2 Topics Definition of acids and bases Bronsted-Lowry Concept Dissociation constant of weak acids Acid strength Calculating ph for strong and weak acids and bases Polyprotic acids Acid-base properties of salts effect of structure on acid base properties Acid-Base Properties of Oxides Lewis Acids and Base
3 14.1 The nature of acids and base 1. Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. The definition is limited to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of bases is identified. Ammonia, NH 3 could not be an Arrhenius base.
4 Bronsted-Lowry Definitions Acid is a proton (H + ) donor and a base is a proton acceptor. Acids and bases always come in pairs. HCl is an acid. When acid dissolves in water it gives its proton to water. HCl(g) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + + Cl - H 2 O acts as a base by making hydronium ion, H 3 O +
5 Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) conj conj conj conj acid 1 base 2 acid 2 base 1 conjugate base: everything that remains of the acid molecule after a proton is lost. conjugate acid: formed when the proton is transferred to the base.
6 Comments on Bronsted lawry concept for acids and bases NH 3 is a base: NH 3 + H 2 O NH OH - CO 3 2- is a base CO H 2 O HCO OH - HCO 3 - is ampheprotic: HCO H 2 O CO H 3 O + HCO H 2 O H 2 CO 3 + OH -
7 Ions could be acids or bases Solvent could be an acid or a base Some ions could behave as acids or bases (ampheprotic) Acids and bases are not limited to aqueous solutions NH 3 (g) + HCl(g) NH 4 Cl(s)
8 Strength of conjugate pairs HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) acid 1 base 2 acid 2 base 1 The two bases: H 2 O and A - will compete for H + The stronger base controls the direction. If H 2 O is a stronger base it takes the H + Equilibrium moves to right. H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq)
9 Acid dissociation constant K a The equilibrium constant for the general equation. HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A - (aq) K a = [H 3 O + ][A - ] [HA] H 3 O + is often written as H + ignoring water in the equation We can write this expression for any week acid as follows: HA(aq) H + + A -
10 14.2 Acid Strength Strong acids dissociate completely; Ka =, Why? HCl(aq)+H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq)+cl - (aq) Ka [ H 3O][ Cl ] [ ]? [ HCl ]? HCl [ HCl] 0 Ka For strong acids, equilibrium lies far to right. For weak acids, equilibrium lies far to left.
11 Strong acids VS weak acids HCl(aq) H + + Cl - HA(aq) H + + A - Strong acids K a is large [H + ] is equal to [A - ] A - is a weaker base than water It yields a weak conjugate base Weak acids K a is small [H + ] <<< [HA] A - is a stronger base than water The weaker the acid the stronger its conjugate base
12 Types of Acids Polyprotic Acids- more than 1 acidic hydrogen (diprotic, triprotic). H 2 SO 4 (?) diprotic H 3 PO 4 (?) triprotic Oxyacids - Proton is attached to the oxygen of an ion (H-OCl) Organic acids contain the Carboxyl group -COOH with the H attached to O C O O Organic acids are generally very weak. H
13 Water as an Acid and a Base Water is amphoteric (it can behave either as an acid or a base). H 2 O(l)+ H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq) conj conj acid 1 base 2 acid 2 base 1 K= [H + ][OH - ] =K w = at 25 C In EVERY aqueous solution K = ion-product constant (dissociation constant of water)
14 Thus, water behaves as both an acid and a base. Water autoionizes Water is amphoteric or ampheorotic substance Neutral solution [H + ] = [OH - ]= 1.0 x10-7 M Acidic solution [H + ] > [OH - ] = > 1.0 x10-7 M Basic solution [H + ] < [OH - ] = < 1.0 x10-7 M
15 14.3 The ph Scale px = -log X; ph= -log[h + ] [H + ] = 10 -ph ph is used because [H + ] is usually very small As ph decreases, [H + ] increases exponentially # of decimal places in the log is equal to the number of significant figures in the original number [H + ] = 1.0 x 10-8 ph= sig figs poh= -log[oh - ] pka = -log Ka
16 K W = [H + ][OH - ] Relationships -log K W = -log([h + ][OH - ]) -log K W = -(log[h + ] -log[oh - ]) pk W = ph + poh K W = 1.0 x = ph + poh [H + ],[OH - ],ph and poh Given any one of these we can find the other three.
18 14.4 Calculating the ph of strong acid solutions write down the major species (ions) in solutions Choose species that can produce H + and write reactions. List initial concentrations in dominant equilibrium. ph value can be +ve, -ve, or 0
19 Strong Acids HBr, HI, HCl, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4, HClO 4 They all are completely dissociated [H + ] = [HA]; [H + ] =[HCl] [OH - ] is going to be small because of equilibrium = [H + ][OH - ] If [HA] 10-7 water contributes H +
20 Calculating ph Calculate ph for a solution of 0.10 M HCl [ H] (HCl) >>> [H + ] (H 2 O) [H + ] =? Calculate ph for a solution of 1.0 M HNO 3 [ H + ] (HNO3) >>> [H + ] (H 2 O) [H + ] =? Calculate ph for a solution of 1X10-10 M HCl [ H + ] (HCl) <<< [H + ] (H 2 O) [H + ] =?
21 17.5 Calculating the ph of weak Acid solutions Choose species that can produce H + and write reactions. (e.g., HF and H 2 O) Based on Ka values, decide on dominant equilibrium. (e.g., HF >> H 2 O) Kw (H 2 O) = 1X10-14 ; Ka (HF) = 7.2X10-4 Write equilibrium expression for dominant equilibrium. (For HF) List initial concentrations in dominant equilibrium. Continue using the equilibrium const concept
22 Solving Weak Acid Equilibrium Problems Define change at equilibrium (as x ). Write equilibrium concentrations in terms of x. Substitute equilibrium concentrations into equilibrium expression. Solve for x the easy way. Verify assumptions using 5% rule. Calculate [H + ] and ph.
23 Solving Weak Acid Equilibrium Problems (continued) HC 2 H 3 O 2 H + + C 2 H 3 O 2 - Change -X +X +X
24 Example Calculate the ph of 2.0 M acetic acid HC 2 H 3 O 2 with a Ka 1.8 x10-5. Calculate poh, [OH - ], [H + ] Ka (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) >>> Ka (H 2 O) HC 2 H 3 O 2 H + + C 2 H 3 O 2 - Initial 2.00 M 0 0 Change -x + x +x Equilib 2.00-x x x Ka ( x)( x) 2.00 x 2 x 2.00 x = 1.8 x10-5 = X = 2.55 X 10-5 ph log 2.55X10-5 = 4.59 poh = =9.41 [H + ] =X = 2.55X10-5 M [OH - ] = 1.00X10-14 /2.55X10-5 = 3.92X10-10 M 2 x 2.00
25 How to check the validity of approximation [HC 2 H 3 O 2 ] - X = X M To check the validity of the assumption find X X X100 [ HA] 0 [ HC 2H 3O2 ] X X X % If this percentage is less than 5%, the approximation is correct
28 Example A solution of nicotinic acid (ka =1.4X10-5 ) is prepared by dissolving mol of Hnic in a liter of solution. Determine [H + ] in the solution.
32 ph for a mixture of Weak Acids Determine the major species in solution The stronger will predominate Bigger Ka if concentrations are comparable Calculate the ph of a mixture 5.20 M HNO 2 (Ka = 4.0 x 10-4 ) and 1.0 M HCN (Ka = 6.2 x )
33 The weak acid that has the highest Ka will decide the ph of the final solution. Write the dissociation equilibria for HNO 2, HCN and H 2 O. 1.0X10-7 Solve as if the solution for the weak acid HNO 2 only [H + ] = 4.5x10-2 ; ph = 1.35 If you are asked to find [CN - ]for the acid HCN HCN H + + CN - ka 6.2x10 - [CN ] [H ][CN ] [HCN] -2 (6.2x10 ) (1.00) 1.4x x10 4.0X X x10 [CN ] M
34 Percent dissociation Percent dissociation Amount dissociated (M) Initial concetration (M) X100 For a weak acid percent dissociation increases as acid becomes more dilute. Calculate the % dissociation of 1.00 M and M Acetic acid (Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 ) As [HA] 0 decreases [H + ] decreases but % dissociation increases.
35 %Dissociation increases with dilution 13.0% ) ( % ) ( % ) (1.0 % ) ( X M M X M Dissociation M X M x X M M X M Dissociation M X M x KaXC x C x Ka HA HA
36 Calculating of Ka from % dissociation What is the Ka of a weak acid that is 8.1 % dissociated as M solution? HA H + + A - -X +X +X X [ HA] 0 X100 X X X = 8.1X10-3 M Ka 2 X X 3 2 (8.1X10 ) ( X10 3 ) 7.1X10 5
37 14.6 Bases The OH - is a strong base. Hydroxides of the alkali metals are strong bases because they dissociate completely when dissolved in water. The hydroxides of alkaline earths Ca(OH) 2 (slaked lime) etc. are strong dibasic bases, but they don t dissolve well in water. Used as antiacids because [OH - ] can t build up.
38 Slaked lime is used in scrubbing stack gases to remove SO 2 from the exhaust of power plants and factories SO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 SO 3 (aq) Ca(OH) 2 (aq) + H 2 SO 3 (aq) CaSO 3 (s)+ 2H 2 O(l) Lime-soda process is also used in water treatment plants CaO (s) + H 2 O(l) Ca(OH) 2 (aq) Ca(OH) 2 (aq) + Ca 2+ (aq) + 2HCO 3- (aq) Hard water 2CaCO 3 (s) + 2H 2 O Soda ash
39 The ph of strong bases The major species in the solution of NaOH is Na +, OH - and H 2 O NaOH is a strong base thus the dissociation of H 2 O is negligible [OH - ] >>> [H + ] In a 5.0X10-2 M NaOH; [OH - ] = 5.0X10-2 M poh = log 5.0X10-2 = 1.30 ph = = 12.7
40 Bases without OH - Bases are proton acceptors. NH 3 + H 2 O NH OH - It is the lone pair on nitrogen that accepts the proton. Many weak bases contain N B(aq) + H 2 O(l) BH + (aq) + OH - (aq) Kb = [ BH ][ OH [ B] ] Kb refers always to the reaction of a base with water to form conjugate acid and the hydroxide ion
41 Strength of Bases Hydroxides are strong bases Others bases are weak. Smaller K b weaker base. Calculate the ph of a solution of 4.0 M pyridine (Kb = 1.7 x 10-9 ) N:
42 The ph of weak bases C 5 H 6 N + H 2 O C 5 H 6 NH + + OH - Initial 4.0M 0 0 Change X +X +X Equilib 4.00-X X X [C H kb [C H - 5 6NH ][OH ] x 10 ( X )(X) kb X 5 6 N] x 10 2 X 4.0 X -9 X X = 1.65X10-4 M = [OH - ] poh =-log [OH - ]= 3.78 ph = 10.22
43 X [ B] 0 Checking the approximation X100 X [ B] 0 X X X % Thus, approximation is valid
44 14.7 Polyprotic acids Acids that furnish more than one proton in solution They are weak acids containing more than one ionizble hydrogen atom Always dissociate stepwise. The first H + comes of much easier than the second. Ka for the first step is much bigger than Ka for the second and so on Ka values are denoted Ka 1, Ka 2, Ka 3 The acid formed in the successive steps becomes progressively weaker (It is more difficult to remove H+ from a negatively charged species
45 Polyprotic acid H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 - HCO 3 - H + + CO 3 2- Ka 1 = 4.3 x 10-7 Ka 2 = 4.3 x The conjugate base HCO 3 - in the first step is an acid in the second. In calculations we can normally ignore the second dissociation.
46 Phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4 H 3 PO 4 is a triprotic acid H 3 PO 4 H + + H 2 PO 4 - ; K a1 = 7.5X10-3 H 2 PO 4 - H + + HPO4 2- ; K a2 = 6.2X10-8 HPO4 2- H + + PO4 3- ; K a3 = 4.8X10-13 H 3 PO 4 >> H 2 PO 4 - >> HPO4 2- For ph calculation only the first dissociation step contributes to [H + ]
50 The first two ions are produced by the complete first dissociation step of H 2 SO 4. The concentration of H + in this solution will be at least 1.0 M, since this amount is produced by the first dissociation step of H 2 SO 4. We must now answer this question: Does the HS0 4 - ion dissociate enough to produce a significant contribution to the concentration of H +? This question can be answered by calculating the equilibrium concentrations for the dissociation reactions of HS0 4 -
58 Acid-Base Properties of Salts Salts are ionic compounds. Ionic compounds containing a cation other than H + and anion other than OH - or O 2- The ions of salts behave as acids or bases
59 Salts that produce neutral solutions Salts of the cation of strong bases and the anion of strong acids are neutral (have no effect on the ph of the solution); ph =7.00 for example NaCl, KNO 3 There is no equilibrium for strong acids and bases. We ignore the reverse reaction.
60 Salts that produce basic solutions If the anion of a salt is the conjugate base of a weak acid its aqueous solution will be basic In an aqueous solution of NaF The major species are Na +, F -, and H 2 O F - + H 2 O HF + OH - [HF][OH - ] Kb = [F - ] but [H + ][F - ] Ka = [HF]
61 Salts that produce basic solutions K a x K b = [HF][OH - ] x [H + ][F - ] [F - ] [HF]
62 Salts that produce basic solutions K a x K b = [HF][OH - ] x [H + ][F - ] [F - ] [HF]
63 Salts that produce basic solutions K a x K b = [HF][OH - ] x [H + ][F - ] [F - ] [HF]
64 Salts that produce basic solutions K a x K b = [HF][OH - ] x [H + ][F - ] [F - ] [HF] K a x K b =[OH - ] [H + ]
65 Salts that produce basic solutions K a x K b = [HF][OH - ] x [H + ][F - ] [F - ] [HF] K a x K b =[OH - ] [H + ] K a x K b = K W
68 Salts that produce acidic solutions A salt with a cation that is a conjugate acid of a weak base and an anion of a strong acid produce acidic solution NH + 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 3 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) NH 4+ (aq) NH 3 (aq) + H + (aq) Calculate the ph of a solution of 0.10 M NH 4 Cl (the K b of NH x 10-5 ).
71 Acidic salts containing highly charged metal ions When solid aluminum chloride (AIC1 3 ) is dissolved in water, the resulting solution is significantly acidic. Although the A1 3+ ion is not itself a Bronsted-Lowry acid, the hydrated ion Al(H 2 O) 6 3+ formed in water is a weak acid Al(H 2 0) 6 3+ (aq) Al(OH)(H 2 O) 2+ 5 (aq) + H + (aq) The high charge on the metal ion polarizes the O-H bonds in the attached water molecules, making the hydrogens in these water molecules more acidic than those in free water molecules. Typically, the higher the charge on the metal ion, the stronger the acidity of the hydrated ion.
74 Salts of anions of weak acids and cations of weak bases So far we have considered salts in which only one of the ions has acidic or b properties. For many salts, such as ammonium acetate (NH 4 C 2 H ), both ions can affect the ph of the aqueous solution. We can predict whether the solution will be basic, acidic, or neutral by comp ring the Ka value for the acidic ion with the Kb value for the basic ion. If the Ka for the acidic ion is larger than the Kb value for the basic ion, the solution will be acid If the Kb value is larger than the Ka value, the solution will be basic. Equal Ka and Kb values mean a neutral solution.
75 Qualitative prediction of ph for solutions of salts with acidic cation and basic anion K a > K b acidic NH 4 F ph = 6.2 K a < K b basic AlPO 4 ph = 8.7 K a = K b Neutral NH 4 C 2 H 5 O 2 ph = 7.0
76 Acidity and basicity of amphiprotic Solutions HCO 3 - (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) Ka = 4.7X10-11 HCO 3 - (aq) + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 (aq) +OH - (aq) Kb = 2.3X10-8 Since Ka< Kb, the solution of NaHCO 3 is Basic (ph = 8.3)
80 Acid-Base Properties of Salts Acidic Cation Anion or Basic Example neutral neutral neutral NaCl neutral conj acid of weak base conj acid of weak base conj base of basic NaF weak acid neutral acidic NH 4 Cl conj base of weak acid depends on K a & K b values KCN, NaC 2 H 5 O 2 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3
82 14.9 The effect of structure on acid base properties Any molecule with an H in it is a potential acid. The stronger the X-H bond the less acidic (compare bond dissociation energies). The more polar the X-H bond the stronger the acid (use electronegativities). The more polar H-O-X bond -stronger acid. CHCl 3 does not produce acidic aqueous solutions because C-H bond is both strong and nonpolar H-Cl in HCl(g) is stronger than C-H bond but much more polar thus it is acidic in aqueous solutions Thus, Strength and polarity of the X-H bond will decide for the acidity of species with H atom in aqueous solutions Strong acid H-F > H-Cl > H-Br > H-I most polar Least polar
83 Strength of oxyacids The more oxygen hooked to the central atom, the more acidic the hydrogen. HClO 4 > HClO 3 > HClO 2 > HClO Remember that the H is attached to an oxygen atom. The oxygens are electronegative The oxygens pull electrons away from hydrogen
84 Strength of oxyacids Electron Density Cl O H
85 Strength of oxyacids Electron Density O Cl O H
86 Strength of oxyacids Electron Density O Cl O H O
87 Strength of oxyacids Electron Density O O Cl O H O
88 Hydrated metals Highly charged metal ions pull the electrons of surrounding water molecules toward them. Make it easier for H + to come off. Al 3+ O H H
89 Effect of elctronegativity of X on the strength of the oxyacid For acids containing the H-O-X grouping, the greater the ability of X to draw electrons toward itself, the greater the acidity of the molecule. Electronegativity of X reflects its ability to attract the electrons involved in bonding
91 14.10 Acid-Base Properties of Oxides Non-metal oxides dissolved in water can make acids. SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 SO 4 (aq) Ionic oxides dissolve in water to produce bases. CaO(s) + H 2 O(l) Ca(OH) 2 (aq)
92 14.11 The Lewis Acid-Base Model Acids are electron pair acceptors. Bases are electron pair donors. F H B F :N H F H
93 Lewis Acids and Bases Boron triflouride wants more electrons. F H F B F :N H H
94 Lewis Acids and Bases Boron triflouride wants more electrons. BF 3 is Lewis base NH 3 is a Lewis Acid. F H F B N H F H
95 Lewis Acids and Bases Al +3 ( + 6 H ) O H O H ( ) Al 6 H +3
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Chapter 10 - Acids & Bases 10.1-Acids & Bases: Definitions Arrhenius Definitions Acids: substances that produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in H 2 O Common Strong Acids: Common Weak acids: Organic carboxylic
You are already familiar with some acid and base chemistry. According to the Arrhenius model, acids are substances that when dissolved in water ionize to yield hydrogen ion (H + ) and a negative ion. e.g.
Ch 16: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 6 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 16 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Chapter problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,
General Properties: ACID-BASE CONCEPTS ACIDS BASES Taste sour Bitter Change color of indicators Blue Litmus turns red no change Red Litmus no change turns blue Phenolphtalein Colorless turns pink Neutralization
Part 01 - Assignment: Introduction to Acids &Bases Classify the following acids are monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic by writing M, D, or T, respectively. 1. HCl 2. HClO4 3. H3As 4. H2SO4 5. H2S 6. H3PO4
Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain
Acids And Bases A. Characteristics of Acids and Bases 1. Acids and bases are both ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. Since acids and bases both form ionic solutions, their solutions conduct electricity
!! www.clutchprep.com CONCEPT: ACID IDENTIFICATION The most common feature of an acid is that many possess an H + ion called the. When it comes to acids there are 2 MAJOR TYPES that exist: are acids where
Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry (continuation) 1. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes 2. Determining Moles of Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Compounds 3. Acids and Bases 4. Acid Strength
Solving ph Problems for Weak Acids and Bases How do we classify a compound as an acid or base? Recall that the word acid is from the Latin word acidus which means sour. The word alkali is an Arabic word
1 Acids and bases Definition Arrhenius (1859-197) acid and base (1887) Acid A molecule ionizes in water to form a solution containing H ions Base A molecule ionizes in water to form a solution containing
19.1 Acids & Bases 1. Compare and contrast the properties of acids & bases. 2. Describe the self-ionization of water & the concept of K w. 3. Differentiate between the Arhennius & Bronsted-Lowry models
Page III-14a-1 / Chapter Fourteen Part I Lecture Notes The Chemistry of Acids and Bases Separately Chapter 14 Part I Strong and Weak Acids/Bases Generally divide acids and bases into STRONG or WEAK categories.
Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases **a lot of calculations in this chapter will be done on the chalkboard Do not rely on these notes for all the material** Acids, Bases and Arrhenius
William L Masterton Cecile N. Hurley http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/masterton Chapter 13 Acids and Bases Edward J. Neth University of Connecticut Outline 1. Brønsted-Lowry acid-base model 2. The
Aqueous Equilibria, Part 1 AP Chemistry Lecture Outline Name: Acids and Bases Arrhenius...acids increase the when dissolved in H 2 O....bases increase the when dissolved in H 2 O. e.g., HCl and NaOH Bronsted-Lowry
DEFINITIONS: ACIDS AND BASES Arrhenius Definition An acid in aqueous solution produces H + ions. A base in aqueous solution produces OH - ions. Bronsted Lowry Theory An acid is a proton donor A base is
ph calculations MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Brønsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases Acid is a proton donor Base is a proton acceptor HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Acid Base Conjugate acid Conjugate
NAME: UNIT #11: Acids and Bases ph and poh Neutralization Reactions Oxidation and Reduction 1. SELF-IONIZATION OF WATER a) Water molecules collide, causing a very small number to ionize in a reversible
Chapter Menu Chapter Menu Section 18.1 Section 18.3 Section 18.4 Introduction to Acids and Bases Hydrogen Ions and ph Neutralization Section 18.1 Intro to Acids and Bases Objectives: Compare the Arrhenius,
Introduction to Acids & Bases Packet #26 Review I Svante Arrhenius was the first person to recognize the essential nature of acids and bases. Review II Arrhenius postulated that: Acids produce hydrogen
Unit 4a Acids, Bases, and Salts Theory Chemistry 12 Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases The first theory that was proposed to explain the actions of acids and bases was by Svante Arrhenius. It is still
16.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases An acid is a substance that can transfer a proton to another substance. A base is a substance that can accept a proton. A proton is a hydrogen ion, H +. Proton transfer
Acids and bases for it cannot be But I am pigeon-liver d and lack gall To make oppression bitter Hamlet Different concepts Calculations and scales Learning objectives You will be able to: Identify acids