1 Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 16 Dr Ayman Nafady John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO
2 Some Definitions Arrhenius An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. A base is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions.
3 Some Definitions Brønsted-Lowry An acid is a proton donor. must have a removable (acidic) proton. A base is a proton acceptor. must have a pair of nonbonding electrons
4 What Happens When an Acid Dissolves in Water? Water acts as a Brønsted-Lowry base abstracts a proton (H + ) from the acid. As a result, the conjugate base of the acid a hydronium ion are formed.
5 Conjugate The term conjugate meaning to join together. Reactions between acids bases always yield their conjugate bases acids.
6 Sample Exercise 16.1 Identifying Conjugate (a) What is the conjugate base of each of the following acids: HClO 4, H 2 S, PH 4+, HCO 3? (b) What is the conjugate acid of each of the following bases: CN, SO 2 4, H 2 O, HCO 3? Solution Analyze: We are asked to give the conjugate base for each of a series of species to give the conjugate acid for each of another series of species. Plan: The conjugate base of a substance is simply the parent substance minus one proton, the conjugate acid of a substance is the parent substance plus one proton. Solve: (a) HClO 4 less one proton (H + ) is ClO 4. The other conjugate bases are HS, PH 3, CO 2 3. (b) CN plus one proton (H + ) is HCN. The other conjugate acids are HSO 4, H 3 O +, H 2 CO 3. Notice that the hydrogen carbonate ion (HCO 3 ) is amphiprotic. It can act as either an acid or a base. Practice Exercise Write the formula for the conjugate acid of each of the following: HSO 3, F, PO 4 3, CO. Answers: H 2 SO 3, HF, HPO 4 2, HCO +
7 Acid Base Strength Strong acids are completely dissociated in water. Their conjugate bases are quite weak. Weak acids only dissociate partially in water. Their conjugate bases are weak bases.
8 Acid Base Strength Substances with negligible acidity do not dissociate in water. Their conjugate bases are exceedingly strong.
9 Acid Base Strength In any acid-base reaction, the equilibrium will favor the reaction that moves the proton to the stronger base. HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) H 2 O is a much stronger base than Cl -, so the equilibrium lies so far to the right that K is not measured (K>>1).
10 Acid Base Strength In any acid-base reaction, the equilibrium will favor the reaction that moves the proton to the stronger base. CH 3 CO 2 H (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + CH 3 CO 2 - (aq) Acetate is a stronger base than H 2 O, so the equilibrium favors the left side (K<1).
11 Autoionization of Water As we have seen, water is amphoteric. In pure water, a few molecules act as bases a few act as acids. H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) This is referred to as autoionization.
12 Ion-Product Constant The equilibrium expression for this process is K c = [H 3 O + ] [OH - ] This special equilibrium constant is referred to as the ion-product constant for water, K w. At 25 C, K w =
13 ph ph is defined as the negative base-10 logarithm of the concentration of hydronium ion. ph = -log [H 3 O + ]
14 ph In pure water, K w = [H 3 O + ] [OH - ] = Since in pure water [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ], [H 3 O + ] = =
15 ph Therefore, in pure water, ph = -log ( ) = 7.00 An acid has a higher [H 3 O + ] than pure water, so its ph is <7. A base has a lower [H 3 O + ] than pure water, so its ph is >7.
16 ph These are the ph values for several common substances.
17 Other p Scales The p in ph tells us to take the negative base-10 logarithm of the quantity (in this case, hydronium ions). Some similar examples are poh: -log [OH - ] pk w : -log K w
18 Watch This! Because [H 3 O + ] [OH - ] = K w = , we know that -log [H 3 O + ] + -log [OH - ] = -log K w = or, in other words, ph + poh = pk w = 14.00
19 How Do We Measure ph? For less accurate measurements, one can use Litmus paper Red paper turns blue above ~ph = 8 Blue paper turns red below ~ph = 5 Or an indicator.
20 How Do We Measure ph? For more accurate measurements, one uses a ph meter, which measures the voltage in the solution.
21 Strong You will recall that the seven strong acids are HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4, HClO 3, HClO 4. These are, by definition, strong electrolytes exist totally as ions in aqueous solution. For the monoprotic strong acids, [H 3 O + ] = [acid].
22 Strong Strong bases are the soluble hydroxides, which are the alkali metal heavier alkaline earth metal hydroxides (Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+ ). Again, these substances dissociate completely in aqueous solution.
23 Exercise 16.4: Calculating [H + ] for Pure Water Calculate the values of [H + ] [OH - ] in a neutral solution at 25 ºC. Solution Analyze: We are asked to determine the concentrations of H + OH ions in a neutral solution at 25 ºC. Plan: by definition, [H + ] = [OH ] in a neutral solution. Solve: We will represent the concentration of [H + ] [OH ] in neutral solution with x. This gives In an acid solution [H + ] is greater than ; M in a basic solution [H + ] is less than M. Practice Exercise Indicate whether solutions with each of the following ion concentrations are neutral, acidic, or basic: (a) [H + ] = M ; (b) [H + ] = M ; (c) [OH ] = M. Answers: (a) basic, (b) neutral, (c) acidic
24 Exercise 16.5: Calculating [H + ] from [OH - ] Calculate the concentration of H + (aq) in (a) a solution in which [OH ] is M, (b) a solution in which [OH ] is M. Solution Analyze: We are asked to calculate the hydronium ion concentration in an aqueous solution where the hydroxide concentration is known. Plan: We can use the equilibrium-constant expression for the autoionization of water the value of K w to solve for each unknown concentration. Solve: a) Using Equation 16.16, we have: This solution is basic because (b) In this instance This solution is acidic because Practice Exercise Calculate the concentration of OH (aq) in a solution in which (a) [H + ] = M; (b) [H + ] = [OH ]; (c) [H + ] = 100 [OH ]. Answers: (a) M, (b) M, (c) M
25 Sample16.6: Calculating ph from [H + ] Solution Analyze: We are asked to determine the ph of aqueous solutions for which we have already calculated [H + ]. Solve: (a) In the first instance we found [H + ] to be M. Because has two significant figures, the ph has two decimal places, (b) For the second solution, [H + ] = M. Before performing the calculation, it is helpful to estimate the ph. To do so, we note that [H + ] lies between Thus, we expect the ph to lie between We use Equation to calculate the ph. Check: After calculating a ph, it is useful to compare it to your prior estimate. In this case the ph, as we predicted, falls between 6 5. Had the calculated ph the estimate not agreed, we should have reconsidered our calculation or estimate or both.
26 Sample Exercise 16.7 Calculating [H + ] from ph A sample of freshly pressed apple juice has a ph of Calculate [H + ]. Solution Analyze: We need to calculate [H + ] from ph. Plan: ph = log[h + ], for the calculation. Solve: From Equation 16.17, we have Thus, Comment: The number of significant figures in [H + ] is two because the number of decimal places in the ph is two. Check: Because the ph is between , we know that [H + ] will be between M. Our calculated [H + ] falls within this estimated range.
27 Sample Exercise 16.8 Calculating the ph of a Strong Acid What is the ph of a M solution of HClO 4? Solution Analyze Plan: Because HClO 4 is a strong acid, it is completely ionized, giving [H + ] = [ClO 4- ] = M Solve: The ph of the solution is given by Practice Exercise An aqueous solution of HNO 3 has a ph of What is the concentration of the acid? Answer: M ph = log(0.040) = Check: Because [H + ] lies between , the ph will be between Our calculated ph falls within the estimated range. Furthermore, because the concentration has two significant figures, the ph has two decimal places.
28 Sample Exercise 16.9 Calculating the ph of a Strong Base What is the ph of (a) a M solution of NaOH, (b) a M solution of Ca(OH) 2? Solution (a) NaOH dissociates in water to give one OH ion per formula unit. Therefore, the OH concentration for the solution in (a) equals the stated concentration of NaOH, namely M. (b) Ca(OH) 2 is a strong base that dissociates in water to give two OH ions per formula unit. Thus, the concentration of OH (aq) for the solution in part (b) is 2 ( M) = M
29 Dissociation Constants For a generalized acid dissociation, HA (aq) + H 2 O (l) A - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) the equilibrium expression would be K c = [H 3 O + ] [A - ] [HA] This equilibrium constant is called the acid-dissociation constant, K a.
30 Dissociation Constants The greater the value of K a, the stronger is the acid.
31 Calculating K a from the ph The ph of a 0.10 M solution of formic acid, HCOOH, at 25 C is Calculate K a for formic acid at this temperature. [H 3 O + ] [COO - ] We know that K a = [HCOOH] To calculate K a, we need the equilibrium concentrations of all three things. We can find [H 3 O + ], which is the same as [HCOO - ], from the ph.
32 Calculating K a from the ph ph = -log [H 3 O + ] 2.38 = -log [H 3 O + ] = log [H 3 O + ] = 10 log [H 3O+] = [H 3 O + ] = [H 3 O + ] = [HCOO - ] Now we can set up a table [HCOOH], M [H 3 O + ], M [HCOO - ], M Initially Change At Equilibrium = =
33 Calculating K a from ph [ ] [ ] K a = = [0.10] -4
34 Sample Exercise Calculating K a from Measured ph A student prepared a 0.10 M solution of formic acid (HCOOH) measured its ph. The ph at 25 ºC was found to be Calculate K a for formic acid at this temperature. Solution Analyze: We are given the molar concentration of an aqueous solution of weak acid the ph of the solution, we are asked to determine the value of K a for the acid. Plan: Although we are dealing specifically with the ionization of a weak acid, this problem is very similar to the equilibrium problems we encountered in Chapter 15. We can solve this problem using the method first outlined in Sample Exercise 15.9, starting with the chemical reaction a tabulation of initial equilibrium concentrations. Solve: The first step in solving any equilibrium problem is to write the equation for the equilibrium reaction. The ionization of formic acid can be written as follows: The equilibrium-constant expression is From the measured ph, we can calculate [H + ]: We can do a little accounting to determine the concentrations of the species involved in the equilibrium. We imagine that the solution is initially 0.10 M in HCOOH molecules. We then consider the ionization of the acid into H + HCOO. For each HCOOH molecule that ionizes, one H + ion one ion HCOO are produced in solution. Because the ph measurement indicates that [H + ] = M at equilibrium, we can construct the following table:
35 Sample Exercise Calculating K a from Measured ph Solution (Continued) Notice that we have neglected the very small concentration of H + (aq) that is due to the autoionization of H 2 O. Notice also that the amount of HCOOH that ionizes is very small compared with the initial concentration of the acid. To the number of significant figures we are using, the subtraction yields 0.10 M: We can now insert the equilibrium centrations into the expression for K a : Check: The magnitude of our answer is reasonable because K a for a weak acid is usually between
36 Calculating Percent Ionization [H 3 O + ] eq Percent Ionization = 100 In this example [HA] initial [H 3 O + ] eq = M [HCOOH] initial = 0.10 M Percent Ionization = = 4.2%
37 Calculating ph from K a Calculate the ph of a 0.30 M solution of acetic acid, HC 2 H 3 O 2, at 25 C. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq) K a for acetic acid at 25 C is
38 Calculating ph from K a The equilibrium constant expression is K a = [H 3 O + ] [C 2 H 3 O 2- ] [HC 2 H 3 O 2 ]
39 Calculating ph from K a We next set up a table [C 2 H 3 O 2 ], M [H 3 O + ], M [C 2 H 3 O 2- ], M Initially Change -x +x +x At Equilibrium x 0.30 x x We are assuming that x will be very small compared to 0.30 can, therefore, be ignored.
40 Calculating ph from K a Now, = (x) 2 (0.30) ( ) (0.30) = x = x = x
41 Calculating ph from K a ph = -log [H 3 O + ] ph = -log ( ) ph = 2.64
42 Sample Exercise Using K a to Calculate ph Solution Analyze: We are given the molarity of a weak acid are asked for the ph. From Table 16.2, Ka for HCN is Plan: We proceed as in the example just worked in the text, writing the chemical equation constructing a table of initial equilibrium concentrations in which the equilibrium concentration of H + is our unknown. Solve: Writing both the chemical equation for the ionization reaction that forms H + (aq) the equilibrium-constant (K a ) expression for the reaction: Next, we tabulate the concentration of the species involved in the equilibrium reaction, letting x = [H + ] at equilibrium: Substituting the equilibrium concentrations from the table into the equilibrium-constant expression yields
43 Solution (Continued) We next make the simplifying approximation that x, the amount of acid that dissociates, is small compared with the initial concentration of acid; that is, Thus, Solving for x, we have A concentration of M is much smaller than 5% of 0.20, the initial HCN concentration. Our simplifying approximation is therefore appropriate. We now calculate the ph of the solution:
44 Polyprotic have more than one acidic proton If the difference between the K a for the first dissociation subsequent K a values is 10 3 or more, the ph generally depends only on the first dissociation.
45 Sample Exercise Calculating the ph of a Polyprotic Acid Solution The solubility of CO 2 in pure water at 25 ºC 0.1 atm pressure is M. The common practice is to assume that all of the dissolved CO 2 is in the form of carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), which is produced by reaction between the CO 2 H 2 O: What is the ph of a M solution of H 2 CO 3? Solution Analyze: We are asked to determine the ph of a M solution of a polyprotic acid. Plan: H 2 CO 3 is a diprotic acid; the two acid-dissociation constants, K a1 K a2 (Table 16.3), differ by more than a factor of Consequently, the ph can be determined by considering only K a1, thereby treating the acid as if it were a monoprotic acid. Solve: Proceeding as in Sample Exercises , we can write the equilibrium reaction equilibrium concentrations as follows: The equilibrium-constant expression is as follows: Solving this equation using an equationsolving calculator, we get Alternatively, because K a1 is small, we can make the simplifying approximation that x is small, so that
46 Weak react with water to produce hydroxide ion.
47 Weak The equilibrium constant expression for this reaction is K b = [HB] [OH - ] [B - ] where K b is the base-dissociation constant.
48 Weak K b can be used to find [OH - ], through it, ph.
49 ph of Basic Solutions What is the ph of a 0.15 M solution of NH 3? NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) [NH 4+ ] [OH - ] K b = = [NH 3 ] -5
50 ph of Basic Solutions Tabulate the data. [NH 3 ], M [NH 4+ ], M [OH - ], M Initially At Equilibrium x 0.15 x x
51 ph of Basic Solutions = (x) 2 (0.15) ( ) (0.15) = x = x = x 2
53 K a K b K a K b are related in this way: K a K b = K w Therefore, if you know one of them, you can calculate the other.
54 Reactions of Anions with Water Anions are bases. As such, they can react with water in a hydrolysis reaction to form OH - the conjugate acid: X - (aq) + H 2 O (l) HX (aq) + OH - (aq)
55 Reactions of Cations with Water Cations with acidic protons (like NH 4+ ) will lower the ph of a solution. Most metal cations that are hydrated in solution also lower the ph of the solution.
56 Reactions of Cations with Water Attraction between nonbonding electrons on oxygen the metal causes a shift of the electron density in water. This makes the O-H bond more polar the water more acidic. Greater charge smaller size make a cation more acidic.
57 Effect of Cations Anions 1. An anion that is the conjugate base of a strong acid will not affect the ph. 2. An anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid will increase the ph. 3. A cation that is the conjugate acid of a weak base will decrease the ph.
58 Effect of Cations Anions 4. Cations of the strong Arrhenius bases will not affect the ph. 5. Other metal ions will cause a decrease in ph. 6. When a solution contains both the conjugate base of a weak acid the conjugate acid of a weak base, the affect on ph depends on the K a K b values.
59 Factors Affecting Acid Strength The more polar the H-X bond /or the weaker the H-X bond, the more acidic the compound. So acidity increases from left to right across a row from top to bottom down a group.
60 Factors Affecting Acid Strength In oxyacids, in which an -OH is bonded to another atom, Y, the more electronegative Y is, the more acidic the acid.
61 Factors Affecting Acid Strength For a series of oxyacids, acidity increases with the number of oxygens.
62 Factors Affecting Acid Strength Resonance in the conjugate bases of carboxylic acids stabilizes the base makes the conjugate acid more acidic.
63 Lewis Lewis acids are defined as electron-pair acceptors. Atoms with an empty valence orbital can be Lewis acids.
64 Lewis Lewis bases are defined as electron-pair donors. Anything that could be a Brønsted-Lowry base is a Lewis base. Lewis bases can interact with things other than protons, however.
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General Properties: ACID-BASE CONCEPTS ACIDS BASES Taste sour Bitter Change color of indicators Blue Litmus turns red no change Red Litmus no change turns blue Phenolphtalein Colorless turns pink Neutralization
Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville,
Acids & Bases Chapter 17 Arrhenius Definition: Classic Definition of Acids and Bases Acid: A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concetration, [H + ], (also thought of as hydronium ion, H 3 O + )
ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS Chapter Quiz Choose the best answer and write its letter on the line. 1. A solution in which the hydroxide-ion concentration is 1 10 2 is a. acidic. c. neutral. b. basic. d. none
Chapter 15 Acid and Bases Properties of Acids! Sour taste! React with active metals! React with carbonates, producing CO 2! Change color of vegetable dyes!blue litmus turns red! React with bases to form
ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA (Part One) A Competition for Protons ADEng. PROGRAMME Chemistry for Engineers Prepared by M. J. McNeil, MPhil. Department of Pure and Applied Sciences Portmore Community College Main
!! www.clutchprep.com CONCEPT: ACID IDENTIFICATION The most common feature of an acid is that many possess an H + ion called the. When it comes to acids there are 2 MAJOR TYPES that exist: are acids where
Honors Chemistry Study Guide for Acids and Bases 1. Calculate the ph, poh, and [H3O + ] for a solution that has a [OH - ] = 4.5 x 10-5? 2. An aqueous solution has a ph of 8.85. What are the [H + ], [OH
3 ACID AND BASE THEORIES: A) Arrhenius Acids produce H+ and bases produce OH not always used because it only IDs X OH as basic species B) Bronsted and Lowry Acid = H + donor > CB = formed after H + dissociates
Unit 9 Acids, Bases, & Salts Acid/Base Equilibrium Properties of Acids sour or tart taste strong acids burn; weak acids feel similar to H 2 O acid solutions are electrolytes acids react with most metals
Physical Properties Acid and Bases Chemistry 30 Acids Corrosive when concentrated Have a sour taste Bases Corrosive when concentrated Have a bitter taste Often have a sharp odour Chemical Properties Indicators
ACIDS AND BASES A. CHARACTERISTICS OF ACIDS AND BASES 1. Acids and bases are both ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. Since acids and bases both form ionic solutions, their solutions conduct electricity