# BEFORE YOU READ. Forces and Motion Gravity and Motion STUDY TIP. After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions:

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1 CHAPTER 2 1 SECTION Forces and Motion Gravity and Motion BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How does gravity affect objects? How does air resistance affect falling objects? What is free fall? Why does an object that is thrown horizontally follow a curved path? How Does Gravity Affect Falling Objects? In ancient Greece, a great thinker named Aristotle said that heavy objects fall faster than light objects. For almost 2,000 years, people thought this was true. Then, in the late 1500s, an Italian scientist named Galileo Galilei proved that heavy and light objects actually fall at the same rate. It has been said that Galileo proved this by dropping two cannonballs from the top of a tower at the same time. The cannonballs were the same size, but one was much heavier than the other. The people watching saw both cannonballs hit the ground at the same time. Why don t heavy objects fall faster than light objects? Gravity pulls on heavy objects more than it pulls on light objects. However, heavy objects are harder to move than light objects. So, the extra force from gravity on the heavy object is balanced by how much harder it is to move. STUDY TIP Practice After every page, stop reading and think about what you ve read. Try to think of examples from everyday life. Don t go on to the next section until you think you understand. 1. Describe What did the people watching the cannonballs see that told them the cannonballs fell at the same rate? 2. Predict The golf ball is heavier than the table tennis ball. On the figure, draw three circles to show where the golf ball will be at times 2, 3, and 4. Interactive Textbook 21 Forces and Motion

2 How Much Acceleration Does Gravity Cause? Because of gravity, all objects accelerate, or speed up, toward Earth at a rate of 9.8 meters per second per second. This is written as 9.8 m/s/s or 9.8 m/s 2. So, for every second an object falls, its velocity (speed) increases by 9.8 m/s. This is shown in the figure below. Math Focus 3. Calculate How fast is the ball moving at the end of the third second? Explain your answer. First second Second second 4.9 m 14.7 m v = 0 m/s downward v = 9.8 m/s downward v = 19.6 m/s downward 24.5 m Third second v =? A falling object accelerates at a constant rate. The object falls faster and farther each second than it did the second before. What Is the Velocity of a Falling Object? Suppose you drop a rock from a cliff. How fast is it going when it reaches the bottom? If you have a stopwatch, you can calculate its final velocity. If an object starts from rest and you know how long it falls, you can calculate its final velocity by using this equation: v final g t Math Focus 4. Calculate A penny is dropped from the top of a tall stairwell. What is the velocity of the penny after it has fallen for 2 s? Show your work. In the equation, v final stands for final velocity in meters per second, g stands for the acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s 2 ), and t stands for the time the object has been falling (in seconds). If the rock took 4 s to hit the ground, how fast was it falling when it hit the ground? Step 1: Write the equation. v final g t Step 2: Place values into the equation, and solve for the answer. v final 9.8 m/s s 4 s 39.2 m/s The velocity of the rock was 39.2 m/s when it hit the ground. Interactive Textbook 22 Forces and Motion

3 How Can You Calculate How Long an Object Was Falling? Suppose some workers are building a bridge. One of them drops a metal bolt from the top of the bridge. When the bolt hits the ground, it is moving 49 m/s. How long does it take the bolt to fall to the ground? Step 1: Write the equation. t v final g Step 2: Place values into the equation, and solve for the answer. t 49 m/s 5 s 9.8 m/s s The bolt fell for 5 s before it hit the ground. How Does Air Resistance Affect Falling Objects? Try dropping a pencil and a piece of paper from the same height. What happens? Does this simple experiment show what you just learned about falling objects? Now crumple the paper into a tight ball. Drop the crumpled paper and the pencil from the same height. What happens? The flat paper falls more slowly than the crumpled paper because of air resistance. Air resistance is the force that opposes the motion of falling objects. How much air resistance will affect an object depends on the size, shape, and speed of the object. The flat paper has more surface area than the crumpled sheet. This causes the flat paper to fall more slowly. Math Focus 5. Calculate A rock falls from a cliff and hits the ground with a velocity of 98 m/s. How long does the rock fall? Show your work. 6. Identify Which has more air resistance, the flat paper or the crumpled paper? 7. Explain Why does the crumpled paper fall faster than the flat paper? Interactive Textbook 23 Forces and Motion

4 8. Describe When does an object reach its terminal velocity? What Is Terminal Velocity? As the speed of a falling body increases, air resistance also increases. The upward force of air resistance keeps increasing until it is equal to the downward force of gravity. At this point, the total force on the object is zero, so the object stops accelerating. When the object stops accelerating, it does not stop moving. It falls without speeding up or slowing down. It falls at a constant velocity called the terminal velocity. Terminal velocity is the speed of an object when the force of air resistance equals the force of gravity. Air resistance causes the terminal velocity of hailstones to be between 5 m/s and 40 m/s. Without air resistance, they could reach the ground at a velocity of 350 m/s! Air resistance also slows sky divers to a safe landing velocity. 9. Identify A sky diver is falling at terminal velocity. Draw and label an arrow showing the direction and size of the force due to gravity on the sky diver. Draw and label a second arrow showing the direction and size of the force of air resistance on the sky diver. The parachute increases the air resistance of this sky diver and slows him to a safe terminal velocity. What Is Free Fall? Free fall is the motion of an object when gravity is the only force acting on the object. The figure below shows a feather and an apple falling in a vacuum, a place without any air. Without air resistance, they fall at the same rate. 10. Predict When air resistance acts on the apple and the feather, which falls faster? Interactive Textbook 24 Forces and Motion

5 Orbiting Objects Are in Free Fall Satellites and the space shuttle orbit Earth. You may have seen that astronauts inside the shuttle float unless they are belted to a seat. They seem weightless. In fact, they are not weightless, because they still have mass. Weight is a measure of the pull of gravity on an object. Gravity acts between any two objects in the universe. Every object in the universe pulls on every other object. Every object with mass has weight. The force of gravity between two objects depends on the masses of the objects and how far apart they are. The more massive the objects are, the greater the force is. The closer the objects, the greater the force. Your weight is determined mostly by the mass of Earth because it is so big and so close to you. If you were to move away from Earth, you would weigh less. However, you would always be attracted to Earth and to other objects, so you would always have weight. Astronauts float in the shuttle because the shuttle is in free fall. That s right the shuttle is always falling. Because the astronauts are in the shuttle, they are also falling. The astronauts and the shuttle are falling at the same rate. That is why the astronauts seem to float inside the shuttle. Isaac Newton first predicted this kind of free fall in the late 17th century. He reasoned that if a cannon were placed on a mountain and fired, the cannon ball would fall to Earth. Yet, if the cannon ball were shot with enough force, it would fall at the same rate that Earth s surface curves away. The cannon ball would never hit the ground, so it would orbit Earth. The figure below shows this thought experiment. 11. Explain When will an object have no weight? Explain your answer. 12. Explain Why don t the astronauts in the orbiting shuttle fall to the floor? Critical Thinking 13. Infer Compared with cannon ball b, what do you think cannon ball c would do? Interactive Textbook 25 Forces and Motion

6 What Motions Combine to Make an Object Orbit? An object is in orbit (is orbiting) when it is going around another object in space. When the space shuttle orbits Earth, it is moving forward. Yet, the shuttle is also in free fall. The figure below shows how these two motions combine to cause orbiting. 14. Identify On the figure, draw a line showing the path that the space shuttle would take if gravity were not acting on it. 15. Identify What must be applied to an object to change its direction? 16. Identify Draw an arrow on the figure to show the direction that centripetal force acts on the moon. What Force Keeps an Object in Orbit? Many objects in space are orbiting other objects. The moon orbits Earth, while Earth and the other planets orbit the sun. These objects all follow nearly circular paths. An object that travels in a circle is always changing direction. If all the forces acting on an object balance each other out, the object will move in the same direction at the same speed forever. So, objects cannot orbit unless there is an unbalanced force acting on them. Centripetal force is the force that keeps an object moving in a circular path. Centripetal force pulls the object toward the center of the circle. The centripetal force of a body orbiting in space comes from gravity. Interactive Textbook 26 Forces and Motion

7 What Is Projectile Motion? Projectile motion is the curved path an object follows when it is thrown near the Earth s surface. The motion of a ball that has been thrown forward is an example of projectile motion. Projectile motion is made up of two parts: horizontal motion and vertical motion. Horizontal motion is motion that is parallel to the ground. Vertical motion is motion that is perpendicular to the ground. The two motions do not affect each other. Instead, they combine to form the curved path we call projectile motion. When you throw a ball forward, your hand pushes the ball to make it move forward. This force gives the ball its horizontal motion. After the ball leaves your hand, no horizontal forces act on the ball (if we forget air resistance for now). So the ball s horizontal velocity does not change after it leaves your hand. However, gravity affects the vertical part of projectile motion. Gravity pulls the ball straight down. All objects that are thrown accelerate downward because of gravity. 17. List What two motions combine to make projectile motion? Critical Thinking 18. Infer If you are playing darts and you want to hit the bulls-eye, where should you aim? a After the ball leaves the pitcher s hand, the ball s velocity is constant. b The ball s vertical velocity increases because causes it to accelerate downward. c The two motions combine to form a path. a b c 19. List On the figure, fill in the three blanks with the correct words. 20. Apply Concepts If there were no air resistance, how fast would the ball s downward velocity be changing? Explain your answer. Interactive Textbook 27 Forces and Motion

8 Section 1 Review SECTION VOCABULARY free fall the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on the body projectile motion the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth terminal velocity the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity 1. Explain Is a parachutist in free fall? Why or why not? 2. Identify Cause and Effect Complete the table below to show how forces affect objects. Cause Gravity acts on a falling object. Effect The falling object reaches terminal velocity. 3. Calculate A rock at rest falls off a cliff and hits the ground after 3.5 s. What is the rock s velocity just before it hits the ground? Show your work. 4. Identify What force must be applied to an object to keep it moving in a circular path? 5. Explain Which part of projectile motion is affected by gravity? Explain how it is affected. Interactive Textbook 28 Forces and Motion

9 M Forces, Motion, and Energy Answer Key continued Review 1. Friction makes it harder to get objects moving and keep them moving. 2. Static friction is friction between two surfaces that are not moving. Kinetic friction is between moving surfaces. Possible examples: Friction between the floor and a refrigerator that is being pushed but is not moving is static friction. Friction between the floor and a refrigerator that has started to slide is an example of kinetic friction. 3. Sketch should show smoother surfaces; peaks and valleys have less relief. 4. Grease, oil, and wax are lubricants. They reduce the friction between surfaces that touch. 5. Friction always acts in a direction opposite the direction of motion. 6. The car would not stop. Friction between the tires and the road is needed to start or stop. 7. The forces must be unbalanced, because the object starts moving (it is accelerating). SECTION 4 GRAVITY: A FORCE OF ATTRACTION 1. force of attraction between objects caused by their masses 2. Their masses are small, so they don t have much gravity. 3. All objects in the universe attract each other because of gravitational force. 4. masses of objects, distance between objects 5. gravity 6. Gravitational force is greater between objects with large masses N 8. We are on Earth, but the sun is very, very far away. 9. As the distance between two objects increases, the gravitational force decreases. As the distance between two objects decreases, the gravitational force increases. 10. Mass is the amount of matter in an object, but weight is the amount of gravitational force on an object ,588 N on Earth, 271 N on the moon 12. Gravity pulls down, and the shelf pushes up. Review 1. Gravity is a force of attraction between objects. It is determined by the masses of objects and the distance between them. 2. It will get larger. 3. The astronaut has the same mass on Earth and the moon, but the astronaut has a greater weight on Earth than the moon. The mass does not change, because it is the amount of matter in the astronaut. The weight is greater on Earth because Earth s gravity is greater. 4. Earth Planet X Mass of astronaut Weight of astronaut 80 kg 80kg 784 N 1,568 N 5. Student should circle the first pair. The reason given should be that the spheres are the largest pair of masses separated by the smallest distance. Chapter 2 Forces and Motion GRAVITY AND MOTION 1. The cannonballs hit the ground at the same time. 2. Golf ball should be drawn at the same heights as the table tennis ball m/s; after the third second, the ball is moving 9.8 m/s faster than it was at the end of the second second. Then, 19.6 m/s 9.8 m/s 29.4 m/s. 4. final g t final 9.8 m/s s 2 s 19.6 m/s 5. t final g t 98 m/s 10 s 9.8 m/s s 6. the flat paper 7. The crumpled paper has a greater net force acting on it. 8. when the force of air resistance equals the force of gravity Interactive Textbook Answer Key 82 Forces, Motion, and Energy

10 M Forces, Motion, and Energy Answer Key continued 9. A gravity arrow should be pointing down, and an air resistance arrow should be pointing up; arrows should be the same length. 10. the apple 11. Never; every object with mass has weight. 12. The shuttle and astronauts are falling at the same rate. 13. orbit farther from Earth 14. There should be a straight, horizontal line drawn from the shuttle s current position to the right-hand side of the figure. 15. an unbalanced force 16. The arrow should point from the moon to the Earth. 17. horizontal motion and vertical motion 18. above the bulls-eye 19. horizontal, gravity, curved m/s 2 ; gravity causes everything to accelerate by 9.8 m/s 2. Review 1. No, objects in free fall are affected only by gravity. Parachutists are affected by gravity and air resistance. 2. Cause Effect Gravity acts on a falling object. Air resistance equals gravity and acts in the opposite direction. The object accelerates toward Earth. The falling object reaches terminal velocity. 3. final g t final 9.8 m/s s 3.5 s 34.3 m/s 4. centripetal force 5. Gravity affects vertical motion. Gravity slows upward vertical motion of the projectile and increases downward vertical motion of the projectile. SECTION 2 NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION 1. They are the same size. 2. It will not change speed or direction. 3. It will stay at rest. 4. It will continue to move at the same velocity. 5. The distances would be greater. 6. Apply an unbalanced force in the direction opposite to its motion. 7. Friction slows it down. 8. The groceries have no unbalanced force acting on them. So they continue moving in a straight line. 9. The golf ball has less mass or less inertia. 10. the pickup truck 11. Arrows should point from person to cart; arrows in left-hand and middle figures are the same length; arrow in right-hand figure is longer. 12. newtons (N), or kg m/s kg m/s 2, 10 kg m/s kg, 9.8 m/s F ma F (1,250 kg)(40 m/s 2 ) F 50,000 N 15. action force down arrow, reaction force up arrow 16. They are the same size. 17. The batter is exerting a force on the bat, which is greater than the force exerted by the ball. 18. The action force arrow should point from the ball toward the ground. The reaction force arrow should point from the ground toward the ball. 19. Earth is much bigger than the object, so its acceleration is very small. Review 1. Objects with large masses have large inertia. 2. The arrow should be the same size and direction as the arrow in the question. 3. An arrow should point left. Its length should be the difference in length of the arrows shown in the question. 4. Increase the force on the object; decrease the mass of the object. 5. The action force is the push by my foot on the ball. The reaction force is the push by the ball on my foot. 6. F ma, F 40 kg 4.5 m/s N SECTION 3 MOMENTUM 1. the product of the object s mass and velocity 2. increase in its speed or its mass 3. Object Momentum A train moving at 30 km/h A bird sitting on a branch high in a tree A truck moving at 30 km/h A rock sitting on a beach most momentum no momentum less momentum no momentum Interactive Textbook Answer Key 83 Forces, Motion, and Energy

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