Sir Isaac Newton. How and why does matter move? DEFINITION: [Who was a Sir Isaac Newton?] SENTENCE: [Use Sir Isaac Newton in a sentence]

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1 DEFINITION: [Who was a Sir Isaac Newton?] Sir Isaac Newton This CONCEPT Card belongs to LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 2 of 10 EXAMPLE: [What is an example something important Sir Isaac Newton discovered?]* SENTENCE: [Use Sir Isaac Newton in a sentence] PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of something important that Sir Isaac Newton discovered.]

2 Ch. 1: All Alone Chapter Questions BIG IDEAS about the Life of Sir Isaac Newton by Kathleen Krull, Illustrated by Boris Kulikov What was learned? Ch. 2: The Most Amazing Toys Ch. 3: Learning Outside Class Ch. 4: The Apple Ch. 5: Newton versus Hooke Ch. 6: Math War Ch. 7: Star War Ch. 8: The Greatest Science Book in the World Ch. 9: Newton versus Newton Ch. 10: And What about Alchemy? Ch. 11: The Crimson Years Ch. 12: Impact

3 DEFINITION: [What is a friction?] friction SENTENCE: [Use velocity in a sentence] This CONCEPT Card belongs to LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 4 of 10 EXAMPLE: [What is an example of a friction?] PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of what a friction looks like.]

4 BIG IDEAS and BENCHMARK MASTERY Friction: the opposing force creating by two object rubbing against each other. The resistance caused by any two objects in contact and it always acts in the opposite direction of the motion.

5 DEFINITION: [What is a velocity?] velocity SENTENCE: [Use velocity in a sentence] This CONCEPT Card belongs to EXAMPLE: [What is an example of a velocity?] LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 5 of 10 PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of what a velocity looks like.]

6 BIG IDEAS and BENCHMARK MASTERY Velocity (speed) tells you fast you are going and it is measured in units of distance per unit time, like meters per second or kilometers per hour.

7 acceleration DEFINITION: [What is a acceleration?] LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 6 of 10 SENTENCE: [Use acceleration in a sentence] This CONCEPT Card belongs to EXAMPLE: [What is an example of a acceleration?] PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of what a acceleration looks like.]

8 BIG IDEAS and BENCHMARK MASTERY Acceleration the rate at which velocity changes; measured by velocity per unit of time (meters per second 2 ); A change in the direction that an object is moving Use data to determine how shape affects the rate at which a material falls to earth. Explain: Explain:

9 DEFINITION: [What is a force?] _ force This CONCEPT Card belongs to EXAMPLE: [What is an example of a force?] LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 1 of 10 _ SENTENCE: [Use force in a sentence] PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of what a force looks like.]

10 BIG IDEAS and BENCHMARK MASTERY Force anything that makes an object accelerate. Anything that causes an object to speed up, slow down, or change direction is a force. An example is one bumper car bumping into another. It changes the direction and velocity. Examples of forces are gravity and friction. Force is expressed in the units known as Newtons or N for short.

11 gravity LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 3 of 10 DEFINITION: [What is gravity?] SENTENCE: [Use gravity in a sentence] This CONCEPT Card belongs to EXAMPLE: [What is an example of gravity?] PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of what gravity looks like.]

12 BIG IDEAS and BENCHMARK MASTERY Gravity the force that pulls all objects in the universe toward one another. Earth s gravity causes objects to accelerate towards it at 9.8 m/s 2. Gravity depends on two things: mass and distance. The more massive an object, the stronger pull it exerts. Objects that are close together exert a stronger force of gravity than objects that are far apart. 1.) SPI Recognize that the earth attracts objects without directly touching them. Explain: 2.) SPI Identify the force that causes objects to fall to the earth. Explain:

13 DEFINITION: [What is Newton s 1 st Law of Motion?] Newton s 1 st Law of Motion This CONCEPT Card belongs to EXAMPLE: [What is an example of Newton s 1 st Law of Motion?] LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 8 of 10 SENTENCE: [Use Newton s 1 st Law of Motion in a sentence] PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of what Newton s 1 st Law of Motion looks like.]

14 Newton s 1 st Law of Motion First Law - Law of Inertia BIG IDEAS and BENCHMARK MASTERY This law states: "An object will remain at rest unless acted on by an external and unbalanced force. An object in motion will remain in motion unless acted on by an external and unbalanced force." This means that an object that isn't moving won't move unless a force makes it move. It also says that an object that is moving will not change its velocity until a force acts upon it. Momentum is defined as the quantity of motion of a body. According to Newton, momentum causes an object in motion to remain in motion unless it s acted on by some other force. So the momentum of a moving object is related to its mass and its velocity. For example, if you were driving a car, and wanted to stop quickly, you couldn t just take your foot off the accelerator. If you did this, the car s momentum, as defined by the product of its mass and velocity, would cause it to keep moving forward. If you wanted to stop the car, you d have to hit the brake, which uses the force of friction to counteract the car s momentum. Because momentum is related to mass and velocity, it takes a lot of force to stop the momentum of a heavy object that s traveling at high speed. Imagine how much force it d take to stop an 18-wheeler that was speeding along at 70 miles per hour. It d certainly be a lot more force than it would take to stop a VW Bug traveling at the same speed. It d also be a lot more force than it would take to stop the same truck traveling at 5 mph instead of 70. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. This law is often called "the law of inertia". This means that there is a natural tendency of objects to keep on doing what they're doing. All objects resist changes in their state of motion. In the absence of an unbalanced force, an object in motion will maintain this state of motion.

15 Newton s 2 nd Law of Motion This CONCEPT Card belongs to EXAMPLE: [What is an example of Newton s 2 nd Law of Motion?] LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 9 of 10 DEFINITION: [What is Newton s 2 nd Law of Motion?] SENTENCE: [Use Newton s 1 st Law of Motion in a sentence] PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of what Newton s 2 nd Law of Motion looks like.]

16 Newton s 2 nd Law of Motion Second Law - Law of Historical Development BIG IDEAS and BENCHMARK MASTERY This law states: "The rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction." This means that the rate of change of a moving object is directly proportional to the force exerted on the object. This law also explains that the change in the direction of a moving object is determined by the angle at which force is applied. Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object). Everyone unconsiously knows the Second Law. Everyone knows that heavier objects require more force to move the same distance as lighter objects.

17 DEFINITION: [What is Newton s 3 rd Law of Motion?] Newton s 3 rd Law of Motion LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 10 of 10 SENTENCE: [Use Newton s 1 st Law of Motion in a sentence] This CONCEPT Card belongs to EXAMPLE: [What is an example of Newton s 3 rd Law of Motion?] PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of what Newton s 3 rd Law of Motion looks like.]

18 BIG IDEAS and BENCHMARK MASTERY Newton s 3 rd Law of Motion Third Law - Law of Reciprocal Actions This law states: "All forces occur in pairs, and these two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction." This means that for every action there is an equal, opposite reaction. For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action. When you push an object, it pushes back. This means that for every force there is a reaction force that is equal in size, but opposite in direction. That is to say that whenever an object pushes another object it gets pushed back in the opposite direction equally hard. Let's study how a rocket works to understand Newton's Third Law. The rocket's action is to push down on the ground with the force of its powerful engines, and the reaction is that the ground pushes the rocket upwards with an equal force.

19 DEFINITION: [What is mass?] Mass SENTENCE: [Use massin a sentence] This CONCEPT Card belongs to EXAMPLE: [What is an example of mass?] LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 7 of 10 PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of what mass looks like.]

20 BIG IDEAS and BENCHMARK MASTERY mass the amount of matter in an object; Matter is everything in the universe that takes up space. It makes up everything that you can see, feel, taste, or touch! Mass, density, and volume are three ways we can measure matter. Mass is a measurement of how much matter an object contains. Volume is a measure of how much space an object takes up. Density measures how heavy something is for its size in other words, how much mass an object has per unit of volume. Mass is a measure of how much matter an object contains. It is measured in grams, and stays constant no matter where it is in the universe. Weight, on the other hand, is a measure of gravity's effect on an object. It's measured in newtons, and varies depending on where in space an object is. For example, your mass is the same on earth as it is on the moon. But since the moon has only one-sixth the mass of the earth-meaning that its gravity is just one-sixth as strong -- you would only weigh one-sixth as much on the moon as you do on earth Explain the relationship that exist among mass, force, and distance traveled.

21 DEFINITION: [What is weight?] Matter is everything in the universe that takes up space. It makes up everything that you can see, feel, taste, or touch! Mass, density, and volume are three ways we can measure matter. Mass is a measurement of how much matter an object contains. Volume is a measure of how much space an object takes up. Density measures how heavy something is for its size in other words, how much Weight mass an object has per unit of volume. SENTENCE: [Use weight in a sentence] This CONCEPT Card belongs to LEAD Science 5 ½ Unit 7: Forces LINKS Card 7.5 of 10 EXAMPLE: [What is an example of weight?] PICTURE: [Provide an illustration of what weight looks like.]

22 BIG IDEAS and BENCHMARK MASTERY weight the force exerted on an object s mass by gravity

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