROPERTIES OF GASES AND LIQUIDS

THE PROPERTIES OF GASES AND LIQUIDS THE PROPERTIES OF GASES AND LIQUIDS Bruce E. Poling University of Toledo John M. Prausnitz University of California at Berkeley John P. O'Connell University of Virginia Fifth Edition McGRAW-HILL New York

More information

e - Galvanic Cell 1. Voltage Sources 1.1 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell

e - Galvanic Cell 1. Voltage Sources 1.1 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Galvanic cells convert different forms of energy (chemical fuel, sunlight, mechanical pressure, etc.) into electrical energy and heat. In this lecture, we are interested in some examples of galvanic cells.

More information

Basic overall reaction for hydrogen powering

Basic overall reaction for hydrogen powering Fuel Cell Basics Basic overall reaction for hydrogen powering 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Hydrogen produces electrons, protons, heat and water PEMFC Anode reaction: H 2 2H + + 2e Cathode reaction: (½)O 2 + 2H +

More information

Thermodynamics of Surfaces and Capillary Systems

Thermodynamics of Surfaces and Capillary Systems CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS SET Volume 7 Thermodynamics of Surfaces and Capillary Systems Michel Soustelle Thermodynamics of Surfaces and Capillary Systems Chemical Thermodynamics

More information

Electrochemistry in Nonaqueous Solutions

Electrochemistry in Nonaqueous Solutions К. Izutsu Electrochemistry in Nonaqueous Solutions WILEY-VCH Contents Preface V Part I Fundamentals of Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solutions: Electrochemical Aspects 1 Properties of Solvents and Solvent Classification

More information

Molecular Driving Forces

Molecular Driving Forces Molecular Driving Forces Statistical Thermodynamics in Chemistry and Biology SUBGfittingen 7 At 216 513 073 / / Ken A. Dill Sarina Bromberg With the assistance of Dirk Stigter on the Electrostatics chapters

More information

Part II: Self Potential Method and Induced Polarization (IP)

Part II: Self Potential Method and Induced Polarization (IP) Part II: Self Potential Method and Induced Polarization (IP) Self-potential method (passive) Self-potential mechanism Measurement of self potentials and interpretation Induced polarization method (active)

More information

CHM 213 (INORGANIC CHEMISTRY): Applications of Standard Reduction Potentials. Compiled by. Dr. A.O. Oladebeye

CHM 213 (INORGANIC CHEMISTRY): Applications of Standard Reduction Potentials. Compiled by. Dr. A.O. Oladebeye CHM 213 (INORGANIC CHEMISTRY): Applications of Standard Reduction Potentials Compiled by Dr. A.O. Oladebeye Department of Chemistry University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria Electrochemical Cell Electrochemical

More information

Solid State electrochemistry

Solid State electrochemistry Solid State electrochemistry edited by Peter G. Bruce Department of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, Scotland IH CAMBRIDGE ^pf UNIVERSITY PRESS 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Preface Introduction P. G.

More information

SOLID STATE PHYSICS. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons. J. R. Hook H. E. Hall. Department of Physics, University of Manchester

SOLID STATE PHYSICS. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons. J. R. Hook H. E. Hall. Department of Physics, University of Manchester SOLID STATE PHYSICS Second Edition J. R. Hook H. E. Hall Department of Physics, University of Manchester John Wiley & Sons CHICHESTER NEW YORK BRISBANE TORONTO SINGAPORE Contents Flow diagram Inside front

More information

Laboratory Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry

Laboratory Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry Laboratory Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry Second Edition, Revised and Expanded edited by Peter I Kissinger Purdue University and Bioanalytical Systems, Inc. West Lafayette, Indiana William R.

More information

Unit - 3 ELECTROCHEMISTRY VSA QUESTIONS (1 - MARK QUESTIONS) 3. Mention the purpose of salt-bridge placed between two half-cells of a galvanic cell?

Unit - 3 ELECTROCHEMISTRY VSA QUESTIONS (1 - MARK QUESTIONS) 3. Mention the purpose of salt-bridge placed between two half-cells of a galvanic cell? Unit - 3 ELECTROCHEMISTRY 1. What is a galvanic cell? VSA QUESTIONS (1 - MARK QUESTIONS) 2. Give the cell representation for Daniell Cell. 3. Mention the purpose of salt-bridge placed between two half-cells

More information

CHLORINE PROCESS ECONOMICS PROGRAM. Report No. 61A. Supplement A. by YEN CHEN YEN. May A private report by the STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE

CHLORINE PROCESS ECONOMICS PROGRAM. Report No. 61A. Supplement A. by YEN CHEN YEN. May A private report by the STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE Report No. 61A CHLORINE Supplement A by YEN CHEN YEN May 1074 A private report by the PROCESS ECONOMICS PROGRAM STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE I I MENLO PARK, CALIFORNIA CONTENTS 1 2 3 INTRODUCTION... 1 SUMMARY...

More information

V. Electrostatics Lecture 24: Diffuse Charge in Electrolytes

V. Electrostatics Lecture 24: Diffuse Charge in Electrolytes V. Electrostatics Lecture 24: Diffuse Charge in Electrolytes MIT Student 1. Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations The Nernst-Planck Equation is a conservation of mass equation that describes the influence of

More information

PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS

PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS JOHN E. MAHAN Colorado State University A Wiley-Interscience Publication JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto CONTENTS

More information

8 Phenomenological treatment of electron-transfer reactions

8 Phenomenological treatment of electron-transfer reactions 8 Phenomenological treatment of electron-transfer reactions 8.1 Outer-sphere electron-transfer Electron-transfer reactions are the simplest class of electrochemical reactions. They play a special role

More information

The Physics of Fluids and Plasmas

The Physics of Fluids and Plasmas The Physics of Fluids and Plasmas An Introduction for Astrophysicists ARNAB RAI CHOUDHURI CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Preface Acknowledgements xiii xvii Introduction 1 1. 3 1.1 Fluids and plasmas in the

More information

957 Lecture #13 of 18

957 Lecture #13 of 18 Lecture #13 of 18 957 958 Q: What was in this set of lectures? A: B&F Chapter 2 main concepts: Section 2.1 : Section 2.3: Salt; Activity; Underpotential deposition Transference numbers; Liquid junction

More information

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DISBONDED COATING AND CATHODIC DELAMINATION SYSTEMS KERRY N. ALLAHAR

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DISBONDED COATING AND CATHODIC DELAMINATION SYSTEMS KERRY N. ALLAHAR MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DISBONDED COATING AND CATHODIC DELAMINATION SYSTEMS By KERRY N. ALLAHAR A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE

More information

C ONTENTS CHAPTER TWO HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION 61 CHAPTER ONE BASICS OF HEAT TRANSFER 1 CHAPTER THREE STEADY HEAT CONDUCTION 127

C ONTENTS CHAPTER TWO HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION 61 CHAPTER ONE BASICS OF HEAT TRANSFER 1 CHAPTER THREE STEADY HEAT CONDUCTION 127 C ONTENTS Preface xviii Nomenclature xxvi CHAPTER ONE BASICS OF HEAT TRANSFER 1 1-1 Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer 2 Application Areas of Heat Transfer 3 Historical Background 3 1-2 Engineering Heat

More information

An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics

An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics Michel Soustelle WWILEY Table of Contents Preface xvii PART 1. BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMICAL KINETICS 1 Chapter 1. Chemical Reaction and Kinetic Quantities 3 1.1. The

More information

Hydrodynamic Electrodes and Microelectrodes

Hydrodynamic Electrodes and Microelectrodes CHEM465/865, 2004-3, Lecture 20, 27 th Sep., 2004 Hydrodynamic Electrodes and Microelectrodes So far we have been considering processes at planar electrodes. We have focused on the interplay of diffusion

More information

Modeling as a tool for understanding the MEA. Henrik Ekström Utö Summer School, June 22 nd 2010

Modeling as a tool for understanding the MEA. Henrik Ekström Utö Summer School, June 22 nd 2010 Modeling as a tool for understanding the MEA Henrik Ekström Utö Summer School, June 22 nd 2010 COMSOL Multiphysics and Electrochemistry Modeling The software is based on the finite element method A number

More information

A Problem-Solving Approach to Aquatic Chemistry

A Problem-Solving Approach to Aquatic Chemistry A Problem-Solving Approach to Aquatic Chemistry James N. Jensen University at Buffalo John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Table of Contents Partfc I^damental^^ 1_ Chapter 1: Getting Started with the Fundamental Concepts

More information

Biotransport: Principles

Biotransport: Principles Robert J. Roselli Kenneth R. Diller Biotransport: Principles and Applications 4 i Springer Contents Part I Fundamentals of How People Learn (HPL) 1 Introduction to HPL Methodology 3 1.1 Introduction 3

More information

EXPERIMENTS IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

EXPERIMENTS IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY SIXTH EDITION DAVID P. SHOEMAKER CARL W. GARLAND JOSEPH W. NIBLER The Late Emeritus Professor of Chemistry Professor of Chemistry Professor of Chemistry Oregon State University

More information

Overview of electrochemistry

Overview of electrochemistry Overview of electrochemistry 1 Homogeneous Heterogeneous Equilibrium electrochemistry (no current flows) Thermodynamics of electrolyte solutions: electrolytic dissociation thermodynamics and activities

More information

Contents. I Introduction 1. Preface. xiii

Contents. I Introduction 1. Preface. xiii Contents Preface xiii I Introduction 1 1 Continuous matter 3 1.1 Molecules................................ 4 1.2 The continuum approximation.................... 6 1.3 Newtonian mechanics.........................

More information

Multidimensional, Non-Isothermal, Dynamic Modelling Of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Multidimensional, Non-Isothermal, Dynamic Modelling Of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Multidimensional, Non-Isothermal, Dynamic Modelling Of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells K. Tseronis a, I. Kookos b, C. Theodoropoulos a* a School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University

More information

Chemistry 325 Instrumental Methods of Analysis March 13, Final Exam. Name

Chemistry 325 Instrumental Methods of Analysis March 13, Final Exam. Name Final Exam Name Instructions: This exam is worth 100 points. Some questions allow a choice as to which parts are answered. Only answer the number of parts requested. 1. (32 points) Circle the best answer

More information

Basic overall reaction for hydrogen powering

Basic overall reaction for hydrogen powering Fuel Cell Basics Basic overall reaction for hydrogen powering 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Hydrogen produces electrons, protons, heat and water PEMFC Anode reaction: H 2 2H + + 2e Cathode reaction: (½)O 2 + 2H +

More information

SOIL COLLOIDS PROPERTIES AND ION RINDING. CRC Press. University of Bueno Aires Buenos Aires, Argentina. Taylor & Francis Croup

SOIL COLLOIDS PROPERTIES AND ION RINDING. CRC Press. University of Bueno Aires Buenos Aires, Argentina. Taylor & Francis Croup SOIL COLLOIDS PROPERTIES AND ION RINDING Fernando V. Molina University of Bueno Aires Buenos Aires, Argentina CRC Press Taylor & Francis Croup Boca Raton London New York CRC Press is an imprint of the

More information

PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS

PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS THEIR CORRELATION WITH CHEMICAL STRUCTURE; THEIR NUMERICAL ESTIMATION AND PREDICTION FROM ADDITIVE GROUP CONTRIBUTIONS Third, completely revised edition By D.W. VÄN KREVELEN Professor-Emeritus,

More information

ELECTROCHEMISTRY. Chapter INTRODUCTION

ELECTROCHEMISTRY. Chapter INTRODUCTION Chapter 2 ELECTROCHEMISTRY 2.1 INTRODUCTION The goal of this chapter is to elucidate the fundamental characteristics and technological significance of electrochemical cells. A comprehensive review on the

More information

Electrochemistry. Michael Faraday s law of electromagnetic induction says that whenever a conductor is

Electrochemistry. Michael Faraday s law of electromagnetic induction says that whenever a conductor is Surname 1 Name Course Instructor Date Electrochemistry 1. Faraday s Law Michael Faraday s law of electromagnetic induction says that whenever a conductor is positioned in a changeable magnetic field emf

More information

III. Reaction Kinetics Lecture 15: Ion Adsorption and Intercalation

III. Reaction Kinetics Lecture 15: Ion Adsorption and Intercalation III. Reaction Kinetics Lecture 15: Ion Adsorption and Intercalation MIT Student 1. Surface adsorption/intercalation of neutral species Adsorption on a surface or intercalation in a bulk solid involves

More information

Bruno Bastos Sales, Joost Helsen and Arne Verliefde

Bruno Bastos Sales, Joost Helsen and Arne Verliefde FEM modeling of capacitive deionization for complex streams Dennis Cardoen Bruno Bastos Sales, Joost Helsen and Arne Verliefde International Conference on Numerical and Mathematical ing of Flow and Transport

More information

Q1. Why does the conductivity of a solution decrease with dilution?

Q1. Why does the conductivity of a solution decrease with dilution? Q1. Why does the conductivity of a solution decrease with dilution? A1. Conductivity of a solution is the conductance of ions present in a unit volume of the solution. On dilution the number of ions per

More information

1. Introduction, tensors, kinematics

1. Introduction, tensors, kinematics 1. Introduction, tensors, kinematics Content: Introduction to fluids, Cartesian tensors, vector algebra using tensor notation, operators in tensor form, Eulerian and Lagrangian description of scalar and

More information

Analysis of cations and anions by Ion- Selective Electrodes (ISEs)

Analysis of cations and anions by Ion- Selective Electrodes (ISEs) Analysis of cations and anions by Ion- Selective Electrodes (ISEs) Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to introduce potentiometric measurements of ionic species by ion selective electrodes (ISEs)

More information

Advanced Analytical Chemistry Lecture 12. Chem 4631

Advanced Analytical Chemistry Lecture 12. Chem 4631 Advanced Analytical Chemistry Lecture 12 Chem 4631 What is a fuel cell? An electro-chemical energy conversion device A factory that takes fuel as input and produces electricity as output. O 2 (g) H 2 (g)

More information

Understanding Impedance of Li-Ion Batteries with Battery Design Studio

Understanding Impedance of Li-Ion Batteries with Battery Design Studio Understanding Impedance of Li-Ion Batteries with Battery Design Studio Robert Spotnitz Battery Consultant Thursday July 6, 2017 16:40-17:10 Understanding Impedance Li-Ion Batteries with Battery Design

More information

MASS TRANSPORT Macroscopic Balances for Multicomponent Systems

MASS TRANSPORT Macroscopic Balances for Multicomponent Systems TRANSPORT PHENOMENA MASS TRANSPORT Macroscopic Balances for Multicomponent Systems Macroscopic Balances for Multicomponent Systems 1. The Macroscopic Mass Balance 2. The Macroscopic Momentum and Angular

More information

Observable Electric Potential and Electrostatic Potential in Electrochemical Systems

Observable Electric Potential and Electrostatic Potential in Electrochemical Systems 658 J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 658-662 Observable Electric Potential and Electrostatic Potential in Electrochemical Systems Javier Garrido* and José A. Manzanares Departamento de Termodinámica, UniVersitat

More information

Physical Chemistry (A)

Physical Chemistry (A) S/N: 10421100-10421110 Classification: Specialized basic course Applicable to: Chemical Engineering and Technics Materials Science and Engineering Pharmaceutical Engineering Total Hours: 102 Credit Points:

More information

With Modern Physics For Scientists and Engineers

With Modern Physics For Scientists and Engineers With Modern Physics For Scientists and Engineers Third Edition Richard Wolfson Middlebury College Jay M. Pasachoff Williams College ^ADDISON-WESLEY An imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Reading, Massachusetts

More information

Electrochemical System

Electrochemical System Electrochemical System Topic Outcomes Week Topic Topic Outcomes 8-10 Electrochemical systems It is expected that students are able to: Electrochemical system and its thermodynamics Chemical reactions in

More information

i i ne. (1) i The potential difference, which is always defined to be the potential of the electrode minus the potential of the electrolyte, is ln( a

i i ne. (1) i The potential difference, which is always defined to be the potential of the electrode minus the potential of the electrolyte, is ln( a We re going to calculate the open circuit voltage of two types of electrochemical system: polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and lead-acid batteries. To do this, we re going to make use of two

More information

FUEL CELLS in energy technology (4)

FUEL CELLS in energy technology (4) Fuel Cells 1 FUEL CELLS in energy technology (4) Werner Schindler Department of Physics Nonequilibrium Chemical Physics TU Munich summer term 213 Fuel Cells 2 Nernst equation and its application to fuel

More information

Table of Contents. Preface... xiii

Table of Contents. Preface... xiii Preface... xiii PART I. ELEMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS... 1 Chapter 1. Local Equations of Fluid Mechanics... 3 1.1. Forces, stress tensor, and pressure... 4 1.2. Navier Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinates...

More information

Electrochemistry. Dr. A. R. Ramesh Assistant Professor of Chemistry Govt. Engineering College, Kozhikode

Electrochemistry. Dr. A. R. Ramesh Assistant Professor of Chemistry Govt. Engineering College, Kozhikode Electrochemistry Dr. A. R. Ramesh Assistant Professor of Chemistry Govt. Engineering College, Kozhikode 1 Electro Chemistry : Chemistry of flow of electrons Redox Reaction The electrons flow through the

More information

m WILEY- ADSORBENTS: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS Ralph T. Yang Dwight F. Benton Professor of Chemical Engineering University of Michigan

m WILEY- ADSORBENTS: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS Ralph T. Yang Dwight F. Benton Professor of Chemical Engineering University of Michigan ADSORBENTS: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS Ralph T. Yang Dwight F. Benton Professor of Chemical Engineering University of Michigan m WILEY- INTERSCIENCE A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION Preface xi

More information

Fernando O. Raineri. Office Hours: MWF 9:30-10:30 AM Room 519 Tue. 3:00-5:00 CLC (lobby).

Fernando O. Raineri. Office Hours: MWF 9:30-10:30 AM Room 519 Tue. 3:00-5:00 CLC (lobby). Fernando O. Raineri Office Hours: MWF 9:30-10:30 AM Room 519 Tue. 3:00-5:00 CLC (lobby). P1) What is the reduction potential of the hydrogen electrode g bar H O aq Pt(s) H,1 2 3 when the aqueous solution

More information

A New Linear Equation Relating Interfacial Tension of Mercury and. Isotension Potentials Describing Asymmetry in Electrocapillary Curves

A New Linear Equation Relating Interfacial Tension of Mercury and. Isotension Potentials Describing Asymmetry in Electrocapillary Curves 1 A New Linear Equation Relating Interfacial Tension of Mercury and Isotension Potentials Describing Asymmetry in Electrocapillary Curves - Dedicated to the polarographer, Prof. J. Heyrovsky* (Dec. 20,

More information

*blood and bones contain colloids. *milk is a good example of a colloidal dispersion.

*blood and bones contain colloids. *milk is a good example of a colloidal dispersion. Chap. 3. Colloids 3.1. Introduction - Simple definition of a colloid: a macroscopically heterogeneous system where one component has dimensions in between molecules and macroscopic particles like sand

More information

Reactivity of the Aluminium Surface in Aqueous Solutions

Reactivity of the Aluminium Surface in Aqueous Solutions TALAT Lecture 5102 Reactivity of the Aluminium Surface in Aqueous Solutions 13 pages, 10 figures (also available as overheads) Basic Level prepared by Herman Terryn, Vrije Universiteit, Brussels Objectives:

More information

Chemistry PhD Qualifying Exam Paper 1 Syllabus

Chemistry PhD Qualifying Exam Paper 1 Syllabus Chemistry PhD Qualifying Exam Paper 1 Syllabus Preface This document comprises all topics relevant for Paper 1 of the Ph.D. Qualifying Exam in Chemistry at Eastern Mediterranean University, in accordance

More information