PRINCIPLES AND MODERN APPLICATIONS OF MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS


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1 PRINCIPLES AND MODERN APPLICATIONS OF MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS Jaime Benitez iwiley INTERSCIENCE A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION
2 Preface Nomenclature xiii xv 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF MASS TRANSFER Introduction Molecular Mass Transfer Concentrations Velocities and Fluxes The MaxwellStefan Relations Fick's First Law for Binary Mixtures The Diffusion Coefficient Diffusion Coefficients for Binary Ideal Gas Mixtures Diffusion Coefficients for Liquids Effective Diffusivities in Multicomponent Mixtures SteadyState Molecular Diffusion in Fluids Molar Flux and the Equation of Continuity SteadyState Molecular Diffusion in Gases SteadyState Molecular Diffusion in Liquids Analogies Among Molecular Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer 49 Problems 51 References 64 VII
3 viii Contents 2. CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFER Introduction MassTransfer Coefficients Diffusion of A Through Stagnant B Equimolar Counterdiffusion Dimensional Analysis The Buckingham Method Mass and HeatTransfer Analogies Convective MassTransfer Correlations MassTransfer Coefficients for Flat Plates MassTransfer Coefficients for Single Sphere MassTransfer Coefficients for Single Cylinder Turbulent Flow in Circular Pipes Mass Transfer in Packed and Fluidized Beds Mass Transfer in HollowFiber Membranes Estimation of Multicomponent MassTransfer Coefficients 103 Problems 106 References INTERPHASE MASS TRANSFER Introduction Equilibrium Diffusion Between Phases TwoResistance Theory Overall MassTransfer Coefficients Local MassTransfer Coefficients: General Case Material Balances Countercurrent Flow Cocurrent Flow Batch Processes EquilibriumStage Operations 158 Problems 164
4 ix References EQUIPMENT FOR GASLIQUID MASSTRANSFER OPERATIONS Introduction 179 GasLiquid Operations: Liquid Dispersed Types of Packing Liquid Distribution Liquid Holdup Pressure Drop MassTransfer Coefficients GasLiquid Operations: Gas Dispersed Problems References Sparged Vessels (Bubble Columns) 203 Tray Towers 209 Tray Diameter 212 Tray GasPressure Drop Weeping and Entrainment Tray Efficiency ABSORPTION AND STRIPPING Introduction Countercurrent Multistage Equipment Graphical Determination of Number of Ideal Trays Tray Efficiency and Real Trays by Graphical Methods Dilute Mixtures Countercurrent Continuous Contact Equipment Dilute Solutions; Henry's Law Thermal Effects During Absorption and Stripping Adiabatic Operation of a Tray Absorber 261
5 5.4.1 Adiabatic Operation of a PackedBed Absorber 261 Problems 276 References DISTILLATION Introduction SingleStage Operation: Flash Vaporization Batch Distillation Continuous Rectification: Binary Mixtures McCabeThiele Metod for Trayed Towers Rectifying Section Stripping Section Feed Stage Number of Equilibrium Stages and FeedStage Location Limiting Conditions Optimum Reflux Ratio Large Number of Stages Use of Open Steam Tray Efficiencies Binary Distillation in Packed Towers Introduction to Multicomponent Distillation FenskeUnderwoodGilliland Method Total Reflux: Fenske Equation Minimum Reflux: Underwood Equations Gilliland Correlation for Number of Stages Rigorous Calculation Procedures for Multicomponent Distillation Equilibrium Stage Model Nonequilibrium, Ratebased Model 353 Problems 368
6 References LIQUIDLIQUID EXTRACTION Introduction Liquid Equilibria Stagewise LiquidLiquid Extraction SingleStage Extraction Multistage Crosscurrent Extraction Countercurrent Extraction Cascades Insoluble Liquids Continuous Countercurrent Extraction with Reflux Equipment for LiquidLiquid Extraction MixerSettler Cascades Multicompartment Columns 423 Problems 427 References 435 Appendix A: Binary Diffusion Coefficients 436 Appendix B: LennardJones Constants 439 Appendix C: MaxwellStefan Equations By Orthogonal Collocation. 441 Appendix D: PackedColumn Design Program 449 Appendix E: SieveTray Design Program 453 Appendix F: McCabeThiele Method By MATHCAD 460 Appendix G: Liquid Extraction Calculations 479 Appendix H: Frequently Used Constants And Unit Conversions 486 Index 489
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