# Control System Design

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1 ELEC4410 Control System Design Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States and Discrete-Time Control Design Julio H. Braslavsky School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 1

2 Outline Feedback from Estimated States Discrete-Time Control Design Dead-Beat Control Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 2

3 Feedback from Estimated States In the last lecture we discussed the general scheme for feedback control from estimated states, involving Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 3

4 Feedback from Estimated States In the last lecture we discussed the general scheme for feedback control from estimated states, involving a state feedback gain K Plant Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 3

5 Feedback from Estimated States In the last lecture we discussed the general scheme for feedback control from estimated states, involving a state feedback gain K a state estimator (observer), with gain L Plant Observer Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 3

6 Feedback from Estimated States In the last lecture we discussed the general scheme for feedback control from estimated states, involving a state feedback gain K a state estimator (observer), with gain L To design we used the Bass-Gura formula to make Plant Hurwitz To design in the observer, we used duality and the same Bass-Gura formula to make Observer Hurwitz Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 3

7 Feedback from Estimated States By designing K such that (A BK) is Hurwitz, with the desired eigenvalues, we can guarantee that the closed-loop system will be asymptotically and BIBO stable, and will have the specified dynamic response. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 4

8 Feedback from Estimated States By designing K such that (A BK) is Hurwitz, with the desired eigenvalues, we can guarantee that the closed-loop system will be asymptotically and BIBO stable, and will have the specified dynamic response. By designing L such that (A LC) is Hurwitz, we guarantee that the observer will be asymptotically stable, and the estimate of the states ^x(t) will converge to the real states x(t) as t. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 4

9 Feedback from Estimated States By designing K such that (A BK) is Hurwitz, with the desired eigenvalues, we can guarantee that the closed-loop system will be asymptotically and BIBO stable, and will have the specified dynamic response. By designing L such that (A LC) is Hurwitz, we guarantee that the observer will be asymptotically stable, and the estimate of the states ^x(t) will converge to the real states x(t) as t. But K and the observer are designed independently... Will they work the same when we put them together in a feedback from estimated states scheme? Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 4

10 Feedback from Estimated States Three basic questions arise regarding feedback from estimated states: The closed-loop eigenvalues were set as those of (A BK) by using state feedback u = Kx. Would we still have the same eigenvalues if we do feedback from estimated states u = K^x? Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 5

11 Feedback from Estimated States Three basic questions arise regarding feedback from estimated states: The closed-loop eigenvalues were set as those of (A BK) by using state feedback u = Kx. Would we still have the same eigenvalues if we do feedback from estimated states u = K^x? Would the interconnection affect the observer eigenvalues, those of (A LC)? Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 5

12 Feedback from Estimated States Three basic questions arise regarding feedback from estimated states: The closed-loop eigenvalues were set as those of (A BK) by using state feedback u = Kx. Would we still have the same eigenvalues if we do feedback from estimated states u = K^x? Would the interconnection affect the observer eigenvalues, those of (A LC)? What would be the effect of the observer in the closed-loop transfer function? Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 5

13 Feedback from Estimated States To answer these questions we take a look at the state equations of the full system, putting together plant and observer, that is, ẋ = Ax+Bu ^x = (A LC)^x + LCx+Bu plant observer Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 6

14 Feedback from Estimated States To answer these questions we take a look at the state equations of the full system, putting together plant and observer, that is, ẋ = Ax BK^x + BNr ^x = (A LC)^x + LCx BK^x + BNr plant observer after replacing u = Nr K^x. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 6

15 Feedback from Estimated States To answer these questions we take a look at the state equations of the full system, putting together plant and observer, that is, ẋ = Ax BK^x + BNr ^x = (A LC)^x + LCx BK^x + BNr plant observer after replacing u = Nr K^x. Packaging these equations in a more compact form we have ẋ = A BK x^x + BN r ^x LC (A LC BK) BN [ ] y = C 0 x ^x Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 6

16 Feedback from Estimated States Let s make a change of coordinates, so that the new coordinates are the plant state x and the estimation error ε = x ^x, = x = I 0 x ε x ^x Note that P 1 = [ ] I 0 1 [ I I = I 0 ] I I = P. I I } {{ } P x^x Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 7

17 Feedback from Estimated States Let s make a change of coordinates, so that the new coordinates are the plant state x and the estimation error ε = x ^x, = x = I 0 x ε x ^x I I } {{ } P x^x BK Note that P 1 = [ ] I 0 1 [ I I = I 0 ] I I = P. With this equivalence transformation we get the matrices in the new coordinates as Ā KL = PA KL P 1 (A BK) =, B KL = PB KL = BN 0 C KL = C KL P 1 = [ ] C 0 0 (A LC) Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 7

18 Feedback from Estimated States The full system in the new coordinates is thus represented as (A BK) ẋ = BK x + BN r ε 0 (A LC) ε 0 [ ] y = C 0 x ε Because Ā KL is triangular, its eigenvalues are the union of those of (A BK) and (A LC). Controller and observer do not affect each other in the interconnection. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 8

19 Feedback from Estimated States Note that the estimation error is uncontrollable, hence the observer eigenvalues will not appear in the closed loop transfer function. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 9

20 Feedback from Estimated States The property of independence between control and state estimation is called the Separation Principle Separation Principle: The design of the state feedback and the design of the state estimator can be carried out independently. The eigenvalues of the closed-loop system are as designed by the state feedback law, unaffected by the use of a state estimator. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 10

21 Feedback from Estimated States The property of independence between control and state estimation is called the Separation Principle Separation Principle: The design of the state feedback and the design of the state estimator can be carried out independently. The eigenvalues of the closed-loop system are as designed by the state feedback law, unaffected by the use of a state estimator. The eigenvalues of the observer are unaffected by the state feedback law. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 10

22 Feedback from Estimated States The closed-loop transfer function will only have the eigenvalues arising from (A BK), since the estimation error is uncontrollable, G cl (s) = C(sI A + BK) 1 BN. Transients in state estimation, however, will be seen at the output, since the estimation error is observable. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 11

23 Outline Feedback from Estimated States Discrete-Time Control Design Dead-Beat Control Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 12

24 Discrete-Time Control Design For discrete-time state equations x[k + 1] = Ax[k] + Bu[k], y[k] = Cx[k], the design procedure for a state feedback law u[k] = Kx[k] is the same as for continuous-time systems. The same goes for a discrete-time state observer, ^x[k + 1] = (A LC)^x[k] + Bu[k] + Ly[k]. One difference is the location of the desired eigenvalues. E.g., for asymptotic stability, they should be inside the unit circle. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 13

25 Discrete-Time Control Design For discrete-time state equations x[k + 1] = Ax[k] + Bu[k], y[k] = Cx[k], the design procedure for a state feedback law u[k] = Kx[k] is the same as for continuous-time systems. The same goes for a discrete-time state observer, ^x[k + 1] = (A LC)^x[k] + Bu[k] + Ly[k]. One difference is the location of the desired eigenvalues. E.g., for asymptotic stability, they should be inside the unit circle. A practical rule to choose desired discrete-time eigenvalues is 1. choose a desired location in continuous-time, say p i 2. translate it to discrete-time using the relation λ i = e p it. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 13

26 Discrete-Time Control Design 0.3 Imaginary j Loci with constant damping and constant frequencies the discrete in complex plane ωt 2π Real In MATLAB this grid may be obtained with the zgrid command ζ j Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 14

27 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete-time speed control of a DC motor). We return to the DC motor we considered in the examples of the last lecture. We will suppose that the motor is to be controlled with a PC. Hence, the controller has to be discrete-time. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 15

28 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete-time speed control of a DC motor). We return to the DC motor we considered in the examples of the last lecture. We will suppose that the motor is to be controlled with a PC. Hence, the controller has to be discrete-time. This time, with a view to design a discrete-time control law, we first discretise the continuoustime model h 5 i The first design parameter to define is the sampling period. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 15

29 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design, step 1: choice of sampling period). From Shannon s Sampling Theorem, the sampling frequency ω s = 2π/T should be at least twice the bandwidth of the closed-loop system (because we will change the system bandwidth with the control action). Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 16

30 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design, step 1: choice of sampling period). From Shannon s Sampling Theorem, the sampling frequency ω s = 2π/T should be at least twice the bandwidth of the closed-loop system (because we will change the system bandwidth with the control action). The specification that we had for the previous continuous-time design was a settling time t s of about 1s. The rule based on Shannon s Theorem would then give a sampling time of less than T = 0.5s. In practice T is chosen at least 10 to 20 times faster than the desired closed-loop settling time. Here we choose T = 0.1s Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 16

31 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design, step 1: choice of sampling period). From Shannon s Sampling Theorem, the sampling frequency ω s = 2π/T should be at least twice the bandwidth of the closed-loop system (because we will change the system bandwidth with the control action). The specification that we had for the previous continuous-time design was a settling time t s of about 1s. The rule based on Shannon s Theorem would then give a sampling time of less than T = 0.5s. In practice T is chosen at least 10 to 20 times faster than the desired closed-loop settling time. Here we choose T = 0.1s Note that the maximum sampling speed is limited by the available computer clock frequency, and thus the time required for computations and signal processing operations. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 16

32 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design, step 2: discretisation of the plant). Having defined the sampling-time T, we compute the discrete-time state matrices A d = e At, and B d = T 0 e Aτ B dτ From MATLAB, we do [Ad,Bd]=c2d(A,B,0.1) and obtain A d =, B d = As we can verify, the open loop discrete-time eigenvalues are = e ( ) and = e ( ) Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 17

33 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design, step 3: design of discrete feedback gain). The discrete-time characteristic polynomial is Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 18

34 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design, step 3: design of discrete feedback gain). The discrete-time characteristic polynomial is For the desired discrete characteristic polynomial, we first obtain the discrete mapping for the continuous-time system, i.e., of the eigenvalues specified which yield the desired discrete characteristic polynomial Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 18

35 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design, step 3: design of discrete feedback gain). The discrete-time characteristic polynomial is For the desired discrete characteristic polynomial, we first obtain the discrete mapping for the continuous-time system, i.e., of the eigenvalues specified which yield the desired discrete characteristic polynomial From the coefficients of feedback gain h and we get the discrete state i h i Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 18

36 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design, step 3, continuation). We then compute, just following the same procedure used in continuous-time, from the discrete matrices A d and B d, the discrete controllability matrices C d and C d, C d = , and C d = We thus obtain, in the original coordinates, the discrete-time feedback gain ] K d = K d C d C 1 d [ = As can be verified with MATLAB, (A d B d K d ) will have the desired discrete eigenvalues. 1 Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 19

37 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design: continuation). In a similar fashion, we can carry out the design of the discrete-time observer, based on the discrete-time model of the plant. The output feedback design is finally implemented on the continuous-time plant through a Zero Order Hold and a Sampler. Discrete equivalent plant Continuous time plant ZOH T Discrete-time Observer Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 20

38 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design: MATLAB script). We used the following MATLAB script to compute the gains and run the simulations. % Continuous-time matrices A=[-10 1; ];B=[0;2];C=[1 0];D=0; G=ss(a,B,C,D); % state space system definition T=0.1; % Sampling time Gd=c2d(G,T, zoh ) % discretisation % Discrete-time feedback gain Kd=place(Gd.a,Gd.b,exp([-5-i,-5+i]*T)) % Discrete-time observer gain Ld=place(Gd.a,Gd.c,exp([-6-i,-6+i]*T)) % steady state error compensation N=inv(Gd.c*inv(eye(2)-Gd.a+Gd.b*Kd)*Gd.b) % Run simulink diagram sim( dmotorofbk ) % Plots (after simulations have been run) subplot(211),plot(y(:,1),y(:,2));grid subplot(212),stairs(u(:,1),u(:,2));grid Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 21

39 Discrete-Time Control Design Example (Discrete design: SIMULINK diagram). We used the following SIMULINK diagram to run the simulations. N G.b* u 1 s G.c* u r Gain Zero Order Hold Matrix Gain1 Integrator Matrix Gain2 y(t) G.a* u Matrix Gain Gd.b* u u[k] Kd* u 1 z Unit Delay Ld* u Gd.a Ld*Gd.c* u Notice the sampled signals coloured in red (check the option Sample Time Colors in the Format menu). All blocks with discrete-time signals include a sampler at their input. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 22

40 Discrete-Time Control Design: Example Example (Discrete design: simulations). The following plots show the response of the closed-loop sampled-data controlled system: continuous-time output 1.2 and discrete-time control signal y(t) time [s] u[k] kt [s] Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 23

41 Discrete-Time Design: Peculiarities Two special differences in the discrete-time design procedure: The gain for steady state error compensation is, as in continuous-time, the inverse of the steady-state DC gain of the closed-loop transfer function. Notice though, that in discrete-time Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 24

42 Discrete-Time Design: Peculiarities Two special differences in the discrete-time design procedure: The gain for steady state error compensation is, as in continuous-time, the inverse of the steady-state DC gain of the closed-loop transfer function. Notice though, that in discrete-time If we implement robust tracking by adding Integral Action into the state feedback design, notice that the plant augmentation is different in discrete-time, since the discrete-integration of the tracking error has to be implemented as Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 24

43 Discrete-Time Design: Peculiarities The implementation of the discrete-time integral action in the diagram should be consistent, i.e. discrete-integration of the tracking error. ZOH Apart from these two differences, and the locations for the eigenvalues/poles, the discrete-time design is obtained by performing the same computations for continuous-time state feedback and observer design. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 25

44 Outline Feedback from Estimated States Discrete-Time Control Design Dead-Beat Control Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 26

45 Discrete-Time Design: Dead-Beat Control A special discrete-time design that has no correlate in continuous-time is dead-beat control. A dead-beat response is a response that settles in its final value at a finite time. This feature arises in a discrete-time system which has all its poles at z = 0, e.g., 1.5 Step Response 1 G(z) = (7z 1)(5z 1) 24z 3, Amplitude which will settle in 3 sampling periods (the dynamics is just a delay of 3 sample periods). Time (sec) Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 27

46 Discrete-Time Design: Dead-Beat Control To design a dead-beat controller, we just have to find the closed-loop poles at designed dead-beat, with to place all. The discrete-time observer can also be to place all the observer poles at. The plot shows the response of the DC motor of the example controlled to have dead-beat response (state feedback no observer). There is not much flexibility in dead-beat control, the only parameter to change the response is the sampling period. y(t) u[k] time [s] Dead-beat usually requires large control action, which may saturate actuators kt [s] Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 28

47 Conclusions We have reviewed the state feedback and state estimator design procedure, and showed that the Separation Principle holds: the two designs can be carried out independently Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 29

48 Conclusions We have reviewed the state feedback and state estimator design procedure, and showed that the Separation Principle holds: the two designs can be carried out independently We have discussed the design of discrete-time state feedback controllers and observers. The procedures are the same as in continuous-time, save for the choice of desired eigenvalues (which have to be in the unit circle for stability) the compensation of steady state tracking error via the feedforward gain N (be careful with the formula used) the implementation of integral action to achieve robust tracking and disturbance rejection (be careful, use discrete integration) Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 29

49 Conclusions We have reviewed the state feedback and state estimator design procedure, and showed that the Separation Principle holds: the two designs can be carried out independently We have discussed the design of discrete-time state feedback controllers and observers. The procedures are the same as in continuous-time, save for the choice of desired eigenvalues (which have to be in the unit circle for stability) the compensation of steady state tracking error via the feedforward gain N (be careful with the formula used) the implementation of integral action to achieve robust tracking and disturbance rejection (be careful, use discrete integration) We presented a special discrete design: dead-beat control. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 29

50 Conclusions We have reviewed the state feedback and state estimator design procedure, and showed that the Separation Principle holds: the two designs can be carried out independently We have discussed the design of discrete-time state feedback controllers and observers. The procedures are the same as in continuous-time, save for the choice of desired eigenvalues (which have to be in the unit circle for stability) the compensation of steady state tracking error via the feedforward gain N (be careful with the formula used) the implementation of integral action to achieve robust tracking and disturbance rejection (be careful, use discrete integration) We presented a special discrete design: dead-beat control. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 29

51 Conclusions We have reviewed the state feedback and state estimator design procedure, and showed that the Separation Principle holds: the two designs can be carried out independently We have discussed the design of discrete-time state feedback controllers and observers. The procedures are the same as in continuous-time, save for the choice of desired eigenvalues (which have to be in the unit circle for stability) the compensation of steady state tracking error via the feedforward gain N (be careful with the formula used) the implementation of integral action to achieve robust tracking and disturbance rejection (be careful, use discrete integration) We presented a special discrete design: dead-beat control. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 29

52 Conclusions We have reviewed the state feedback and state estimator design procedure, and showed that the Separation Principle holds: the two designs can be carried out independently We have discussed the design of discrete-time state feedback controllers and observers. The procedures are the same as in continuous-time, save for the choice of desired eigenvalues (which have to be in the unit circle for stability) the compensation of steady state tracking error via the feedforward gain N (be careful with the formula used) the implementation of integral action to achieve robust tracking and disturbance rejection (be careful, use discrete integration) We presented a special discrete design: dead-beat control. Lecture 19: Feedback from Estimated States p. 29

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