Physical Geography: Patterns, Processes, and Interactions, Grade 11, University/College Expectations

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1 Geographic Foundations: Space and Systems SSV.01 explain major theories of the origin and internal structure of the earth; Page 1 SSV.02 demonstrate an understanding of the principal features of the earth s major components: the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere; SSV.03 explain the sources and nature of energy flows through the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere; SSV.04 explain the physical processes that create landforms, climate, soils, and vegetation. SS1.01 SS1.02 SS1.03 SS1.04 SS1.05 SS1.06 explain how the earth s orbit and tilt relate to the seasons and annual variations in climate; describe the relationship of the moon and the earth to each other and the moon s effects on tides; explain the physical evidence found on the surface of the earth and at the bottom of the oceans that supports the theory of plate tectonics; describe the components of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere; identify the interconnections between natural systems (e.g., natural vegetation, climate, wildlife) within selected ecosystems; demonstrate an understanding of the origins, distribution, and frequency of different kinds of storms (e.g., frontal depressions, hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms) that affect North America; SS1.07 describe the rates at which different physical processes occur (e.g., continental erosion, soil formation, tectonic uplift). SS2.01 SS2.02 SS2.03 SS2.04 SS2.05 SS2.06 describe the components of the internal structure of the earth (core, mantle, crust); differentiate among the major rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic) and explain their origins; explain the role that convection currents are believed to play in the motion of the earth s crustal plates; analyse the global distribution of major physical features (e.g., Ring of Fire, mountain systems, tectonic plates) and determine reasons for the observed distribution patterns; describe the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems (e.g., the hydrologic cycle, the carbon cycle) and explain the relationship of these flows to landforms, climate, soils, and vegetation; explain how climatic controls act upon the elements of the atmosphere to produce the climatic zones of the earth; SS2.07 explain the roles of water, ice, wind, and biological processes in shaping physical features. SS3.01 SS3.02 SS3.03 interpret the spatial relationships between mountain ranges, occurrences of earthquakes, and tectonic plate boundaries and explain the processes believed to be at work; characterize the differences between continental and oceanic plates and demonstrate an understanding of the processes at work in the boundaries between them; explain the concepts of heat balance and circulation, using local examples like driveways, lawns, and water bodies;

2 SS3.04 SS3.05 Page 2 explain the effects of natural variations in climate on the structure and composition of soils of selected regions; analyse relationships between present characteristics of local landforms and the processes that shaped them. Human-Environment Interactions HEV.01 explain how the earth provides both a habitat for life and a resource for society; HEV.02 evaluate the impacts of natural systems on people and their activities; HEV.03 evaluate the impact of human life on natural systems; HEV.04 demonstrate an understanding of the importance of stewardship and sustainability as guiding principles for human use of the physical environment. HE1.01 HE1.02 HE1.03 explain why certain geological formations contain rich mineral deposits; demonstrate an understanding of the trade-offs for humans living in areas subject to natural disruptions (e.g., coastal zones, slopes of active volcanoes, regions of tectonic activity such as California and Japan); demonstrate an understanding of the effects of human activities (e.g., urban expansion, resource exploitation) on various aspects of the environment; HE1.04 describe the importance of sustainable practices in resource-based industries (e.g., forestry, mining, fisheries). HE2.01 HE2.02 HE2.03 explain the roles of volcanoes and river estuaries in providing fertile soils for agriculture; analyse the effects of environmental hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides) on human activities; analyse damage and casualty risks related to flooding in selected areas and identify factors that increase risk; HE2.04 explain the impact of acid rain on a selected region. HE3.01 HE3.02 HE3.03 HE3.04 HE3.05 identify postglacial features in the Ontario landscape and explain how people have derived benefits from them (e.g., aggregates for construction, recreation areas); evaluate the impact of deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels on the carbon cycle; explain current methods and technologies used to track and predict weather, including dangerous phenomena such as hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes; produce a case study in which concepts of watershed management are used to determine sustainable uses of a local environment; analyse the impacts of selected human activities on their local environment (e.g., farming and soil erosion, vehicle use and air pollution). Global Connections GCV.01 analyse the global distribution of landforms, climate, soils, and vegetation to determine reasons for the observed distribution patterns; GCV.02 describe selected ecosystems in different parts of the world and explain the processes that shape them;

3 GCV.03 analyse local, regional, and global issues related to physical geography. GC1.01 GC1.02 GC1.03 Page 3 demonstrate an understanding of the differences between local weather and global climate; explain the role that oceans and ocean currents play in moderating climate, using examples of major cities at similar latitudes (e.g., Edmonton and Edinburgh); demonstrate an understanding of similarities and differences between different climatic zones and the landscape systems found within them (e.g., polar deserts in Canada s Arctic, and "hot" deserts in other areas of the world); GC1.04 identify local, regional, and global issues related to physical geography. GC2.01 GC2.02 analyse patterns of significant ocean currents (e.g., Gulf Stream) and prevailing winds (e.g., trade winds) and their relationships to world vegetation patterns; explain the relationships that link global patterns of landforms, climate, soils, and vegetation to each other; GC2.03 analyse the effects that human activities in a region or country can have on the natural environment in another location (e.g., acid rain, downstream impacts of dams, ozone layer depletion). GC3.01 GC3.02 GC3.03 compare global distribution patterns of climate, soils, and vegetation with patterns in their local bioregion; analyse the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on hydrology; identify geopolitical issues that face nations that share various physical regions of the world (e.g., circumpolar regions, the Sahel, the Nile Valley). Understanding and Managing Change UCV.01 analyse the causes and consequences of past and future climate change; UCV.02 analyse changes in natural systems caused by natural phenomena; UCV.03 explain how human uses of the earth, including uses involving technology, cause change in natural systems. UC1.01 UC1.02 UC1.03 UC1.04 UC1.05 describe the difference between human and geologic time scales; demonstrate an understanding that the world s surface is dynamic, in that it is constantly being reshaped (e.g., mountain building, erosion); demonstrate an understanding of the cycle of glacial advance and retreat and its relationship to natural variations in global climate; describe the potential impacts of climate change on the economic feasibility of industries based on renewable resources (e.g., agriculture, forestry); identify and describe the mechanisms of change within the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere; UC1.06 demonstrate an understanding of how soils are the result of long-term processes (e.g., erosion and chemical and mechanical weathering) acting upon parent material. UC2.01 distinguish natural short-term variability from long-term trends in historical climate data;

4 UC2.02 Page 4 explain the potential effects of long-term climate change (e.g., global warming) on different parts of the world; UC2.03 explain how population growth and changes in human activities over the past one hundred years have increased the ecological footprint of our species. UC3.01 UC3.02 UC3.03 UC3.04 UC3.05 UC3.06 demonstrate an understanding of the difficulties involved in predicting climate change; evaluate physical evidence of past climates in selected areas of Canada (e.g., glacial features in southern Ontario, fossil forests in the High Arctic); analyse the long-term effects of human use of a distinctive ecological zone (e.g., desert, tundra, tropical rain forest); analyse changes in land use in their local area over the past twenty years and the effects of these changes on the population and the environment; evaluate the role of technology in changing human-environment relationships; predict both positive and negative impacts of tectonic change and climate change (e.g., earthquake risks, temperature increases) on their local community. Methods of Geographic Inquiry GIV.01 use geographic skills, methods, and technologies to gather, analyse, and synthesize ideas and information; GIV.02 use a variety of methods and technologies to communicate the results of geographic inquiry and analysis effectively; GIV.03 describe careers related to physical geography. GI1.01 GI1.02 GI1.03 describe the difficulties and limitations inherent in quantifying the processes and elements of the physical environment; demonstrate an understanding of the technology available for mapping, imaging, and measuring features and phenomena on the surface of the earth; demonstrate an understanding of the importance of field verification (ground truthing) of data collected from remote sensing instruments, including satellites; GI1.04 identify careers related to physical geography. GI2.01 GI2.02 GI2.03 GI2.04 GI2.05 GI2.06 demonstrate an ability to make observations and collect data in the field; identify selected physical features on the earth s surface (e.g., mountains, rivers, deserts) from different sources (e.g., maps, aerial photographs, satellite images, geographic information systems); produce and interpret maps, diagrams, charts, and models; use remote sensing imagery, maps, global positioning systems, and geographic information systems to measure conditions on the ground (e.g., health of vegetation); use print and electronic sources (e.g., CD-ROMs, the Internet) to locate information related to physical geography; use written, oral, and visual communication skills to present the results of geographic inquiry and analysis effectively.

5 GI3.01 GI3.02 GI3.03 GI3.04 GI3.05 Page 5 trace the natural history of an area by using maps, remote sensing data, geographic information systems, and field observations; produce reports summarizing field experiments conducted to obtain quantitative and qualitative data about a local area (e.g., stream discharge rates); analyse data collected in the field, using laboratory equipment or computers, and present the results; produce an independent study that applies data collected through field experiments to a local issue (e.g., waste management, soil loss, forestry, recreation); analyse educational requirements, job descriptions, current opportunities, and future prospects for a selected career related to physical geography.

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