Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society"

Transcription

1 Peter T. Bobrowsky Hans Rickman (Editors) Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society An Interdisciplinary Approach With 85 Figures, 46 in Color fyj Springer

2 Contents Part I Anthropology, Archaeology, Geology 1 1 The Geologic Record of Destructive Impact Events on Earth Introduction General Character of the Record Spatial Distribution Age Distribution Size Distribution Terrestrial Cratering Rate Periodic Impacts Recognition of Terrestrial Impact Structures Morphology Geology of Impact Structures Geophysics of Impact Structures Impacts in the Stratigraphic Record Impacts and the Biosphere Early Life Coupling through the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere Local and Mass Extinctions Threat to Humanity ; v Concluding Remarks 18 Acknowledgments 20 References 20 2 The Archaeology and Anthropology of Quaternary Period Cosmic Impact Introduction The Quaternary Period Cosmic Impact Record Documented Impact Structures Validated Holocene Crater-Forming Impact Events Airbursts, Tektites, and Impact Glass Melts A Sample of Current Studies of Potential Late Quaternary-Holocene Period Terrestrial Impact Sites Oceanic Impacts 38

3 -. Contents 2.3 Oral Tradition, Myth, and Cosmic Impact The Nature and Principles of Myth and Oral Tradition Using Myth to Identify and Model South American Cosmic Impacts Modeling the Flood Comet Event - a Hypothesized Globally Catastrophic Mid-Holocene Abyssal Oceanic Comet Impact Epilog and Conclusions Candidate Abyssal Impact Structure Post-Workshop Final Thoughts 63 Acknowledgments 64 References 65 3 The Sky on the Ground: Celestial Objects and Events in Archaeology and Popular Culture Introduction The Archaeological Record Architecture Artifacts and Rock Art Oral Tradition Celestial Objects in Popular Culture Astrology in Popular Culture Art and Literature Other Examples Garnering Public Support Public Awareness and Support through Cinematic Film Public Education Conclusions 85 Acknowledgments 85 References 86 4 Umm Al Binni Structure, Southern Iraq, As a Postulated Late Holocene Meteorite Impact Crater Introduction Geological Setting Origin of the Umm Al Binni Structure New Satellite Imagery 95 References Tree-Rings Indicate Global Environmental Downturns That Could Have Been Caused by Comet Debris Introduction The Historical Record Mythology What Actually Happened - the Global Consequences? The Dust and Corrupted Air 112

4 Contents XI 5.6 The Scientific Prior Hypothesis The AD540 Symptoms Linkages to Other Events Conclusion 119 Acknowledgments 120 References The GGE Threat: Facing and Coping with Global Geophysical Events Introduction.-> Volcanic Super-Eruptions.J The Toba Super-Eruption Reassessment of the Super-Eruption Threat Collapsing Ocean-Island Volcanoes and Mega-Tsunami Formation Volcano Instability and Structural Failure Environmental Triggers of Ocean-Island Volcano Collapse Tsunami Generation from Ocean-Island Volcano Collapses Contemporary North Atlantic Mega-Tsunami Risk High-Frequency GGEs Addressing the GGE Threat 136 References 138 Part II Astronomy and Physical Implications The Asteroid Impact Hazard and Interdisciplinary Issues Introduction, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) Consequences of NEA Impact Mitigation: Deflection and/or Disaster Management and Response Perceptions of the Impact Hazard Societal Impacts The News Media \ Religion The Military Science Hazards Research/Disaster Management 161 References The Impact Hazard: Advanced NEO Surveys and Societal Responses Background The Spaceguard Survey Sub-Kilometer Impacts ' Communication and Miscommunication Public Policy Issues 169 Acknowledgments 171 References 172

5 XII Contents 9 Understanding the Near-Earth Object Population: the 2004 Perspective Introduction Dynamical Origin of NEOs Near-Earth Asteroids Near-Earth Comets Evolution in NEO Space Quantitative Modeling of the NEO Population The Debiased NEO Population Nearly Isotropic Comets NEA Size-Frequency Distribution Conclusion 185 References Physical Properties of NEOs and Risks of an Impact: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges Introduction Key Questions before Impact The True Nature of NEOs Densities: from Feather to Lead? Determining Mass and Density Typical Results on Densities Open Questions Structure: from Monoliths to Rubble Piles? Determining the Structure Outer Shape and Structure Porosity and Structure Comets Disruption and Fragmentation Open Questions Surface Properties: from Sand Dunes to Concrete? Estimating the Surface Properties Typical Results on Surface Properties Open Questions Knowledge Expected from Future Science Remote Observations and Simulations under Development Future Space Missions Conclusion 199 References Evaluating the Risk of Impacts and the Efficiency of Risk Reduction Introduction Near-Earth Objects Surveys The Problem of Orbit Determination Checking for Impact Possibilities Eliminating Virtual Impactors Decrease of the Risk Estimate 208

6 Contents XIII 11.5 Deflection Kinetic Energy Deflection Conclusions 209 References Physical Effects of Comet and Asteroid Impacts: beyond the Crater Rim Introduction: the Impact Hazard ^ Local and Regional Devastation by Impacts y/ Thermal Radiation Seismic Shaking Ejecta Deposition ' Airblast Tsunamis from Oceanic Impacts Global Devastation? The Thermal Pulse from Ejecta Rain Back Dust Loading of the Atmosphere Injection of Climatically Active Gases Indirect Effects of Biological Extinctions Conclusion 221 References Frequent Ozone Depletion Resulting from Impacts of Asteroids and Comets Introduction Physical Interactions with the Atmosphere Chemical Perturbations of the Upper Atmosphere Nitric Oxide Production Lofting of Water Fate of Salt Particles Activation of Halogens from Sea Salt Particles Catalytic Cycles for Ozone Depletion Estimates of Asteroid Impact and Ozone Depletion Frequency Model of Coupled Chemistry and Dynamics of the Upper Atmosphere Model Results for Injections of Nitric Oxide and Water Vapor Possible Test of the Impact-Induced Ozone Depletion Hypothesis 243 Acknowledgments 244 References Tsunami Asa Destructive Aftermath of Oceanic Impacts Introduction Geographical and Temporal Distribution of Tsunamis : Basic Types of Tsunami Sources Tsunamigenic Potential of Oceanic Impacts 254

7 XIV - Contents 14.5 Operational Tsunami Warning Detection of Impact Tsunamis by Tide Gauge Network Geological Traces of Tsunamis Conclusions 260 Acknowledgments 261 References The Physical and Social Effects of the Kaali Meteorite Impact - a Review Introduction The Meteorite Age of the Impact Effects of the Meteorite Impact 271 Acknowledgments 273 References The Climatic Effects of Asteroid and Comet Impacts: Consequences for an Increasingly Interconnected Society Introduction The Global Climatic Effects of Large Asteroid or Comet Impacts Injection of Asteroidal and Cometary Material Injection of Dust Injections from Fires Injection of Water Injection of Sulfur Dioxide Injection of Nitrogen Oxides Potential Weather and Climate-Related Impacts of Small to Modest-Sized Asteroids and Comets Asteroid and Comet Impacts That Do Not Involve a Surface Impact Modest-Sized Asteroid and Comet Impacts That Do Involve a Surface Impact Discussion 287 References Nature of the Tunguska Impactor Based on Peat Material from the Explosion Area Introduction Search-for the TCB Remnants in the Epicenter Area Platinum Group Elements (PGE) Investigation Isotopic Investigations of Light Elements in the Peat Discussion Conclusions 298 Acknowledgments 299 References 299

8 Contents XV 18 The Tunguska Event Introduction The Hypotheses Comet or Asteroid? "Non-Traditional" Hypotheses Alternative Approaches Known Data Objective Data ^ Eyewitnesses Testimonies.A Parameters Deduced Explosion Time Coordinates of the Epicenter Trajectory Parameters, Height of the Explosion and Energy Emitted Tunguska-Like Impacts Recent Models and Impact Frequency Global and Local Damages Concluding Remark 324 Acknowledgments 325 References Tunguska (1908) and Its Relevance for Comet/Asteroid Impact Statistics What Happened North of the Stony Tunguska River in the Early Morning of 30 June 1908? The Tectonic Interpretation of the Tunguska Catastrophe (Other) Recorded Impact Events (Likely) Tectonic Outbursts How to Discriminate between Impacts and Outbursts? Conclusions 338 Acknowledgments 338 References \ Atmospheric Megacryometeor Events Versus Small Meteorite Impacts: Scientific and Human Perspective of a Potential Natural Hazard Introduction Megacryometeors Textural, Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characteristics Theoretical Modeling Megacryometeors Versus Small Meteorite Impacts Comparison of the Rate of Falls during Human Times (Historical Record) Final Remarks 349 Acknowledgments 350 References 350

9 XVI Contents Part III Socio-Economic and Policy Implications Social Science and Near-Earth Objects: an Inventory of Issues Introduction Globally Relevant Disasters Preparation and Response: General Issues Preparation and Recovery: Planning Preparation and Response: the Problem of Trust Preparation and Response: the Problem of Panic Conclusions 365 Acknowledgments 366 References Perception of Risk from Asteroid Impact Early Work: Decision Processes, Rationality, and Adjustment to Natural Hazards Stage 2: Psychometric Studies of Risk Perception Perceptions Have Impacts: the Social Amplification of Risk Stage 3: Risk As Feelings Public Perceptions of the Impact Hazard Will the Public Be Concerned about the Impact Hazard? Exploratory Research on Public Attitudes and Perceptions Where Next? 380 Acknowledgment 381 References Hazard Risk Assessment of a Near Earth Object Background ; Defining Risk Ontology of NEO Hazards Level 1 NEOs Level2 NEOs Level3 NEOs Level 4 NEOs Dynamic Hazard Risk Assessment and Possible Mitigation and Preparedness Strategies Potential Mitigation, Data Needs, Response, and Prognosis 395 References Social Perspectives on Comet/Asteroid Impact (CAI) Hazards: Technocratic Authority and the Geography of Social Vulnerability Introduction The Perspective of Social Vulnerability Regional and Comparative Aspects of CAI Hazards Regional CAI Risks and the Role of Secondary Hazards Comparative Threat Evaluations Uncertain Uncertainties 408

10 Contents XVII 24.4 Conceptual Issues Limitations of the Agent-Specific Approach Organizational Risk Concluding Remarks 414 References May Land Impacts Induce a Catastrophic Collapse of Civil Societies? ^ Introduction.^J Medium-Small Scale Impacts on a European Country: a Case Study Probability of Impact and Objects Properties Level of Damage The Civil Society As a Complex System Recent Developments in the Science of Complexity What Is a Complex System? The Phase of Catastrophe Main Structures of the Country Social System Results Consequences of the 13 MT Impact on the Three Points Point 1: Consequences of the 1000 MT Impact Point 2: Consequences of the 1000 MT Impact Point 3: Consequences of the 1000 MT Impact Discussion 433 Acknowledgments 435 References The Societal Implications of a Comet/Asteroid Impact on Earth: a Perspective from International Development Studies A Mighty Heuristic: Scale, Space and Time Assumptions Do CAI-Scale Events Have Any Precedents? Adaptation and Resilience The Perspective of International Development Studies Would "Sustainable Development" Be Enough? A Remaining Big Worry Some Tentative Conclusions 443 Notes 445 References Disaster Planning for Cosmic Impacts: Progress and Weaknesses Introduction Probabilities Goal Setting Risk Mapping Safety by Improved Design Disaster Simulation and Prediction 456

11 XVIII Contents 27.7 Warning Systems Disaster Planning Reconstruction Summary and Conclusions 465 References Insurance Coverage of Meteorite, Asteroid and Comet Impacts - Issues and Options Introduction A Brief History of Insurance Insurance and Natural Hazards Do Asteroid Impacts Fit within the Principles of Insurance? Scenario 1: Asteroid Impact Scenario 2: Meteoroid Impact (Meteorite) Insurance Coverage of Asteroid and Meteorite Damage Assessing the Potential for Damage Insurers Need to Prepare The Cost of an Impact Insurers' Capacity to Pay Conclusions 477 References The Economic Consequences of Disasters Due to Asteroid and Comet Impacts, Small and Large Introduction Necessary Conditions Scenario Construction Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Summary and Conclusions 492 Acknowledgments 493 References Communicating Impact Risk to the Public Introduction Our Present World: Brief Considerations Principal Characteristics of NEO Impact Risks Previous Experiences in Disaster Prevention To Communicate or to Educate? A Scheme for Transmission of Information Conclusions 502 References 503

12 Contents XIX 31 Impact Risk Communication Management ( ): Has It Improved? Introduction XF AN SG MN NT AS1."7^ MN4 ^ QQ Purgatorio Ratio 517 References Towards Rational International Policies on the NEO Hazard Introduction "The 1997 XF11 Affair" Putting the Astronomers' House in Order ; The Minor Planet Center From Pure Science into the Real World Epilog: the True Mess 526 References A Road Map for Creating a NEO Research Program in Developing Countries Introduction The Crisis The Opportunity Conclusion 531 Acknowledgments 532 References 532 Index : 533

INDIANA ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES, WORLD GEOGRAPHY. PAGE(S) WHERE TAUGHT (If submission is not a book, cite appropriate location(s))

INDIANA ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES, WORLD GEOGRAPHY. PAGE(S) WHERE TAUGHT (If submission is not a book, cite appropriate location(s)) Prentice Hall: The Cultural Landscape, An Introduction to Human Geography 2002 Indiana Academic Standards for Social Studies, World Geography (Grades 9-12) STANDARD 1: THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS Students

More information

Natural Disasters & Assessing Hazards and Risk. Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters

Natural Disasters & Assessing Hazards and Risk. Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters Page 1 of 9 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Natural Disasters & Assessing Hazards and Risk This page last updated on 09-Jan-2018 Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters

More information

NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS Positions of all known asteroids projected onto the plane of the Earth s orbit on Jan 20, 2008

NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS Positions of all known asteroids projected onto the plane of the Earth s orbit on Jan 20, 2008 Astro 202 Spring 2008 COMETS and ASTEROIDS Small bodies in the solar system Impacts on Earth and other planets The NEO threat to Earth Lecture 3 Don Campbell NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS Positions of all known

More information

Finding Impact Craters with Landsat

Finding Impact Craters with Landsat Name Finding Impact Craters with Landsat Known Effects of Impact Events When an object from space hits the Earth, here is what can happen. There's a huge explosion. The impact makes a big hole or crater

More information

A Correlation of. Earth Science. Tarbuck, Lutgens 14 th Edition, to the. Arizona Science Standards. Strand 6 - Earth and Space Science

A Correlation of. Earth Science. Tarbuck, Lutgens 14 th Edition, to the. Arizona Science Standards. Strand 6 - Earth and Space Science A Correlation of Tarbuck, Lutgens to the Strand 6 - Earth and Space Science , Strand 6 (Earth and Space Science) Introduction This documents demonstrates how, supports the Arizona Science Standards for

More information

5/3/17. Extinction of the Dinosaurs. Extinction of Dinosaurs - Causes. #40 Meteorite Impacts III - Dinosaur Extinction, Future Risk, Mitigation

5/3/17. Extinction of the Dinosaurs. Extinction of Dinosaurs - Causes. #40 Meteorite Impacts III - Dinosaur Extinction, Future Risk, Mitigation Paper Scores are posted Please check grades Web Exercise #6 LATE; was Due by 1 pm, Monday 5/1 There is a 2-point penalty for every 24-hour period the assignment is late. No Web Exercise #6 will be accepted

More information

Exploring Geography. Chapter 1. Chapter 1, Section

Exploring Geography. Chapter 1. Chapter 1, Section Chapter 1, Section World Geography Chapter 1 Exploring Geography Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 1, Section

More information

Calculating Damage from Asteroid Impacts. H. J. Melosh Purdue University Planetary Defense Conference April 18, 2013

Calculating Damage from Asteroid Impacts. H. J. Melosh Purdue University Planetary Defense Conference April 18, 2013 Calculating Damage from Asteroid Impacts H. J. Melosh Purdue University Planetary Defense Conference April 18, 2013 Impact Effects can be divided into two basic categories: Local or Regional: Global: Thermal

More information

Volcanoes. Lesson #10 Volcanoes

Volcanoes. Lesson #10 Volcanoes Volcanoes Lesson #10 Volcanoes Objective: Describe the main features and characteristics of volcanoes. Be explain to name and explain the three separate types. ! Volcano: An opening in the earth's crust

More information

DEALING WITH THE THREAT TO EARTH FROM ASTEROIDS AND COMETS

DEALING WITH THE THREAT TO EARTH FROM ASTEROIDS AND COMETS DEALING WITH THE THREAT TO EARTH FROM ASTEROIDS AND COMETS Synopsis of a NEO study by THE INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF ASTRONAUTICS (IAA) Mr. Ivan Bekey, study chairman February 16, 2009 Contact information:

More information

Activity 1-2: Origin of the Earth

Activity 1-2: Origin of the Earth Earth Science 11 Name: Block: Activity 1-2: Origin of the Earth Read the following passage, and then answer the questions at the end: Where Earth Science Begins: The Solar System Where shall the study

More information

Biodiversity Through Earth History

Biodiversity Through Earth History Chapter 13 Biodiversity Through Earth History Underlying assumption is that the process of evolution is occurring evolution: creation of new species random mutation: genetic changes natural selection:

More information

Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science

Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science 1.1 What is Earth Science Earth science is the name for the group of sciences that deals with Earth and its neighbors in space. Includes: Geology Oceanography Meteorology

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCE UNIFORM SYLLABUS

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCE UNIFORM SYLLABUS ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCE UNIFORM SYLLABUS The Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of the Province of British Columbia Note: 1. This Syllabus May Be Subject To Change 2. These Courses

More information

Near Earth Objects and Past Impacts

Near Earth Objects and Past Impacts Near Earth Objects and Past Impacts Part 1: NEO Impacts A very large number of meteoroids enter the Earth's atmosphere each day amounting to more than a hundred tons of material. But they are almost all

More information

Overview of Geoscience Employers Workshop Outcomes

Overview of Geoscience Employers Workshop Outcomes Overview of Geoscience Employers Workshop Outcomes General thoughts on concepts: From Geoscience Employers Workshop Systems Thinking How systems work and interact Processes Atmosphere: Climate, Weather,

More information

2/25/2013. Volcanoes: summary in haiku form A volcano forms. Magma comes to the surface - explodes, if felsic.

2/25/2013. Volcanoes: summary in haiku form A volcano forms. Magma comes to the surface - explodes, if felsic. Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e Edward A. Keller Chapter 8 Volcanic Activity Volcanoes: summary in haiku form A volcano forms. Magma comes to the surface - explodes, if felsic. Lecture Presentation

More information

STUDENT NAME: STUDENT NUMBER: Faculty of Science FINAL EXAMINATION ATMOSPHERIC & OCEANIC SCIENCES ATOC 185 EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCES EPSC 185

STUDENT NAME: STUDENT NUMBER: Faculty of Science FINAL EXAMINATION ATMOSPHERIC & OCEANIC SCIENCES ATOC 185 EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCES EPSC 185 STUDENT NAME: STUDENT NUMBER: Faculty of Science FINAL EXAMINATION ATMOSPHERIC & OCEANIC SCIENCES ATOC 185 EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCES EPSC 185 NATURAL DISASTERS Examiners: Professor J. Gyakum and Professor

More information

Space Administration. Don Yeomans/JPL. Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California

Space Administration. Don Yeomans/JPL. Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California NASA s National Aeronautics and Near-Earth Object Program Overview Don Yeomans/JPL The Population of Near-Earth Objects is Made Up of Active Comets (1%) and Asteroids (99%) Comets (Weak and very black

More information

ESSENTIAL QUESTION. How can I describe earthquakes?

ESSENTIAL QUESTION. How can I describe earthquakes? Standard S6E5: Students will understand how the distribution of land and oceans affects climate and weather. d: describe the processes that change rocks and the surface of Earth e: Recognize that lithospheric

More information

Mars: The Red Planet. Roman God of war Blood Reflects 30% of its incident sunlight 2 small moons : Phobos and Deimos

Mars: The Red Planet. Roman God of war Blood Reflects 30% of its incident sunlight 2 small moons : Phobos and Deimos Mars: The Red Planet Roman God of war Blood Reflects 30% of its incident sunlight 2 small moons : Phobos and Deimos Property Earth Mars Radius 6378km 3394km ~ 0.51R E Mass 5.97x10 24 kg 6.42x10 23 kg =

More information

Dr Ozlem Adiyaman Earth Sciences and Geo-hazards Risk Reduction Section Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences ( ) NATURAL SCIENCES

Dr Ozlem Adiyaman Earth Sciences and Geo-hazards Risk Reduction Section Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences ( ) NATURAL SCIENCES Earth Sciences and Geo-hazards Risk Reduction Section Earth observation with COPERNICUS to : protect, monitor, document, present and share our common heritage, our cultural and natural UNESCO World Heritage

More information

Earth Science Review Ch 1 & 2. Chapter 1 - Introduction to Earth Science

Earth Science Review Ch 1 & 2. Chapter 1 - Introduction to Earth Science Earth Science Review Ch 1 & 2 Chapter 1 - Introduction to Earth Science Lesson I - What is Earth Science Topic 1- Branches of Earth Science Earth Science - the study of Earth, its oceans, atmosphere, and

More information

Celestial Objects. Background Questions. 1. What was invented in the 17 th century? How did this help the study of our universe? 2. What is a probe?

Celestial Objects. Background Questions. 1. What was invented in the 17 th century? How did this help the study of our universe? 2. What is a probe? Background Questions Celestial Objects 1. What was invented in the 17 th century? How did this help the study of our universe? 2. What is a probe? 3. Describe the Galileo probe mission. 4. What are scientists

More information

National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) Republic of Maldives. Location

National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) Republic of Maldives. Location National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC) Republic of Maldives Location Country Profile 1,190 islands. 198 Inhabited Islands. Total land area 300 sq km Islands range b/w 0.2 5 sq km Population approx.

More information

Observing, measuring, analyzing data 2 Globe Fearon Handbook A How do you conduct a scientific

Observing, measuring, analyzing data 2 Globe Fearon Handbook A How do you conduct a scientific Earth Science Pacing Guide 4 X 4 Block Schedule Week Standard Day Activity/Lab Unit 1: Introduction Earth Science What, Why? 1 Investigation and Experimentation 1: Scientific progress is made by asking

More information

DIPLOMA IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT. (Non-Semester) (With effect from the academic year )

DIPLOMA IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT. (Non-Semester) (With effect from the academic year ) DIPLOMA IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT (Non-Semester) (With effect from the academic year 2013-14) Eligibility for the Course Candidate should have passed the Higher Secondary Examination conducted by the Board

More information

Semester: Two. Study Hours: 28 contact/80 independent BSU Credits: 10 ECTS: 5

Semester: Two. Study Hours: 28 contact/80 independent BSU Credits: 10 ECTS: 5 BATH SPA UNIVERSITY Erasmus, exchange & study abroad module catalogue Geography: semester 2 Modules at Bath Spa University are usually worth either 10, 20 or 40 credits. If you are using the European Credit

More information

THE PLANETARY SCIENTIST'S COMPANION

THE PLANETARY SCIENTIST'S COMPANION THE PLANETARY SCIENTIST'S COMPANION Katharina Lodders Bruce Fegley, Jr. New York Oxford Oxford University Press 1998 Contents 1 Technical data Table 1.1 The Greek alphabet 1 Table 1.2 Prefixes used with

More information

McKinley Presidential Library & Museum Planetarium Show Ohio Science Standards Fifth Grade

McKinley Presidential Library & Museum Planetarium Show Ohio Science Standards Fifth Grade Fifth Grade-Interconnections Within Systems: Cycles on, such as those occurring in ecosystems, in the solar system, and in the movement of light and sound result in describable patterns. Speed is a measurement

More information

Range of Competencies

Range of Competencies GENERAL SCIENCE Content Domain Range of Competencies l. Nature of Science 0001 0003 19% ll. Physical Science 0004 0009 37% lll. Life Science 0010 0013 25% lv. Earth and Space Science 0014 0016 19% Approximate

More information

Section 1: The Geosphere

Section 1: The Geosphere Section 1: The Geosphere Preview Classroom Catalyst Objectives The Earth as a System Discovering Earth s Interior The Composition of the Earth The Structure of the Earth Plate Tectonics Section 1: The

More information

Initiative. Country Risk Profile: papua new guinea. Better Risk Information for Smarter Investments PAPUA NEW GUINEA.

Initiative. Country Risk Profile: papua new guinea. Better Risk Information for Smarter Investments PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment And Financing Initiative PAPUA NEW GUINEA September 211 Country Risk Profile: papua new is expected to incur, on average, 85 million USD per year in losses due to earthquakes

More information

Chapter 3 Checkpoint 3.1 Checkpoint 3.2 Venn Diagram: Planets versus Asteroids Checkpoint 3.3 Asteroid Crashes the Moon?

Chapter 3 Checkpoint 3.1 Checkpoint 3.2 Venn Diagram: Planets versus Asteroids Checkpoint 3.3 Asteroid Crashes the Moon? Chapter 3 Checkpoint 3.1 Which characteristics are true of both planets and asteroids? a) They are approximately spherical in shape. b) There are thousands of examples. c) They formed 1 to 2 billion years

More information

Dynamic Crust Regents Review

Dynamic Crust Regents Review Name Dynamic Crust Regents Review Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the table below, which lists the location of some earthquakes, their Richter magnitude, and their year of occurrence. Data

More information

International Air Safety & Climate change conference

International Air Safety & Climate change conference International Air Safety & Climate change conference 08-09 September 2010, Koln, EASA Stéphanie STOLTZ Project Officer 'Aeronautics' Directorate 'Transport, Directorate-General for Research European Commission

More information

What is Nuclear Winter?

What is Nuclear Winter? Nuclear Winter What is Nuclear Winter? Prediction by some scientists that smoke and debris rising from massive fires of a nuclear war could block sunlight for weeks or months, cooling the earth's surface

More information

Atmospheric composition and global climate. The greenhouse effect

Atmospheric composition and global climate. The greenhouse effect Atmospheric composition and global climate The greenhouse effect What is a greenhouse gas? Why is CO 2 a greenhouse gas? The glass of a greenhouse acts to trap heat by changing the wavelength of light

More information

Decision Model for Potential Asteroid Impacts

Decision Model for Potential Asteroid Impacts Decision Model for Potential Asteroid Impacts Research Paper EB560 Decision Analysis Division of Economics and Business Colorado School of Mines December 9, 2003 Brad R. Blair EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Research

More information

Deep Impact: Are we prepared to handle an asteroid collision?

Deep Impact: Are we prepared to handle an asteroid collision? Deep Impact: Are we prepared to handle an asteroid collision? Rahul Walawalkar, Doctoral Student, Engineering and Public Policy Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA rahul@walawalkar.com Write Around

More information

Earth. Interior Crust Hydrosphere Atmosphere Magnetosphere Tides

Earth. Interior Crust Hydrosphere Atmosphere Magnetosphere Tides Earth Interior Crust Hydrosphere Atmosphere Magnetosphere Tides Semi-major Axis 1 A.U. Inclination 0 Orbital period 1.000 tropical year Orbital eccentricity 0.017 Rotational period 23 h 56 min 4.1 s Tilt

More information

Asteroids/Meteorites 4/17/07

Asteroids/Meteorites 4/17/07 Asteroids and Meteorites Announcements Reading Assignment Read Chapter 16 Term Paper Due Today Details of turnitin.com Go to www.turnitin.com Click on new users usertype student Class ID: 1868418 Password:

More information

The Dynamic Earth Section 1. Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Section 1: The Geosphere DAY 1

The Dynamic Earth Section 1. Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Section 1: The Geosphere DAY 1 Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Section 1: The Geosphere DAY 1 The Earth as a System The Earth is an integrated system that consists of rock, air, water, and living things that all interact with each other.

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Natures, Orbits, and Impacts. Chapter 12 Review Clickers

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Natures, Orbits, and Impacts. Chapter 12 Review Clickers Review Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Natures, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroids a) are rocky and small typically the size of a grain of rice or

More information

Indicators for sustainable circum-arctic coastal communities

Indicators for sustainable circum-arctic coastal communities Indicators for sustainable circum-arctic coastal communities Donald Forbes, Trevor Bell, Joan Nymand Larsen, Andrey Petrov, Peter Pulsifer, Rasmus Ole Rasmussen, Rudy Riedlsperger, Peter Schweitzer A subset

More information

Identify and explain monthly patterns in the phases of the Moon.

Identify and explain monthly patterns in the phases of the Moon. (NGSS in Parentheses) Grade Big Idea Essential Questions Concepts Competencies Vocabulary 2002 Standards The phases of the Moon are caused by the orbit of the moon around the Earth. (ESS1.A) The phases

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts. Chapter 12 Lecture

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts. Chapter 12 Lecture Chapter 12 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts

More information

Volcanoes and Urban Planning

Volcanoes and Urban Planning Background Reading & Lesson Plan Document ID: 10_04_04_1 Date Received: 2004-10-04 Date Revised: 2004-11-16 Date Accepted: 2004-11-23 Curriculum Topic Benchmarks: M1.3.5, M3.3.17, M5.3.3, M9.3.2, S12.3.7,

More information

Highs and Lows Floods and Flows

Highs and Lows Floods and Flows Highs and Lows Floods and Flows Planetary Mapping Facilitator Guide Becky Nelson Education Specialist The Lunar and Planetary Institute Highs and Lows, Floods and Flows Planetary Mapping Overview In this

More information

Magma is a complex mixture of liquid, solid and gas

Magma is a complex mixture of liquid, solid and gas Magma is a complex mixture of liquid, solid and gas Liquid molten silicate Solid early-formed minerals Gas Generally 0.1% to 5% of the magma by weight, but can be as much as 15% >90% of the gas in magma

More information

Amarillo ISD Science Curriculum

Amarillo ISD Science Curriculum Amarillo Independent School District follows the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). All of AISD curriculum and documents and resources are aligned to the TEKS. The State of Texas State Board

More information

Tsunami Risk Assessment for Coastal Cities of Sri Lanka. Case Study for the Port City of Galle

Tsunami Risk Assessment for Coastal Cities of Sri Lanka. Case Study for the Port City of Galle Tsunami Risk Assessment for Coastal Cities of Sri Lanka Case Study for the Port City of Galle Dr. S.S.L.Hettiarachchi Dr. S.P.Samarawickrama University of Moratuwa Dr.N.Wijeratne University of Ruhuna Dr.

More information

The Near-Earth Object Segment of ESA s Space Situational Awareness programme (SSA-NEO)

The Near-Earth Object Segment of ESA s Space Situational Awareness programme (SSA-NEO) The Near-Earth Object Segment of ESA s Space Situational Awareness programme (SSA-NEO) Overview Detlef Koschny, Gerhard Drolshagen The SSA-NEO segment shall provide information about the impact threat

More information

Impact Craters Teacher Page Purpose

Impact Craters Teacher Page Purpose 1 of 5 2008-05-01 12:15 PM Hawai'i Space Grant College, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, 1996 Background Impact Craters Teacher Page Purpose To determine the factors

More information

Volcanoes. Environmental Geology, Mr. Paul Lowrey Stacey Singleton, Cassandra Combs, Dwight Stephenson, Matt Smithyman

Volcanoes. Environmental Geology, Mr. Paul Lowrey Stacey Singleton, Cassandra Combs, Dwight Stephenson, Matt Smithyman Volcanoes Environmental Geology, Mr. Paul Lowrey Stacey Singleton, Cassandra Combs, Dwight Stephenson, Matt Smithyman EMPACTS Project, Spring 2017 Northwest Arkansas Community College, Bentonville, AR

More information

Amarillo ISD Social Studies Curriculum

Amarillo ISD Social Studies Curriculum Amarillo Independent School District follows the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). All of AISD curriculum and documents and resources are aligned to the TEKS. The State of Texas State Board

More information

PHYSICAL GEOLOGY GEOLOGY 1

PHYSICAL GEOLOGY GEOLOGY 1 PHYSICAL GEOLOGY GEOLOGY 1 Instructor: Dr. Haibo Zou T and TH: 11:10-12:35 Office hour: Tuesday, 12:50-2:00 E-mail: hzou@ess.ucla.edu Web: www2.ess.ucla.edu/~hzou GOLOGY 1 Physical Geology - Spring 2006

More information

Earthquakes. Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics. Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics. Chapter 6 Modern Earth Science. Modern Earth Science. Section 6.

Earthquakes. Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics. Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics. Chapter 6 Modern Earth Science. Modern Earth Science. Section 6. Earthquakes Chapter 6 Modern Earth Science Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics Section 6.1 Modern Earth Science Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics Earthquakes are the result of stresses in Earth s s lithosphere.

More information

6. The lithosphere is

6. The lithosphere is Name: APES: Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Earth Composition and Structure Webquest Date: I. Earth Structure http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/plate1.htm Click on the button press here to see

More information

Chapter 9 Remnants of Rock and Ice. Asteroids, Comets, and Pluto

Chapter 9 Remnants of Rock and Ice. Asteroids, Comets, and Pluto Chapter 9 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and Pluto 9.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our Goals for Learning Why is there an asteroid belt? How are meteorites related to asteroids? Asteroid Facts

More information

Natural Climate Change: A Geological Perspective

Natural Climate Change: A Geological Perspective Natural Climate Change: A Geological Perspective A presentation to the Seminar on Sustainable Development NBA 573, BEE 673 Sage Hall B-11 March 4, 2005 by L. M. Cathles Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Truth

More information

The Little Things. Today. Rings, meteorites. Asteroids & Comets. Dwarf Planets Events. Homework 5. Due

The Little Things. Today. Rings, meteorites. Asteroids & Comets. Dwarf Planets Events. Homework 5. Due Today The Little Things Rings, meteorites Asteroids & Comets Dwarf Planets Events Homework 5 Due geysers on Triton Rocky Planets versus Icy Moons Rock melts at higher temperatures. Only large rocky planets

More information

Description of content. How well do I know the content? (scale 1 5)

Description of content. How well do I know the content? (scale 1 5) Page 1 I. Basic Scientific Principles and Processes (12%) A. Science Methodology, Techniques, and History of s I will 1. Scientific inquiry methods a. Observations, hypotheses, experiments, conclusions,

More information

Science Colorado Sample Graduation Competencies and Evidence Outcomes

Science Colorado Sample Graduation Competencies and Evidence Outcomes Science Colorado Sample Graduation Competencies and Evidence Outcomes Science Graduation Competency 1 Physical Science Students know and understand common properties, forms, and changes in matter and energy.

More information

Moore County Schools. High School Level

Moore County Schools. High School Level Moore County Schools High School Level EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Science, by nature, is an inquiry-based discipline whereby students gain knowledge through observation and experimentation. Scientific

More information

DISASTER SCIENCE: UNDERSTANDING HAZARDS AND DISASTERS COURSE SYLLABUS SPRING 2016

DISASTER SCIENCE: UNDERSTANDING HAZARDS AND DISASTERS COURSE SYLLABUS SPRING 2016 DISASTER SCIENCE: UNDERSTANDING HAZARDS AND DISASTERS COURSE SYLLABUS SPRING 2016 Instructors: Bruce Houghton and Chris Gregg Phone: 956-2561 (B), Email: bhought@soest.hawaii.edu, gregg@etsu.edu POST 703

More information

What Happened to the Dinosaurs?

What Happened to the Dinosaurs? A great extinction event occurred 65 million years ago, and creatures like these disappeared. What Happened to the Dinosaurs? Great Extinction Event @ 65 MA Walt Disney s view. On land, the big dinosaurs

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds

The Cosmic Perspective Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Chapter 10 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 10.1 Atmospheric Basics

More information

ScienceFusion correlated to the

ScienceFusion correlated to the hmhco.com 800.225.5425 ScienceFusion Oklahoma Academic Standards for Science: Disciplinary Core Ideas Connect with us: @HMHCo and HMH are trademarks or registered trademarks of Publishing Company. Publishing

More information

STAAR Science Tutorial 48 TEK 8.11C: Effects of Environmental Change

STAAR Science Tutorial 48 TEK 8.11C: Effects of Environmental Change Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 48 TEK 8.11C: Effects of Environmental Change TEK 8.11C: Explore how short- and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent

More information

GEOGRAPHY (GEOGRPHY) Geography (GEOGRPHY) 1

GEOGRAPHY (GEOGRPHY) Geography (GEOGRPHY) 1 Geography (GEOGRPHY) 1 GEOGRAPHY (GEOGRPHY) GEOGRPHY 1040 Planet Earth 4 Credits The features of the natural environment (lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere); their character, distribution, origin

More information

Examining the Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 20)

Examining the Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 20) GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Examining the Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 20) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and your geology

More information

Name Class Date. Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided.

Name Class Date. Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science Chapter Study Guide Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following is

More information

ESC102. Earth in Context

ESC102. Earth in Context ESC102 Earth in Context Scientific Method The scientific method is an orderly and logical approach that relies on data to inform our understanding of a problem or process. assumes that nature is consistent

More information

Astronomy Unit Notes Name:

Astronomy Unit Notes Name: Astronomy Unit Notes Name: (DO NOT LOSE!) To help with the planets order 1 My = M 2 V = Venus 3 Eager = E 4 M = Mars 5 Just = J 6 Served = Saturn 7 Us = Uranus 8 N = N 1 Orbit: The path (usually elliptical)

More information

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up What causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions? What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each

More information

MAJOR ACCIDENTS AND DISASTERS IN EIA

MAJOR ACCIDENTS AND DISASTERS IN EIA MAJOR ACCIDENTS AND DISASTERS IN AN APPROACH FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS GEORGINA DOWLING & PATRICK LITTLE WEBINAR FORMAT Definitions Process for screening in/out types of major accidents and disasters:

More information

Resources for Treasure Hunt In Earth s Attic Try This!

Resources for Treasure Hunt In Earth s Attic Try This! Try This! Work in groups or as a family to determine the order of events that in the history of the Earth and Moon. More information and graphics are available at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/timeline/introduction.shtml

More information

Unit 8: Internal dynamics of the Earth

Unit 8: Internal dynamics of the Earth Unit 8: Internal dynamics of the Earth 1. The internal heat of the earth 2. Plate tectonics theory 3. Internal geological processes 3.1. Volcanoes 3.2. Earthquakes 3.3. Rock deformation 3.4. Mountain ranges

More information

Debris Avalanches. Debris avalanche deposits on a volcano in Chile. All of the area in the foreground is buried by a thick debris avalanche.

Debris Avalanches. Debris avalanche deposits on a volcano in Chile. All of the area in the foreground is buried by a thick debris avalanche. Debris Avalanches Volcanoes are not very stable structures. From time to time, they collapse producing large rock and ash avalanches that travel at high speeds down valleys. Collapse maybe caused by an

More information

Overview of Ch. 4. I. The nature of volcanic eruptions 9/19/2011. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5

Overview of Ch. 4. I. The nature of volcanic eruptions 9/19/2011. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5 Overview of Ch. 4 Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5 I. Nature of Volcanic Eruptions II. Materials Extruded from a Volcano III.Types of Volcanoes IV.Volcanic Landforms V. Plutonic (intrusive)

More information

Understanding Weather and Climate Risk. Matthew Perry Sharing an Uncertain World Conference The Geological Society, 13 July 2017

Understanding Weather and Climate Risk. Matthew Perry Sharing an Uncertain World Conference The Geological Society, 13 July 2017 Understanding Weather and Climate Risk Matthew Perry Sharing an Uncertain World Conference The Geological Society, 13 July 2017 What is risk in a weather and climate context? Hazard: something with the

More information

The trajectory, structure and origin of the Chelyabinsk asteroidal impactor

The trajectory, structure and origin of the Chelyabinsk asteroidal impactor The trajectory, structure and origin of the Chelyabinsk asteroidal impactor Jiří Borovička Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Ondřejov, Czech Republic with the help of O. Popova(Moscow) and P.

More information

Homework III. Volcanological Exercises

Homework III. Volcanological Exercises Page 1 of 5 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Homework III. Volcanological Exercises This page last updated on 16-Feb-2018 1. In your work as an insurance company executive

More information

Chapter 9 Part 2 Dwarf Planets and Impacts

Chapter 9 Part 2 Dwarf Planets and Impacts Pluto s Orbit Chapter 9 Part 2 Dwarf Planets and Impacts Pluto s orbit is tilted and significantly elliptical. Neptune orbits three times during the time Pluto orbits twice resonance prevents a collision.

More information

The Third UN-GGIM-AP Plenary Meeting. Use of Geospatial Information in Disaster and Coordination among NDMA and Relevant Organizations/Stakeholders

The Third UN-GGIM-AP Plenary Meeting. Use of Geospatial Information in Disaster and Coordination among NDMA and Relevant Organizations/Stakeholders The Third UN-GGIM-AP Plenary Meeting Use of Geospatial Information in Disaster and Coordination among NDMA and Relevant Organizations/Stakeholders Bali Indonesia 10 November 2014 Bernardus Wisnu Widjaja

More information

Safety Procedures for Volcanic Activity in the United States and Japan

Safety Procedures for Volcanic Activity in the United States and Japan Parkland College A with Honors Projects Honors Program 2015 Safety Procedures for Volcanic Activity in the United States and Japan Ashley Eisenmenger Parkland College Recommended Citation Eisenmenger,

More information

Floods Lecture #21 20

Floods Lecture #21 20 Floods 20 Lecture #21 What Is a Flood? Def: high discharge event along a river! Due to heavy rain or snow-melt During a flood, a river:! Erodes channel o Deeper & wider! Overflows channel o Deposits sediment

More information

Asteroids: Introduction

Asteroids: Introduction Asteroids: Introduction Name Read through the information below. Then complete the Fill-Ins at the bottom of page. Asteroids are rocky objects that orbit the Sun in our solar system. Also known as minor

More information

PDC2015 Frascati, Roma, Italy IAA-PDC-15-P-84 GLOBAL IMPACT DISTRIBUTION OF ASTEROIDS AND AFFECTED POPULATION. Kingdom,

PDC2015 Frascati, Roma, Italy IAA-PDC-15-P-84 GLOBAL IMPACT DISTRIBUTION OF ASTEROIDS AND AFFECTED POPULATION. Kingdom, PDC2015 Frascati, Roma, Italy Planetary Defense Recent Progress & Plans NEO Discovery NEO Characterization Mitigation Techniques & Missions Impact Effects that Inform Warning, Mitigation & Costs Consequence

More information

Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e Case History: Indonesian Tsunami Indonesian Tsunami (2) Introduction Historic Tsunamis

Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e Case History: Indonesian Tsunami Indonesian Tsunami (2) Introduction Historic Tsunamis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e Chapter 7 Tsunami Case History: Indonesian Tsunami December 26, 2004, within a few hours, close to 250,000 people were killed With no warning

More information

Lecture 6: Tsunami Waves Key Questions

Lecture 6: Tsunami Waves Key Questions Lecture 6: Tsunami Waves Key Questions 1. What are four sources for tsunami waves? 2. What are the wavelength, period, velocity, frequency, height relations for a wave? 3. What does feeling bottom have

More information

Astronomy. physics.wm.edu/~hancock/171/ A. Dayle Hancock. Small 239. Office hours: MTWR 10-11am. Page 1

Astronomy.  physics.wm.edu/~hancock/171/ A. Dayle Hancock. Small 239. Office hours: MTWR 10-11am. Page 1 Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock adhancock@wm.edu Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Planetology I Terrestrial and Jovian planets Similarities/differences between planetary satellites Surface and atmosphere

More information

The environmental effects of impact events differ with respect to time

The environmental effects of impact events differ with respect to time Local and Global Environmental Effects of Impacts on Earth Elisabetta Pierazzo 1, and Natalia Artemieva 1,2 Dinosaurs became extinct after the impact of a giant asteroid. 1811-5209/12/0008-0055$2.50 DOI:

More information

New Interpretation for Libyan Desert Glass Formation

New Interpretation for Libyan Desert Glass Formation International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science 2013; 1(4): 23-28 Published online October 20, 2013 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ijass) doi: 10.11648/j.ijass.20130104.13 New Interpretation

More information

Cratering and the Lunar Surface

Cratering and the Lunar Surface Lab 3 Cratering and the Lunar Surface 3.1 Overview This exercise begins a two-exercise module exploring evolutionary processes on terrestrial surfaces. It contains a hands-on cratering activity, an analysis

More information

Geography for Life. Course Overview

Geography for Life. Course Overview Geography for Life Description In Geography for Life students will explore the world around them. Using the six essential elements established by the National Geographic Society students will be able to

More information