# EECS C128/ ME C134 Final Thu. May 14, pm. Closed book. One page, 2 sides of formula sheets. No calculators.

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1 Name: SID: EECS C28/ ME C34 Final Thu. May 4, pm Closed book. One page, 2 sides of formula sheets. No calculators. There are 8 problems worth points total. Problem Points Score Total In the real world, unethical actions by engineers can cost money, careers, and lives. The penalty for unethical actions on this exam will be a grade of F and a letter will be written for your file and to the Office of Student Conduct. tan 2 = 26.6 tan = 45 tan 3 = 8.4 tan 3 = 6 tan 4 = 4 tan 3 = 3 sin 3 = 2 cos 6 = log = db 2 log 2 = 6dB 2 log 2 = 3dB 2 log 2 = 6dB 2 log 5 = 2db 6dB = 4dB 2 log = db /e.37 /e 2.4 /e

2 Problem (4 pts) reference input r(t) + Σ error e(t) Controller D(s) control input u(t) plant G(s) output y(t) grid 8 pixels You are given the open-loop plant: G(s) = s + 5 (s + 2)(s + ) 3. For the above system, the partial root locus is shown for 5 different controller/plant combinations, G(s), D 2 (s)g(s),..., D 5 (s)g(s). (Note: the root locus shows open-loop pole locations for D(s)G(s), and closed-loop poles for are at end points of branches). DG +DG Imaginary Axis (seconds - ) Imaginary Axis (seconds - ) Imaginary Axis (seconds - ) 5-5 Root Locus G(s) Real Axis (seconds - ) Root locus D3(s)G(s) Real Axis (seconds - ) Root Locus D5(s)G(s) Real Axis (seconds - ) Imaginary Axis (seconds - ) Imaginary Axis (seconds - ) 5 Root Locus D2(s)G(s) Real Axis (seconds - ) Root Locus D4(s)G(s) Real Axis (seconds - ) [5 pts a) For each set of open-loop poles and zeros given above, choose the best corresponding open-loop Bode plot V,W,X,Y, or Z from the next page: (i) G(s): Bode Plot (ii) D 2 (s)g(s): Bode plot (iii) D 3 (s)g(s): Bode plot (iv) D 4 (s)g(s): Bode Plot (v) D 5 (s)g(s): Bode Plot 2

3 Problem, cont. The open-loop Bode plots for 5 different controller/plant combinations, D (s)g(s),..., D 5 (s)g(s) are shown below Bode Plot V Bode W Bode Plot X Bode Plot Y Bode Plot Z - 2 [4 pts b) For the listed Bode plots, estimate the phase and gain margin: (i) Bode plot V: phase margin (degrees) at ω = Bode plot V: gain margin db at ω = (ii) Bode plot Z: phase margin (degrees) at ω = Bode plot Z: gain margin db at ω = 3

4 Problem, cont. [5 pts c) For each closed loop controller/plant with root locus as given in part a), choose the best corresponding closed-loop step response (A-E) (i) G(s): step response (ii) D 2 (s)g(s): step response (iii) D 3 (s)g(s): step response (iv) D 4 (s)g(s): step response (v) D 5 (s)g(s): step response Step A Step B Amplitude.5.5 Amplitude Time (seconds) Step C Time (seconds) Step D Amplitude.5.5 Amplitude Time (seconds) Step E Time (seconds) Amplitude Time (seconds) 4

5 Problem 2 (4 pts) [4 pts a. You are given the open loop plant: G(s) = k s+6 s 6, with D(s) =. Sketch Nyquist plot for G(s) with k =, showing clearly any encirclements. Im G( j ω) Re G( j ) ω reference input r(t) + Σ error e(t) Controller D(s) control input u(t) plant G(s) output y(t) grid 8 pixels [2 pts b. Find the bounds on k for the system with unity feedback to be stable. [4 pts c. You are given the open loop plant G(s) = k (s 6)(s 4) (s+6)(s ). Sketch Nyquist plot for G(s) with k =, showing clearly any encirclements. Hint: phase of G(jω = 2) is +8. Im G( j ω) Re G( j ) ω [4 pts d. Find the bounds on k for the system with unity feedback to be stable. 5

6 Problem 3 (6 pts) The open-loop system is given by G(s) = 4 (s+) 3, and Bode plot for G(s) is here (Fig. 3.): 2 Bode Diagram A lag controller D(s) = k s+α s+β is to be designed such that the unity gain feedback system with openloop transfer function D(s)G(s) has the same steady state error as with OLTF G(s) and has a nominal (asymptotic approximation) phase margin φ m = 55 at ω = 8 rad s. Note 2 log G(jω = j8) = 3 db. [6 pts a. Determine gain, zero, and pole location for the lag network D(s): gain k = zero α = - pole β = - [4 pts b. Sketch the asymptotic Bode plot for the lag network D(s) alone on the plot below (Fig. 3.2): Bode Diagram [4 pts c. Sketch the asymptotic Bode plot for the combined lag network and plant D(s)G(s) on the plot (3.) above. [2 pts d. Mark the phase and phase margin frequency on the plot of D(s)G(s) (Fig. 3.). Explain briefly ( sentence) how does the actual phase margin compare to the asymptotic predction? 6

7 Problem 4 (8 pts) You are given the following plant ẋ = Ax + Bu, y = Cx where A is N N, u is scalar, B is N, C is N, and x is N. The system is observable and controllable. [2 pts a. Consider a controller u = r Kx where r is a reference input, and K is N. Determine the transfer function Y (s) R(s) = [2 pts b. Consider a controller u = K(r x) where r is a reference input, and K is N. Determine the transfer function Y (s) R(s) = [2 pts c. Draw a block diagram of the controlled system using integrators, summing junctions, and scaling functions. [3 pts d. If the same K is used in part a. and b. above, briefly explain any difference in transfer function or behavior: 7

8 Problem 5. (3 pts) Consider the following control system: [3 pts a. Write the state and output equations for the system, in terms of A, B, C, K, K e. [ ẋ ẋ N = [ [ x x N + [ x r(t), y = [ x N () [6 pts b. Given C = [, B = [ [, A = 2 find K and K e such that the closed loop poles are at s =, 2, 4. K = [ K e = [4 pts c. Show, with r(t) a unit step input, that e = in steady state (with the K, K e found above). (Hint: do not use matrix inverse.) 8

9 Problem 6. 3 pts Given the following system model: [3 pts a. Write the state and output equations for the system above. ẋ = Ax+Bu = [ ẋ ẋ 2 = [ [ x x 2 + u(t), y = Cx = [ [ x x 2 [2 pts b. Determine if the system A, B, C is controllable and observable. [2 pts c. Provide state equations for an observer which takes as inputs u(t), y(t), and provides an estimate of the state ˆx(t). [6 pts d. Find observer gain L such that the observer has closed loop poles at s =, s 2 =. 9

10 Problem 7 (4 pts) [3 pts a. Given G(s) = s+2. Let m(t) be the step response of g(t), i.e. M(s) = s(s+2). Let x (t) = m(t) m(t T ) where T is the sampling period. Find X (z) the Z transform of x (t). X (z) = [3 pts b. Given ẋ 2 (t) = 2x 2 (t) + u(t). Find the discrete time equivalent system using zeroorder hold for input u(t) and sampling period T : x 2 ((k + )T ) = Gx 2 (kt ) + Hu(kT ). G = H = [2 pts c. Find the X 2(z) U(z) state-space form. the discrete time transfer function from input u to state x 2 using the X 2 (z) U(z)

11 Problem 7, cont. [2 pts d. Does X 2(z) U(z) = X (z)? Why or why not? [4 pts e. With zero initial conditions (ZSR), T =.25, and a unit step input for x 2 (kt ), sketch m(t) and x 2 (kt ) on the plot below in the interval shown: x2(kt), m(t) t

12 Problem 8 Short Answers (8 pts) [4 pts a. Given the discrete time system below, find lim k x(k) for a unit step input u(k) =. x(k + ) = [ /6 /2 2/3 [ x(k) + u(k) lim k x(k) = [. [4 pts b. Given ẋ(t) = x(t) + u(t). The discrete time equivalent system using zero-order hold for input u(t) and sampling period T is of the form x((k + )T ) = Gx(kT ) + Hu(kT ). The discrete time system has a state feedback controller u(kt ) = r(kt ) 2x(kT ) applied. i. Find the eigenvalue for the closed loop system: ii. Find the largest value of T for which the system will be stable. (May be left in terms of ln.) : T < 2

13 Blank page for scratch work. 3

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