Math 32B Discussion Session Week 8 Notes February 28 and March 2, f(b) f(a) = f (t)dt (1)

 Lawrence Craig
 5 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Green s Theorem Mth 3B isussion Session Week 8 Notes Februry 8 nd Mrh, 7 Very shortly fter you lerned how to integrte singlevrible funtions, you lerned the Fundmentl Theorem of lulus the wy most integrtion tully gets done. The version you probbly found yourself using most frequently sys tht f(b) f() = f (t)dt () for suffiiently nie funtions f. Our primry use for this eqution is tht it llows us to evlute definite integrls. If we find n ntiderivtive for the funtion we re trying to integrte, we n evlute this ntiderivtive t the endpoints of our intervl nd ompute the differene. In theory, we ould lso use () to ompute this differene. Given funtion f, perhps we wnt to know how muh f(x) hnges s x vries from to b. Tht is, we wnt to know how muh elevtion the grph of f gins between nd b: Eqution () sys tht this vlue is given by the sum of the instntneous hnges in f. Even though f is sometimes inresing nd sometimes deresing, the totl hnge in f between nd b is given by summing these instntneous hnges. The Fundmentl Theorem of lulus hs generl form tht we now wnt to mimi. It sys tht the behvior of our funtion f on the boundry of the intervl [, b] tht is, t the endpoints nd b is relted to the behvior of the derivtive of f ross the intervl. Let s rell how we defined the line integrl of vetor field F long urve. We imgined thin wire submersed in some fluid, nd on this wire ws bed whih the fluid would push long the wire. We defined the line integrl F dr to be the totl work done by the fluid s it pushed the bed long the wire, nd determined tht this must equl F Tds, where T is positively oriented unit tngent vetor field to the urve.
2 Figure : The urve =. Let s restrit our ttention now to losed urves. In simply onneted domin, losed urve n be thought of s the boundry of some region. Tht is, the losed urve is to some region s the endpoints re to n intervl. If F is onservtive vetor field, we know tht the work done by F round is zero: F dr =. But wht bout when F is not onservtive? Will there lwys be nie wy to ompute F dr? n we ompre the behvior of F long to the behvior of some derivtive of F long region for whih is the boundry? This is problem we d like to ddress tody. To perform nïve nlysis, we ll restrit our ttention even further to losed urves of speifi type. Let s onsider retngle = {(x, y) : x b, y d} whih lies in the domin of vetor field F on R, nd we tke our urve to be the boundry of this retngle, written =. A piture of our setup n be seen in Figure As with the line integrl long, we would like to ompute the work done by F long the urve, oriented ounterlokwise, but this time we ll tke different pproh. onsider the work done long the bottom line of our retngle the work done from (, ) to (b, ). At eh point long this line, our positivelyoriented unit tngent vetor T is the vetor,, so the quntity F T is given by F T = F, F, = F. We find the work done long the bottom line by integrting with respet to x (this is the vrible tht hnges s we move long this line): work done long bottom line = F (x, )dx.
3 Next, onsider the work done long the top line of the retngle the line from (, d) to (b, d). This time our positivelyoriented tngent vetors re pointing to the left, so we hve T =,, mening tht F T = F. So work done long top line = F (x, d)dx. This mens tht the totl work done long the top nd bottom lines is given by work done long top nd bottom lines = (F (x, ) F (x, d))dx. Now beuse we re looking t retngle whih lies in the domin of F, we n use the Fundmentl Theorem of lulus to rewrite the quntity inside of this integrl, for eh x b: F (x, ) F (x, d) = Substituting this in, we see tht d F d (x, y)dy = work done long top nd bottom lines = F (x, y)dy. F (x, y)dydx. () A similr nlysis works for the left nd right lines. On the right, T =,, so F T = F, while on the left T =, nd F T = F. Then work long left nd right lines = (F (b, y) F (, y))dy = F (x, y)dxdy. (3) x Of ourse we find the totl work done long by summing the vlues in () nd (3). Using Fubini s theorem to interhnge the order of integrtion, we see tht the totl work is given by Tht is, F (x, y)dydx + F dr = F (x, y)dxdy = x ( F x F ) dydx. ( F x F ) da. (4) We ll the result in (4) Green s Theorem, nd it n be used to simplify lot of lultions. Notie tht the integrnd here is preisely the zoordinte of url(f), where we onsider F to be vetor field in three spe. So in words Green s theorem is sying tht the work done long is given by integrting the url of F over. Figure ttempts to mke this seem geometrilly resonble. If F is spinning in the ounterlokwise diretion ner, this will generte positive work long. We hve helpful relity hek here: if F is onservtive vetor field, then the line integrl of F bout the losed loop must be zero. But we lso know tht onservtive vetor fields hve zero url, so Green s theorem gives zero, s desired. 3
4 Figure : ounterlokwise url leds to positive work long. Note. It s importnt here tht lies entirely within the domin of F otherwise, we might not be ble to use the FT. This subtlety is relted to the requirement tht vetor field s domin be simply onneted in order for the url test for onservtive vetor fields to work. If were not simply onneted, we ould not lwys pply the FT, nd the sitution would beome muh hirier. Note. espite the ft tht we ve only given n explntion for Green s theorem in the se tht is retngle, the eqution ontinues to hold s long s is region in the domin of F whose boundry onsists of finite number of simple, losed urves, nd we orient these urves so tht is lwys to the left. Exmple. (Setion 8., Exerise 8) ompute (ln x+y)dx x dy, where is the retngle with verties (, ), (3, ), (, 4), nd (3, 4), oriented lokwise. (Solution) In our symboli nottion, we re being sked to ompute F dr, where F = ln x + y, x. Sine we don t like integrting terms suh s ln x, this is very diffiult line integrl to ompute priori. Green s theorem simplifies it quite bit though, sine F = x nd F =. Sine is the boundry of the retngle = {(x, y) : x 3, y 4}, we hve 3 4 (ln x + y)dx x dy = ( x )da = ( x )dydx = 3 3 (x + )dx = 3 [ x + x ] 3 = 3. 4
5 So we see tht Green s theorem is nie tool for turning diffiult line integrls into double integrls. We n lso use Green s theorem to go the other diretion, turning double integrl into line integrl. In prtiulr, it s osionlly helpful to use Green s theorem to ompute the re of region by rewriting the double integrl A s line integrl long. The trik is to find vetor field F so tht F F =. Three suh x vetor fields re given by F(x, y) =, x, F(x, y) = y,, F(x, y) = y, x, mening tht re n be written s Are = da = xdy = ydx = xdy ydx. Exmple. Use one of these vetor fields to ompute the re of the ellipse x where, b >. + y b =, (Solution) We ll use the expression xdy to ompute the re, but first we ll need prmetriztion of. The stndrd prmetriztion of the boundry of n ellipse is given by r(t) = ( os t, b sin t), where t vries from to π. Then the re is π A = xdy =, os t sin t, b os t dt = π = b b os tdt = b [t + ] π sin t π ( + os t)dt = π b = πb. The first nontrivil step of the bove omputtion n be thought of in this wy: the expression xdy in line integrl mens tht we hve F(x, y) =, x, so F(r(t)) =, os t. Notie tht if we tried to ompute the re s double integrl we would hve something like A = x / dydx b x / in retngulr oordintes, nd the polr oordintes setup isn t nie either. In either se, our line integrl is muh simpler. 5
6 Flux Rell tht the divergene of vetor field is mesure of the extent to whih the vetor field is expnding or ontrting t given point. In week 5 we derived formul for the divergene of vetor field F = F, F by drwing smll retngle round given point nd mesuring the degree to whih mtter ws leving or entering this retngle. This sounds eerily similr to flux omputtion, nd we n ply gme similr to wht we did bove for work to expliitly hrterize this reltionship. onsider the retngle is Figure, with ll the sme ssumptions s before. If we d like to ompute the flux through, we n ompute this linebyline, s we did with work. Along the bottom line our outwrdpointing unit norml vetor is given by,, so flux through bottom line = nd long the top we hve n =,, so F (x, )dx Together this gives flux through top line = F (x, d)dx. flux through top nd bottom lines = Similrly, nd so flux through right line = flux through left line = flux through left nd right lines = Altogether, Tht is, flux out of the retngle = F n ds = (F (x, d) F (x, ))dx = F (b, y)dy F (, y)dy, (F (b, y) F (, y))dy = F x + F dydx. div(f)da. F dydx. F x dxdy. Just s with Green s theorem, this eqution lso nie interprettion: the totl flux out of is given by integrting the divergene of F ross. This is n unsurprising reltionship, espeilly if we go bk nd look t some of the figures from week 5. 6
7 Exmple. (Setion 8., Exerise 38) ompute the flux of fluid flow with veloity vetor field F(x, y) = os y, sin y ross the boundry of the retngle x, y π. (Solution) Sine the flux is given by div(f) = x (os y) + (sin y) = os y, F n ds = π/ os ydxdy = [sin y] π/ =. Note tht omputing the flux s line integrl would require us to prmetrize the retngle x, y π. This prmetriztion would lmost ertinly be defined in four piees, so we d hve to ompute four different norml vetors nd then evlute four different integrls. This pproh is muh lener. 7
f (x)dx = f(b) f(a). a b f (x)dx is the limit of sums
Green s Theorem If f is funtion of one vrible x with derivtive f x) or df dx to the Fundmentl Theorem of lulus, nd [, b] is given intervl then, ording This is not trivil result, onsidering tht b b f x)dx
More informationSection 4.4. Green s Theorem
The Clulus of Funtions of Severl Vriles Setion 4.4 Green s Theorem Green s theorem is n exmple from fmily of theorems whih onnet line integrls (nd their higherdimensionl nlogues) with the definite integrls
More information(a) A partition P of [a, b] is a finite subset of [a, b] containing a and b. If Q is another partition and P Q, then Q is a refinement of P.
Chpter 7: The Riemnn Integrl When the derivtive is introdued, it is not hrd to see tht the it of the differene quotient should be equl to the slope of the tngent line, or when the horizontl xis is time
More information6.5 Improper integrals
Eerpt from "Clulus" 3 AoPS In. www.rtofprolemsolving.om 6.5. IMPROPER INTEGRALS 6.5 Improper integrls As we ve seen, we use the definite integrl R f to ompute the re of the region under the grph of y =
More informationWe know that if f is a continuous nonnegative function on the interval [a, b], then b
1 Ares Between Curves c 22 Donld Kreider nd Dwight Lhr We know tht if f is continuous nonnegtive function on the intervl [, b], then f(x) dx is the re under the grph of f nd bove the intervl. We re going
More informationThe First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a).
The Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus Mth 4, Section 0, Spring 009 We now know enough bout definite integrls to give precise formultions of the Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus. We will lso look t some bsic emples
More informationLine Integrals and Entire Functions
Line Integrls nd Entire Funtions Defining n Integrl for omplex Vlued Funtions In the following setions, our min gol is to show tht every entire funtion n be represented s n everywhere onvergent power series
More informationT b a(f) [f ] +. P b a(f) = Conclude that if f is in AC then it is the difference of two monotone absolutely continuous functions.
Rel Vribles, Fll 2014 Problem set 5 Solution suggestions Exerise 1. Let f be bsolutely ontinuous on [, b] Show tht nd T b (f) P b (f) f (x) dx [f ] +. Conlude tht if f is in AC then it is the differene
More informationSolutions to Assignment 1
MTHE 237 Fll 2015 Solutions to Assignment 1 Problem 1 Find the order of the differentil eqution: t d3 y dt 3 +t2 y = os(t. Is the differentil eqution liner? Is the eqution homogeneous? b Repet the bove
More informationSurface Integrals of Vector Fields
Mth 32B iscussion ession Week 7 Notes Februry 21 nd 23, 2017 In lst week s notes we introduced surfce integrls, integrting sclrvlued functions over prmetrized surfces. As with our previous integrls, we
More informationLecture 1  Introduction and Basic Facts about PDEs
* 18.15  Introdution to PDEs, Fll 004 Prof. Gigliol Stffilni Leture 1  Introdution nd Bsi Fts bout PDEs The Content of the Course Definition of Prtil Differentil Eqution (PDE) Liner PDEs VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
More informationLine Integrals. Partitioning the Curve. Estimating the Mass
Line Integrls Suppose we hve curve in the xy plne nd ssocite density δ(p ) = δ(x, y) t ech point on the curve. urves, of course, do not hve density or mss, but it my sometimes be convenient or useful to
More informationMath Calculus with Analytic Geometry II
orem of definite Mth 5.0 with Anlytic Geometry II Jnury 4, 0 orem of definite If < b then b f (x) dx = ( under f bove xxis) ( bove f under xxis) Exmple 8 0 3 9 x dx = π 3 4 = 9π 4 orem of definite Problem
More informationx = b a n x 2 e x dx. cdx = c(b a), where c is any constant. a b
CHAPTER 5. INTEGRALS 61 where nd x = b n x i = 1 (x i 1 + x i ) = midpoint of [x i 1, x i ]. Problem 168 (Exercise 1, pge 377). Use the Midpoint Rule with the n = 4 to pproximte 5 1 x e x dx. Some quick
More informationRiemann Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Riemnn Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University September 16, 2013 Outline Grphing Riemnn Sums
More informationAnonymous Math 361: Homework 5. x i = 1 (1 u i )
Anonymous Mth 36: Homewor 5 Rudin. Let I be the set of ll u (u,..., u ) R with u i for ll i; let Q be the set of ll x (x,..., x ) R with x i, x i. (I is the unit cube; Q is the stndrd simplex in R ). Define
More informationBig idea in Calculus: approximation
Big ide in Clculus: pproximtion Derivtive: f (x) = df dx f f(x +h) f(x) =, x h rte of chnge is pproximtely the rtio of chnges in the function vlue nd in the vrible in very short time Liner pproximtion:
More informationMore Properties of the Riemann Integral
More Properties of the Riemnn Integrl Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologil Sienes nd Deprtment of Mthemtil Sienes Clemson University Februry 15, 2018 Outline More Riemnn Integrl Properties The Fundmentl
More informationLine and Surface Integrals: An Intuitive Understanding
Line nd Surfce Integrls: An Intuitive Understnding Joseph Breen Introduction Multivrible clculus is ll bout bstrcting the ides of differentition nd integrtion from the fmilir single vrible cse to tht of
More informationInterpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem
Interpreting Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem Tody, we go further in interpreting the mening of the definite integrl. Using Units to Aid Interprettion We lredy know tht if f(t) is the rte of chnge of
More information6.1 Definition of the Riemann Integral
6 The Riemnn Integrl 6. Deinition o the Riemnn Integrl Deinition 6.. Given n intervl [, b] with < b, prtition P o [, b] is inite set o points {x, x,..., x n } [, b], lled grid points, suh tht x =, x n
More informationMATH 409 Advanced Calculus I Lecture 22: Improper Riemann integrals.
MATH 409 Advned Clulus I Leture 22: Improper Riemnn integrls. Improper Riemnn integrl If funtion f : [,b] R is integrble on [,b], then the funtion F(x) = x f(t)dt is well defined nd ontinuous on [,b].
More informationPolynomial Approximations for the Natural Logarithm and Arctangent Functions. Math 230
Polynomil Approimtions for the Nturl Logrithm nd Arctngent Functions Mth 23 You recll from first semester clculus how one cn use the derivtive to find n eqution for the tngent line to function t given
More information( ) as a fraction. Determine location of the highest
AB/ Clulus Exm Review Sheet Solutions A Prelulus Type prolems A1 A A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 This is wht you think of doing Find the zeros of f( x) Set funtion equl to Ftor or use qudrti eqution if qudrti Grph to
More informationTopic 1 Notes Jeremy Orloff
Topic 1 Notes Jerem Orloff 1 Introduction to differentil equtions 1.1 Gols 1. Know the definition of differentil eqution. 2. Know our first nd second most importnt equtions nd their solutions. 3. Be ble
More informationThe RiemannStieltjes Integral
Chpter 6 The RiemnnStieltjes Integrl 6.1. Definition nd Eistene of the Integrl Definition 6.1. Let, b R nd < b. ( A prtition P of intervl [, b] is finite set of points P = { 0, 1,..., n } suh tht = 0
More informationMA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.
MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.
More informationCore 2 Logarithms and exponentials. Section 1: Introduction to logarithms
Core Logrithms nd eponentils Setion : Introdution to logrithms Notes nd Emples These notes ontin subsetions on Indies nd logrithms The lws of logrithms Eponentil funtions This is n emple resoure from MEI
More information(0.0)(0.1)+(0.3)(0.1)+(0.6)(0.1)+ +(2.7)(0.1) = 1.35
7 Integrtion º½ ÌÛÓ Ü ÑÔÐ Up to now we hve been concerned with extrcting informtion bout how function chnges from the function itself. Given knowledge bout n object s position, for exmple, we wnt to know
More informationMA10207B: ANALYSIS SECOND SEMESTER OUTLINE NOTES
MA10207B: ANALYSIS SECOND SEMESTER OUTLINE NOTES CHARLIE COLLIER UNIVERSITY OF BATH These notes hve been typeset by Chrlie Collier nd re bsed on the leture notes by Adrin Hill nd Thoms Cottrell. These
More informationImproper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows:
Improper Integrls The First Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, s we ve discussed in clss, goes s follows: If f is continuous on the intervl [, ] nd F is function for which F t = ft, then ftdt = F F. An integrl
More information5.2 Volumes: Disks and Washers
4 pplictions of definite integrls 5. Volumes: Disks nd Wshers In the previous section, we computed volumes of solids for which we could determine the re of crosssection or slice. In this section, we restrict
More informationMath 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration
Mth 8 Winter 205 Applictions of Integrtion Here re few importnt pplictions of integrtion. The pplictions you my see on n exm in this course include only the Net Chnge Theorem (which is relly just the Fundmentl
More informationSection 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1
Difference Equtions to Differentil Equtions Section.8 Distnce, Position, nd the Length of Curves Although we motivted the definition of the definite integrl with the notion of re, there re mny pplictions
More informationfor all x in [a,b], then the area of the region bounded by the graphs of f and g and the vertical lines x = a and x = b is b [ ( ) ( )] A= f x g x dx
Applitions of Integrtion Are of Region Between Two Curves Ojetive: Fin the re of region etween two urves using integrtion. Fin the re of region etween interseting urves using integrtion. Desrie integrtion
More informationThe Wave Equation I. MA 436 Kurt Bryan
1 Introduction The Wve Eqution I MA 436 Kurt Bryn Consider string stretching long the x xis, of indeterminte (or even infinite!) length. We wnt to derive n eqution which models the motion of the string
More informationProject 6: Minigoals Towards Simplifying and Rewriting Expressions
MAT 51 Wldis Projet 6: Minigols Towrds Simplifying nd Rewriting Expressions The distriutive property nd like terms You hve proly lerned in previous lsses out dding like terms ut one prolem with the wy
More informationNot for reproduction
AREA OF A SURFACE OF REVOLUTION cut h FIGURE FIGURE πr r r l h FIGURE A surfce of revolution is formed when curve is rotted bout line. Such surfce is the lterl boundry of solid of revolution of the type
More informationSection 14.3 Arc Length and Curvature
Section 4.3 Arc Length nd Curvture Clculus on Curves in Spce In this section, we ly the foundtions for describing the movement of n object in spce.. Vector Function Bsics In Clc, formul for rc length in
More informationMath 113 Exam 1Review
Mth 113 Exm 1Review September 26, 2016 Exm 1 covers 6.17.3 in the textbook. It is dvisble to lso review the mteril from 5.3 nd 5.5 s this will be helpful in solving some of the problems. 6.1 Are Between
More informationMTH 122 Fall 2008 Essex County College Division of Mathematics Handout Version 10 1 October 14, 2008
MTH 22 Fll 28 Essex County College Division of Mthemtics Hndout Version October 4, 28 Arc Length Everyone should be fmilir with the distnce formul tht ws introduced in elementry lgebr. It is bsic formul
More informationMath 3B Final Review
Mth 3B Finl Review Written by Victori Kl vtkl@mth.ucsb.edu SH 6432u Office Hours: R 9:4510:45m SH 1607 Mth Lb Hours: TR 12pm Lst updted: 12/06/14 This is continution of the midterm review. Prctice problems
More informationIntegrals along Curves.
Integrls long Curves. 1. Pth integrls. Let : [, b] R n be continuous function nd let be the imge ([, b]) of. We refer to both nd s curve. If we need to distinguish between the two we cll the function the
More informationTest 3 Review. Jiwen He. I will replace your lowest test score with the percentage grade from the final exam (provided it is higher).
Test 3 Review Jiwen He Test 3 Test 3: Dec. 46 in CASA Mteril  Through 6.3. No Homework (Thnksgiving) No homework this week! Hve GREAT Thnksgiving! Finl Exm Finl Exm: Dec. 1417 in CASA You Might Be Interested
More information2.1 ANGLES AND THEIR MEASURE. y I
.1 ANGLES AND THEIR MEASURE Given two interseting lines or line segments, the mount of rottion out the point of intersetion (the vertex) required to ring one into orrespondene with the other is lled the
More informationForces on curved surfaces Buoyant force Stability of floating and submerged bodies
Stti Surfe ores Stti Surfe ores 8m wter hinge? 4 m ores on plne res ores on urved surfes Buont fore Stbilit of floting nd submerged bodies ores on Plne res Two tpes of problems Horizontl surfes (pressure
More informationMTH 122 Calculus II Essex County College Division of Mathematics and Physics 1 Lecture Notes #10 Sakai Web Project Material
MTH 22 Clculus II Essex County College Division of Mthemtics nd Physics Lecture Notes # Ski Web Project Mteril Arc Length Everyone should be fmilir with the distnce formul tht ws introduced in elementry
More informationLecture 7 notes Nodal Analysis
Lecture 7 notes Nodl Anlysis Generl Network Anlysis In mny cses you hve multiple unknowns in circuit, sy the voltges cross multiple resistors. Network nlysis is systemtic wy to generte multiple equtions
More information5.5 The Substitution Rule
5.5 The Substitution Rule Given the usefulness of the Fundmentl Theorem, we wnt some helpful methods for finding ntiderivtives. At the moment, if n ntiderivtive is not esily recognizble, then we re in
More informationTrignometric Substitution
Trignometric Substitution Trigonometric substitution refers simply to substitutions of the form x sinu or x tnu or x secu It is generlly used in conjunction with the trignometric identities to sin θ+cos
More informationCalculus Cheat Sheet. Integrals Definitions. where F( x ) is an antiderivative of f ( x ). Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. dx = f x dx g x dx
Clulus Chet Sheet Integrls Definitions Definite Integrl: Suppose f ( ) is ontinuous AntiDerivtive : An ntiderivtive of f ( ) on [, ]. Divide [, ] into n suintervls of is funtion, F( ), suh tht F = f.
More informationMATH34032: Green s Functions, Integral Equations and the Calculus of Variations 1
MATH34032: Green s Functions, Integrl Equtions nd the Clculus of Vritions 1 Section 1 Function spces nd opertors Here we gives some brief detils nd definitions, prticulrly relting to opertors. For further
More informationx ) dx dx x sec x over the interval (, ).
Curve on 6 For , () Evlute the integrl, n (b) check your nswer by ifferentiting. ( ). ( ). ( ).. 6. sin cos 7. sec csccot 8. sec (sec tn ) 9. sin csc. Evlute the integrl sin by multiplying the numertor
More informationLecture 1. Functional series. Pointwise and uniform convergence.
1 Introduction. Lecture 1. Functionl series. Pointwise nd uniform convergence. In this course we study mongst other things Fourier series. The Fourier series for periodic function f(x) with period 2π is
More informationVector Integration. Line integral: Let F ( x y,
Vetor Integrtion Thi hpter tret integrtion in vetor field. It i the mthemti tht engineer nd phiit ue to deribe fluid flow, deign underwter trnmiion ble, eplin the flow of het in tr, nd put tellite in orbit.
More informationON THE INEQUALITY OF THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO INTEGRAL MEANS AND APPLICATIONS FOR PDFs
ON THE INEQUALITY OF THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO INTEGRAL MEANS AND APPLICATIONS FOR PDFs A.I. KECHRINIOTIS AND N.D. ASSIMAKIS Deprtment of Eletronis Tehnologil Edutionl Institute of Lmi, Greee EMil: {kehrin,
More informationVTU NOTES QUESTION PAPERS NEWS RESULTS FORUMS Vector Integration
www.boopr.om VTU NOTES QUESTION PAPERS NEWS RESULTS FORUMS Vetor Integrtion Thi hpter tret integrtion in vetor field. It i the mthemti tht engineer nd phiit ue to deribe fluid flow, deign underwter trnmiion
More informationSTEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA. 0 if t < 0, 1 if t > 0.
STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA STEPHEN SCHECTER. The unit step function nd piecewise continuous functions The Heviside unit step function u(t) is given by if t
More informationMA Handout 2: Notation and Background Concepts from Analysis
MA350059 Hndout 2: Nottion nd Bckground Concepts from Anlysis This hndout summrises some nottion we will use nd lso gives recp of some concepts from other units (MA20023: PDEs nd CM, MA20218: Anlysis 2A,
More informationNew Expansion and Infinite Series
Interntionl Mthemticl Forum, Vol. 9, 204, no. 22, 06073 HIKARI Ltd, www.mhikri.com http://dx.doi.org/0.2988/imf.204.4502 New Expnsion nd Infinite Series Diyun Zhng College of Computer Nnjing University
More informationCS667 Lecture 6: Monte Carlo Integration 02/10/05
CS667 Lecture 6: Monte Crlo Integrtion 02/10/05 Venkt Krishnrj Lecturer: Steve Mrschner 1 Ide The min ide of Monte Crlo Integrtion is tht we cn estimte the vlue of n integrl by looking t lrge number of
More informationSection 5.1 #7, 10, 16, 21, 25; Section 5.2 #8, 9, 15, 20, 27, 30; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 13, 16, 28, 31; Section 5.4 #7, 18, 21, 23, 25, 29, 40
Mth B Prof. Audrey Terrs HW # Solutions by Alex Eustis Due Tuesdy, Oct. 9 Section 5. #7,, 6,, 5; Section 5. #8, 9, 5,, 7, 3; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 3, 6, 8, 3; Section 5.4 #7, 8,, 3, 5, 9, 4 5..7 Since
More informationMath 100 Review Sheet
Mth 100 Review Sheet Joseph H. Silvermn December 2010 This outline of Mth 100 is summry of the mteril covered in the course. It is designed to be study id, but it is only n outline nd should be used s
More informationWeek 10: Riemann integral and its properties
Clculus nd Liner Algebr for Biomedicl Engineering Week 10: Riemnn integrl nd its properties H. Führ, Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen, WS 07 Motivtion: Computing flow from flow rtes 1 We observe the
More informationContinuous Random Variables
STAT/MATH 395 A  PROBABILITY II UW Winter Qurter 217 Néhémy Lim Continuous Rndom Vribles Nottion. The indictor function of set S is relvlued function defined by : { 1 if x S 1 S (x) if x S Suppose tht
More informationCzechoslovak Mathematical Journal, 55 (130) (2005), , Abbotsford. 1. Introduction
Czechoslovk Mthemticl Journl, 55 (130) (2005), 933 940 ESTIMATES OF THE REMAINDER IN TAYLOR S THEOREM USING THE HENSTOCKKURZWEIL INTEGRAL, Abbotsford (Received Jnury 22, 2003) Abstrct. When relvlued
More informationMath 113 Exam 2 Practice
Mth Em Prctice Februry, 8 Em will cover sections 6.5, 7.7.5 nd 7.8. This sheet hs three sections. The first section will remind you bout techniques nd formuls tht you should know. The second gives number
More informationu(t)dt + i a f(t)dt f(t) dt b f(t) dt (2) With this preliminary step in place, we are ready to define integration on a general curve in C.
Lecture 4 Complex Integrtion MATHGA 2451.001 Complex Vriles 1 Construction 1.1 Integrting complex function over curve in C A nturl wy to construct the integrl of complex function over curve in the complex
More informationChapter 5 1. = on [ 1, 2] 1. Let gx ( ) e x. . The derivative of g is g ( x) e 1
Chpter 5. Let g ( e. on [, ]. The derivtive of g is g ( e ( Write the slope intercept form of the eqution of the tngent line to the grph of g t. (b Determine the coordinte of ech criticl vlue of g. Show
More information5: The Definite Integral
5: The Definite Integrl 5.: Estimting with Finite Sums Consider moving oject its velocity (meters per second) t ny time (seconds) is given y v t = t+. Cn we use this informtion to determine the distnce
More informationdifferent methods (left endpoint, right endpoint, midpoint, trapezoid, Simpson s).
Mth 1A with Professor Stnkov Worksheet, Discussion #41; Wednesdy, 12/6/217 GSI nme: Roy Zho Problems 1. Write the integrl 3 dx s limit of Riemnn sums. Write it using 2 intervls using the 1 x different
More informationMath 360: A primitive integral and elementary functions
Mth 360: A primitive integrl nd elementry functions D. DeTurck University of Pennsylvni October 16, 2017 D. DeTurck Mth 360 001 2017C: Integrl/functions 1 / 32 Setup for the integrl prtitions Definition:
More informationLecture 14: Quadrature
Lecture 14: Qudrture This lecture is concerned with the evlution of integrls fx)dx 1) over finite intervl [, b] The integrnd fx) is ssumed to be relvlues nd smooth The pproximtion of n integrl by numericl
More informationChapter Gauss Quadrature Rule of Integration
Chpter 7. Guss Qudrture Rule o Integrtion Ater reding this hpter, you should e le to:. derive the Guss qudrture method or integrtion nd e le to use it to solve prolems, nd. use Guss qudrture method to
More informationBest Approximation. Chapter The General Case
Chpter 4 Best Approximtion 4.1 The Generl Cse In the previous chpter, we hve seen how n interpolting polynomil cn be used s n pproximtion to given function. We now wnt to find the best pproximtion to given
More information10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES
. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES.. Ares etween curves So res ove the xxis re positive nd res elow re negtive, right? Wrong! We lied! Well, when you first lern out integrtion it s convenient fiction tht s true in
More informationContinuous Random Variables Class 5, Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom
Lerning Gols Continuous Rndom Vriles Clss 5, 8.05 Jeremy Orloff nd Jonthn Bloom. Know the definition of continuous rndom vrile. 2. Know the definition of the proility density function (pdf) nd cumultive
More informationILLUSTRATING THE EXTENSION OF A SPECIAL PROPERTY OF CUBIC POLYNOMIALS TO NTH DEGREE POLYNOMIALS
ILLUSTRATING THE EXTENSION OF A SPECIAL PROPERTY OF CUBIC POLYNOMIALS TO NTH DEGREE POLYNOMIALS Dvid Miller West Virgini University P.O. BOX 6310 30 Armstrong Hll Morgntown, WV 6506 millerd@mth.wvu.edu
More informationBest Approximation in the 2norm
Jim Lmbers MAT 77 Fll Semester 111 Lecture 1 Notes These notes correspond to Sections 9. nd 9.3 in the text. Best Approximtion in the norm Suppose tht we wish to obtin function f n (x) tht is liner combintion
More informationMath 113 Exam 2 Practice
Mth 3 Exm Prctice Februry 8, 03 Exm will cover 7.4, 7.5, 7.7, 7.8, 8.3 nd 8.5. Plese note tht integrtion skills lerned in erlier sections will still be needed for the mteril in 7.5, 7.8 nd chpter 8. This
More informationPractice final exam solutions
University of Pennsylvni Deprtment of Mthemtics Mth 26 Honors Clculus II Spring Semester 29 Prof. Grssi, T.A. Asher Auel Prctice finl exm solutions 1. Let F : 2 2 be defined by F (x, y (x + y, x y. If
More informationNumbers and indices. 1.1 Fractions. GCSE C Example 1. Handy hint. Key point
GCSE C Emple 7 Work out 9 Give your nswer in its simplest form Numers n inies Reiprote mens invert or turn upsie own The reiprol of is 9 9 Mke sure you only invert the frtion you re iviing y 7 You multiply
More informationArithmetic & Algebra. NCTM National Conference, 2017
NCTM Ntionl Conference, 2017 Arithmetic & Algebr Hether Dlls, UCLA Mthemtics & The Curtis Center Roger Howe, Yle Mthemtics & Texs A & M School of Eduction Relted Common Core Stndrds First instnce of vrible
More information20 MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS
0 MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS.1 Introduction In Clss IX, you hve studied polynomils in one vrible nd their degrees. Recll tht if p(x) is polynomil in x, the highest power of x in p(x) is clled the degree of
More informationSections 5.2: The Definite Integral
Sections 5.2: The Definite Integrl In this section we shll formlize the ides from the lst section to functions in generl. We strt with forml definition.. The Definite Integrl Definition.. Suppose f(x)
More informationMapping the delta function and other Radon measures
Mpping the delt function nd other Rdon mesures Notes for Mth583A, Fll 2008 November 25, 2008 Rdon mesures Consider continuous function f on the rel line with sclr vlues. It is sid to hve bounded support
More informationNecessary and Sufficient Conditions for Differentiating Under the Integral Sign
Necessry nd Sufficient Conditions for Differentiting Under the Integrl Sign Erik Tlvil 1. INTRODUCTION. When we hve n integrl tht depends on prmeter, sy F(x f (x, y dy, it is often importnt to know when
More informationLecture 3. Limits of Functions and Continuity
Lecture 3 Limits of Functions nd Continuity Audrey Terrs April 26, 21 1 Limits of Functions Notes I m skipping the lst section of Chpter 6 of Lng; the section bout open nd closed sets We cn probbly live
More information38 Riemann sums and existence of the definite integral.
38 Riemnn sums nd existence of the definite integrl. In the clcultion of the re of the region X bounded by the grph of g(x) = x 2, the xxis nd 0 x b, two sums ppered: ( n (k 1) 2) b 3 n 3 re(x) ( n These
More informationThe final exam will take place on Friday May 11th from 8am 11am in Evans room 60.
Mth 104: finl informtion The finl exm will tke plce on Fridy My 11th from 8m 11m in Evns room 60. The exm will cover ll prts of the course with equl weighting. It will cover Chpters 1 5, 7 15, 17 21, 23
More information2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ).
AP Clculus BC Review Chpter 8 Prt nd Chpter 9 Things to Know nd Be Ale to Do Know everything from the first prt of Chpter 8 Given n integrnd figure out how to ntidifferentite it using ny of the following
More informationImproper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral.
Improper Integrls Introduction When we defined the definite integrl f d we ssumed tht f ws continuous on [, ] where [, ] ws finite, closed intervl There re t lest two wys this definition cn fil to e stisfied:
More informationIf u = g(x) is a differentiable function whose range is an interval I and f is continuous on I, then f(g(x))g (x) dx = f(u) du
Integrtion by Substitution: The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus demonstrted the importnce of being ble to find ntiderivtives. We now introduce some methods for finding ntiderivtives: If u = g(x) is differentible
More informationJackson 2.26 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell
Jckson 2.26 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Bird University of Msschusetts Lowell PROBLEM: The twodimensionl region, ρ, φ β, is bounded by conducting surfces t φ =, ρ =, nd φ = β held t zero
More informationapproaches as n becomes larger and larger. Since e > 1, the graph of the natural exponential function is as below
. Eponentil nd rithmic functions.1 Eponentil Functions A function of the form f() =, > 0, 1 is clled n eponentil function. Its domin is the set of ll rel f ( 1) numbers. For n eponentil function f we hve.
More informationMATH Summary of Chapter 13
MATH 21259 ummry of hpter 13 1. Vector Fields re vector functions of two or three vribles. Typiclly, vector field is denoted by F(x, y, z) = P (x, y, z)i+q(x, y, z)j+r(x, y, z)k where P, Q, R re clled
More informationLecture 6: Singular Integrals, Open Quadrature rules, and Gauss Quadrature
Lecture notes on Vritionl nd Approximte Methods in Applied Mthemtics  A Peirce UBC Lecture 6: Singulr Integrls, Open Qudrture rules, nd Guss Qudrture (Compiled 6 August 7) In this lecture we discuss the
More informationC1M14. Integrals as Area Accumulators
CM Integrls s Are Accumultors Most tetbooks do good job of developing the integrl nd this is not the plce to provide tht development. We will show how Mple presents Riemnn Sums nd the ccompnying digrms
More informationLECTURE 19. Numerical Integration. Z b. is generally thought of as representing the area under the graph of fèxè between the points x = a and
LECTURE 9 Numericl Integrtion Recll from Clculus I tht denite integrl is generlly thought of s representing the re under the grph of fèxè between the points x = nd x = b, even though this is ctully only
More informationThe Definite Integral
CHAPTER 3 The Definite Integrl Key Words nd Concepts: Definite Integrl Questions to Consider: How do we use slicing to turn problem sttement into definite integrl? How re definite nd indefinite integrls
More information